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2011年28卷2期

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专论
全球化粮农危机与中国大农业草产业系统工程
李毓堂
2011, 5(2): 171-175.
[摘要](1354) [PDF 751KB](792)
摘要:
本(ben)研究论述了世(shi)界(jie)粮(liang)(liang)食危(wei)机(ji)(ji)现状和主(zhu)要(yao)成因,分析了中国(guo)粮(liang)(liang)农(nong)生产(chan)现状、潜在危(wei)机(ji)(ji)和未(wei)来发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的(de)两(liang)种走向对世(shi)界(jie)产(chan)生的(de)不同(tong)影响(xiang)。提(ti)出(chu)了未(wei)来中国(guo)农(nong)业(ye)(ye)应走创新发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)之路,即实施大农(nong)业(ye)(ye)草产(chan)业(ye)(ye)系统工程(cheng),阐述了它(ta)的(de)科学理(li)论与创新意义,提(ti)出(chu)了当(dang)前保障(zhang)中国(guo)粮(liang)(liang)食安全的(de)草业(ye)(ye)核(he)心技术,并预测了中国(guo)走农(nong)业(ye)(ye)创新发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)之路对缓解世(shi)界(jie)粮(liang)(liang)食危(wei)机(ji)(ji)可起到的(de)积极意义。
前植物生产层
河北省草地资源评价
2011, 5(2): 176-179.
[摘要](1224) [PDF 448KB](813)
摘要:
为(wei)掌握河北省草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)资(zi)源动态(tai),于(yu)(yu)2005-2007年进(jin)行了草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)资(zi)源调查(cha),根据草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)植(zhi)被产量、适口(kou)性(xing)(xing)及利用性(xing)(xing)状(zhuang)分(fen)析(xi)结(jie)(jie)果(guo)(guo)进(jin)行了草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)等级(ji)评价(jia)(jia)。结(jie)(jie)果(guo)(guo)表明, 1)Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ和(he)Ⅴ等草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)占(zhan)调查(cha)样(yang)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)比(bi)(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)分(fen)别为(wei)0.91%、13.64%、31.82%、30.91%和(he)22.73%。总体来看,Ⅲ、Ⅳ等草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)所占(zhan)的(de)比(bi)(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)较(jiao)(jiao)大,占(zhan)调查(cha)样(yang)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)62.73%。不同草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)类差异较(jiao)(jiao)大,温(wen)(wen)性(xing)(xing)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)原、暖性(xing)(xing)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)丛(cong)基(ji)本(ben)属于(yu)(yu)Ⅲ、Ⅳ等草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di);温(wen)(wen)性(xing)(xing)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸和(he)山地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸基(ji)本(ben)属于(yu)(yu)Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ等草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di);暖性(xing)(xing)灌草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)丛(cong)、低(di)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸以Ⅳ、Ⅴ等草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)为(wei)主;沼泽(ze)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)为(wei)Ⅳ等草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)。2) 18级(ji)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)占(zhan)调查(cha)样(yang)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)比(bi)(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)分(fen)别为(wei)7.27%、4.55%、11.82%、15.45%、27.27%、14.55%、10.91%和(he)8.18%。3)与20世纪(ji)80年代河北省草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)等级(ji)评价(jia)(jia)结(jie)(jie)果(guo)(guo)相比(bi)(bi)(bi),Ⅰ、Ⅱ等草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)比(bi)(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)下降(jiang),Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ等草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)比(bi)(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)上升;14级(ji)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)比(bi)(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)降(jiang)低(di),58级(ji)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)比(bi)(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)升高(gao),草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)整体呈恶化趋势。
濒危植物膜荚黄芪种群生活史分析
2011, 5(2): 180-184.
[摘要](1448) [PDF 624KB](854)
摘要:
膜(mo)(mo)(mo)荚(jia)黄(huang)(huang)芪(Astragalus membranaceus)属国家保护植物。采用(yong)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群结构、生命表和(he)生存(cun)函(han)数(shu)分析方(fang)法,分析了(le)祁连(lian)山中部(bu)西水林区膜(mo)(mo)(mo)荚(jia)黄(huang)(huang)芪种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群的(de)生活史(shi)。结果(guo)表明,膜(mo)(mo)(mo)荚(jia)黄(huang)(huang)芪种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群属衰退种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群,Ⅰ级个(ge)体(ti)数(shu)量不足(zu),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群的(de)存(cun)活曲(qu)线(xian)符(fu)合DeeveyⅡ型(xing)曲(qu)线(xian);存(cun)活曲(qu)线(xian)、死亡率(lv)曲(qu)线(xian)和(he)消失率(lv)曲(qu)线(xian)从整体(ti)上反(fan)映了(le)膜(mo)(mo)(mo)荚(jia)黄(huang)(huang)芪种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群数(shu)量的(de)动(dong)态(tai)变化趋(qu)势;生存(cun)率(lv)函(han)数(shu)、累(lei)计死亡率(lv)函(han)数(shu)、死亡密(mi)度函(han)数(shu)、危(wei)(wei)险率(lv)函(han)数(shu)反(fan)映了(le)膜(mo)(mo)(mo)荚(jia)黄(huang)(huang)芪种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群的(de)动(dong)态(tai)和(he)结构。放牧和(he)挖药材是膜(mo)(mo)(mo)荚(jia)黄(huang)(huang)芪种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群致危(wei)(wei)的(de)主要(yao)因素。
干旱和灌溉条件下少花蒺藜草分株生物量分配特征
2011, 5(2): 185-188.
[摘要](1358) [PDF 484KB](831)
摘要:
调查了(le)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长在科尔沁沙地干(gan)(gan)旱、灌(guan)溉2个条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)的(de)少花蒺藜(li)草(Cenchrus pauciflorus)分(fen)(fen)蘖(nie)丛。对(dui)分(fen)(fen)株(zhu)(zhu)高度、分(fen)(fen)株(zhu)(zhu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)以及根(gen)、茎(jing)(jing)、叶、穗、叶鞘等构件(jian)(jian)(jian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)进(jin)行了(le)定(ding)量(liang)(liang)(liang)统计(ji)分(fen)(fen)析(xi)。结果(guo)显(xian)(xian)(xian)示,灌(guan)溉条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia),植株(zhu)(zhu)高度为41.2 cm,明显(xian)(xian)(xian)高于(yu)干(gan)(gan)旱条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)33.7 cm。灌(guan)溉条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)果(guo)穗生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)是干(gan)(gan)旱环境(jing)下(xia)(xia)(xia)的(de)1.8倍(bei)。2种条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia),根(gen)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、茎(jing)(jing)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、叶片(pian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、叶鞘生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)均与分(fen)(fen)株(zhu)(zhu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)呈极显(xian)(xian)(xian)著(zhu)的(de)正相关(P0.01),并符合y=axb幂函数的(de)变(bian)化规律;根(gen)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、茎(jing)(jing)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、叶片(pian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、叶鞘生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)之间呈显(xian)(xian)(xian)著(zhu)的(de)正相关(P0.05),并符合y=ax+b线性函数的(de)变(bian)化规律。随着分(fen)(fen)株(zhu)(zhu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)增加,灌(guan)溉条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)各构件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)增长速度均高于(yu)干(gan)(gan)旱条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)的(de)。分(fen)(fen)析(xi)认为,在生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)分(fen)(fen)配(pei)上干(gan)(gan)旱条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)少花蒺藜(li)草表(biao)现出存活对(dui)策,灌(guan)溉条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)表(biao)现出竞争和繁殖生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长对(dui)策。
土壤管理方式对苹果园土壤理化性状的影响
2011, 5(2): 189-193.
[摘要](1474) [PDF 553KB](972)
摘要:
对新疆南部苹果园不同(tong)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤管理(li)方式下土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤理(li)化性(xing)状进行了(le)测定分(fen)析。结果表(biao)(biao)明(ming),与(yu)清(qing)耕相(xiang)比,各处(chu)理(li)均不同(tong)程度(du)地降低了(le)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤容重,增加(jia)了(le)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤孔隙度(du)。各处(chu)理(li)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤水分(fen)含(han)量表(biao)(biao)现(xian)(xian)为(wei)覆草(cao)>生(sheng)草(cao)>免(mian)耕>清(qing)耕。各处(chu)理(li)均在不同(tong)程度(du)上改善了(le)0~40 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)有(you)(you)机质(zhi)含(han)量,表(biao)(biao)土(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)中有(you)(you)机质(zhi)增加(jia)较深(shen)层(ceng)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤更(geng)为(wei)显著。土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤速效养分(fen)值都较清(qing)耕高,生(sheng)草(cao)区020 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)全氮(dan)含(han)量比对照有(you)(you)所(suo)降低,表(biao)(biao)现(xian)(xian)为(wei)免(mian)耕>覆草(cao)>清(qing)耕>生(sheng)草(cao),土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤全磷、全钾变化相(xiang)同(tong),各处(chu)理(li)呈现(xian)(xian)为(wei)生(sheng)草(cao)>免(mian)耕>覆草(cao)>清(qing)耕,且(qie)以(yi)表(biao)(biao)层(ceng)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤表(biao)(biao)现(xian)(xian)更(geng)为(wei)显著。
暑期教学实习记事《草人诗记》之二
任继周
2011, 5(2): 194-195.
[摘要](1166) [PDF 350KB](1605)
摘要:
植物生产层
吉林省野生牧草种质资源的考察与搜集
2011, 5(2): 196-200.
[摘要](1330) [PDF 544KB](807)
摘要:
搜集吉(ji)林(lin)(lin)省境(jing)内(nei)有利(li)用价(jia)值的(de)野(ye)生(sheng)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)资源,为吉(ji)林(lin)(lin)省野(ye)生(sheng)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)资源保(bao)护、研究(jiu)和开发利(li)用提供(gong)基(ji)础材料(liao)(liao)。2008-2009年(nian)连续2年(nian)对吉(ji)林(lin)(lin)省内(nei)野(ye)生(sheng)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)资源进(jin)行考察与搜集,共采集野(ye)生(sheng)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)资源材料(liao)(liao)191份,涵盖(gai)18科59 属(shu)89种(zhong)(zhong),其中(zhong),豆科91份,禾本(ben)科64份,其他科36份。这些野(ye)生(sheng)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)材料(liao)(liao)中(zhong)既有独特的(de)地方野(ye)生(sheng)种(zhong)(zhong)和一些适(shi)应(ying)性强、分布广的(de)变异种(zhong)(zhong),也有不同生(sheng)境(jing)条(tiao)件下优良(liang)栽培(pei)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)的(de)野(ye)生(sheng)种(zhong)(zhong)和野(ye)生(sheng)近(jin)缘种(zhong)(zhong)。并初步掌(zhang)握了一些重(zhong)点(dian)属(shu)、种(zhong)(zhong)的(de)分布规(gui)律及其与生(sheng)境(jing)条(tiao)件的(de)关系。为筛选和培(pei)育优良(liang)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)新品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)提供(gong)丰富的(de)野(ye)生(sheng)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)材料(liao)(liao)的(de)同时(shi),也为重(zhong)点(dian)野(ye)生(sheng)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)资源的(de)保(bao)护和开发利(li)用提供(gong)了科学资料(liao)(liao)。
AtPCS1基因表达载体构建与转化苜蓿的研究
2011, 5(2): 201-206.
[摘要](1554) [PDF 613KB](841)
摘要:
扩增拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)螯合肽(tai)合成酶(AtPCS1)全长基因;构建AtPCS1植(zhi)物表(biao)(biao)达载体(ti)pBⅠ121AtPCS1,进一步转化(hua)农杆菌EHA105;利用(yong)转化(hua)的农杆菌EHA105侵染甘(gan)农一号苜蓿(Medicago sativa)叶片,经过(guo)80100 d 的筛选与培养,获得(de)57株(zhu)再生转基因植(zhi)株(zhu)。随机(ji)抽取(qu)其(qi)中(zhong)9株(zhu)进行PCR检测,其(qi)中(zhong)6株(zhu)为阳性。初步结果表(biao)(biao)明(ming),AtPCS1基因已整合到苜蓿基因组中(zhong)。
紫花苜蓿复合体的形态变异式样及分类学研究
2011, 5(2): 207-216.
[摘要](9614) [PDF 252KB](19262)
摘要:
紫花(hua)(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿复合体(ti)(ti)(Medicago sativa complex)是(shi)极(ji)为重要的(de)牧草(cao)资源,其(qi)成员间具有(you)明(ming)显的(de)形(xing)态(tai)渐渡特征。为摸清其(qi)种质资源状况并明(ming)确其(qi)分类学问题,通过查阅馆藏腊(la)叶标本和野外居群(qun)采(cai)样,观测了(le)39个形(xing)态(tai)性状,并利(li)用主成分分析和聚类分析的(de)方法进行运算(suan)。结果表明(ming),紫花(hua)(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿复合体(ti)(ti)的(de)花(hua)(hua)(hua)器(qi)官有(you)形(xing)成大花(hua)(hua)(hua)类型(xing)和小花(hua)(hua)(hua)类型(xing)的(de)趋势,但花(hua)(hua)(hua)的(de)大小尚不能作为独立的(de)分类依(yi)据;荚果的(de)变(bian)异相(xiang)对稳定,可以作为比较可靠的(de)分类依(yi)据;而营养器(qi)官的(de)形(xing)态(tai)相(xiang)似度极(ji)高,分类价值相(xiang)当(dang)有(you)限。同(tong)时(shi),认(ren)为我(wo)国境内的(de)紫花(hua)(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿复合体(ti)(ti)应(ying)包括4个种和3个变(bian)型(xing)。
不同种质苜蓿苗期耐旱性评价及其方法的比较
2011, 5(2): 217-225.
[摘要](1270) [PDF 621KB](821)
摘要:
由于国内苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(Medicago spp.)耐旱(han)性(xing)评(ping)价方(fang)(fang)法(fa)(fa)(fa)不(bu)统一,在(zai)已有(you)的(de)(de)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)基(ji)础上进行综(zong)合整理、适(shi)当修改(gai),对来自国内外的(de)(de)133份(fen)不(bu)同苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)种质资(zi)源进行2次(ci)抗(kang)旱(han)性(xing)评(ping)价(控水(shui)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)(fa)(fa)不(bu)同),并对2种控水(shui)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)(fa)(fa)进行比较。以干旱(han)反应征状指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)(ASI)和复水(shui)后(hou)的(de)(de)存活率作为2个变量,运用(yong)SAS软件进行综(zong)合分析(xi)。2次(ci)评(ping)价结果表明,有(you)15份(fen)材(cai)料(肇东(dong)(dong)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)、草(cao)原(yuan)2号、草(cao)原(yuan)3号、沧(cang)州苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)、陇东(dong)(dong)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)、甘农(nong)1号、中兰1号、准格(ge)尔苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)、龙牧801、龙牧803、中苜(mu)(mu)(mu)1号、Rambler、ACGRAZEhAND、Ameristand 201+2和AmeriGraze 401+2)表现出稳(wen)定(ding)的(de)(de)强(qiang)抗(kang)旱(han)性(xing);11份(fen)材(cai)料(敖汉苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)、公农(nong)3号、新(xin)(xin)疆大叶、天水(shui)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)、新(xin)(xin)牧1号、Caliverde、KANZA、MESASIRSA、Moapa 69、5264和Malone)表现出稳(wen)定(ding)的(de)(de)最弱抗(kang)旱(han)性(xing);且材(cai)料所属的(de)(de)评(ping)价等级,经(jing)分析(xi)不(bu)存在(zai)显(xian)著性(xing)差异(P0.05)。分析(xi)发(fa)芽指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)与抗(kang)旱(han)性(xing)的(de)(de)相关性(xing),苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)2次(ci)评(ping)价的(de)(de)发(fa)芽指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)均与其抗(kang)旱(han)性(xing)呈(cheng)负相关,第1次(ci)呈(cheng)极显(xian)著负相关(P0.01);第2次(ci)呈(cheng)显(xian)著负相关(P0.05)。
多叶苜蓿自交S1代的胚挽救培养
2011, 5(2): 226-230.
[摘要](1467) [PDF 578KB](906)
摘要:
以苜(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)多叶性(xing)状(zhuang)S1代的(de)3个单株(zhu)为(wei)(wei)材料(liao)(liao),研(yan)(yan)究了3份参试材料(liao)(liao)的(de)败育率(lv),测(ce)定了开展胚挽救培(pei)养(yang)的(de)最(zui)佳(jia)取材时间和不同激素水平对(dui)苜(mu)蓿(xu)自(zi)交(jiao)系胚挽救的(de)影响。结(jie)果(guo)表明,参试材料(liao)(liao)平均败育率(lv)为(wei)(wei)37.59%;进(jin)行苜(mu)蓿(xu)胚挽救培(pei)养(yang)的(de)最(zui)佳(jia)取样时间为(wei)(wei)授粉后30 d;胚挽救培(pei)养(yang)的(de)最(zui)佳(jia)培(pei)养(yang)基配方为(wei)(wei)MS+0.5 mg/L IAA +0.07 mg/L 6BA,蔗糖30 g/L,琼脂7 g/L,pH值(zhi)5.8~6.1。对(dui)萌动的(de)胚进(jin)行愈(yu)伤(shang)组(zu)织诱导(dao)发现,参试材料(liao)(liao)平均诱导(dao)率(lv)为(wei)(wei)85.32%,愈(yu)伤(shang)组(zu)织平均分(fen)化率(lv)为(wei)(wei)75.66%。研(yan)(yan)究以期为(wei)(wei)苜(mu)蓿(xu)胚挽救育种(zhong)提供(gong)理论基础,并为(wei)(wei)苜(mu)蓿(xu)特(te)异性(xing)状(zhuang)自(zi)交(jiao)系结(jie)实(shi)率(lv)低等方面(mian)的(de)研(yan)(yan)究提供(gong)有效的(de)解决(jue)途径(jing)。
坝上地区紫花苜蓿土壤有效磷、钾丰缺指标初探
2011, 5(2): 231-235.
[摘要](1572) [PDF 587KB](742)
摘要:
从(cong)坝(ba)上地(di)区的17个(ge)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)样品中(zhong)选取养(yang)分(fen)含量差异较大的5个(ge)地(di)点的土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang),进行盆栽试验,设全(quan)肥(施(shi)N、P、K肥)、缺(que)(que)磷、缺(que)(que)钾(jia)和(he)不施(shi)肥的4个(ge)处理,初步探索坝(ba)上地(di)区紫花苜(mu)蓿(Medicago sativa)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)磷、钾(jia)丰(feng)(feng)缺(que)(que)指(zhi)标(biao)。结果表明,用坝(ba)上地(di)区土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)种植紫花苜(mu)蓿,土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有效磷极(ji)缺(que)(que)、缺(que)(que)、中(zhong)等、丰(feng)(feng)富(fu)和(he)极(ji)丰(feng)(feng)富(fu)的指(zhi)标(biao)依次为<3.5、3.5~9.8、9.8~21.4、21.4~27.7和(he)>27.7 mg/kg;有效钾(jia)极(ji)缺(que)(que)、缺(que)(que)、中(zhong)等、丰(feng)(feng)富(fu)和(he)极(ji)丰(feng)(feng)富(fu)的指(zhi)标(biao)依次为<2.4、2.4~15.6、15.6~63.4、63.4~101.2和(he)>101.2 mg/kg。
石油污染对紫花苜蓿部分生理指标的影响
2011, 5(2): 236-240.
[摘要](1507) [PDF 588KB](795)
摘要:
本研究(jiu)以紫(zi)(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)为材料,观(guan)测其(qi)对(dui)(dui)石(shi)油(you)污(wu)染的(de)(de)耐受(shou)性(xing),研究(jiu)不(bu)同质(zhi)量分(fen)(fen)数的(de)(de)石(shi)油(you)污(wu)染(0、2 500、5 000、7 500 mg/kg)对(dui)(dui)紫(zi)(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)生长和生理指(zhi)标的(de)(de)影响,从而(er)初步(bu)了解(jie)紫(zi)(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)对(dui)(dui)石(shi)油(you)污(wu)染土壤的(de)(de)生物(wu)修(xiu)复机(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)。结(jie)果(guo)显(xian)示,随着石(shi)油(you)处理质(zhi)量分(fen)(fen)数的(de)(de)增加,紫(zi)(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)生长受(shou)到(dao)明显(xian)抑(yi)制(zhi)(zhi),其(qi)株高(gao)、叶(ye)片(pian)数、地上干物(wu)质(zhi)和根系(xi)干物(wu)质(zhi)量与对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)比(bi)较明显(xian)降低。叶(ye)片(pian)可溶性(xing)蛋白(bai)、淀粉、丙(bing)二醛等均随着石(shi)油(you)质(zhi)量分(fen)(fen)数的(de)(de)提高(gao)呈先(xian)上升后(hou)下(xia)降趋势;可溶性(xing)蛋白(bai)含(han)量在(zai)质(zhi)量分(fen)(fen)数超过(guo)7 500 mg/kg时开始下(xia)降,淀粉含(han)量在(zai)质(zhi)量分(fen)(fen)数为5 000 mg/kg时达到(dao)最(zui)大值(zhi),丙(bing)二醛含(han)量在(zai)质(zhi)量分(fen)(fen)数为2 500 mg/kg时达到(dao)最(zui)高(gao);混(hun)油(you)的(de)(de)3组(zu)处理的(de)(de)叶(ye)绿素含(han)量与对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)相比(bi)都(dou)有不(bu)同程度地上升。
奇台苏丹草种皮不同色泽类型与种子产量形成的关系
2011, 5(2): 241-244.
[摘要](1757) [PDF 434KB](764)
摘要:
为(wei)了探索苏丹草(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)皮不(bu)同色泽(ze)(ze)类(lei)型间种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)产(chan)(chan)量差异,试验以奇台苏丹草(cao)(Sorghum sudanense cv.Qitai)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)的(de)(de)黑(hei)壳(qiao)、红(hong)壳(qiao)、黄(huang)壳(qiao)3种(zhong)(zhong)色泽(ze)(ze)类(lei)型为(wei)材料(liao),研(yan)究了生育期、形态及(ji)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)产(chan)(chan)量构(gou)成等(deng)指标。结(jie)果表明,黑(hei)壳(qiao)生产(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)的(de)(de)千粒重最大,红(hong)壳(qiao)次之(zhi),黄(huang)壳(qiao)最低,分(fen)(fen)别(bie)为(wei)14.66、13.36和(he)12.77 g。黑(hei)壳(qiao)的(de)(de)单株籽粒数最多(duo),黄(huang)壳(qiao)次之(zhi),红(hong)壳(qiao)最低,分(fen)(fen)别(bie)为(wei)1 319、1 217和(he)908 粒。黑(hei)壳(qiao)的(de)(de)单株种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)产(chan)(chan)量最高(gao)、黄(huang)壳(qiao)次之(zhi)、红(hong)壳(qiao)最低,分(fen)(fen)别(bie)为(wei)18.59、16.29和(he)14.65 g。黑(hei)壳(qiao)产(chan)(chan)量最高(gao),红(hong)壳(qiao)次之(zhi),黄(huang)壳(qiao)最低,分(fen)(fen)别(bie)为(wei)3 593.52、2 654.89和(he)2 649.60 kg/hm2。
盐碱胁迫对芨芨草种子萌发的影响
2011, 5(2): 245-250.
[摘要](1530) [PDF 567KB](851)
摘要:
研(yan)究了5种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)盐(yan)(yan)碱(NaCl、Na2SO4、NaHCO3、Na2CO3及该4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)盐(yan)(yan)按(an)1∶9∶9∶1的(de)物质的(de)量比(bi)例配置成的(de)混(hun)合(he)(he)溶液)及其在不(bu)同(tong)浓度处(chu)理下对芨(ji)芨(ji)草(Achnatherum splendens)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)的(de)影(ying)响。结果表明,在不(bu)同(tong)盐(yan)(yan)碱处(chu)理下,随着浓度的(de)增加,种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)发(fa)(fa)芽率、发(fa)(fa)芽势、发(fa)(fa)芽指数逐渐(jian)降(jiang)低,种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)抑制(zhi)作用(yong)逐渐(jian)增强(qiang)。低浓度(80 mmol/L)的(de)NaHCO3和混(hun)合(he)(he)盐(yan)(yan)能够(gou)促进种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)。不(bu)同(tong)盐(yan)(yan)碱对芨(ji)芨(ji)草种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)的(de)抑制(zhi)作用(yong)表现(xian)为(wei)碳酸(suan)盐(yan)(yan)混(hun)合(he)(he)盐(yan)(yan)硫酸(suan)盐(yan)(yan)碳酸(suan)氢盐(yan)(yan)氯化(hua)盐(yan)(yan)。种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)趋势表现(xian)为(wei)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)初始(shi)天数推(tui)迟;种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)达到高峰时发(fa)(fa)芽数降(jiang)低。
黄顶菊对2种蔬菜种子和幼苗的化感效应
2011, 5(2): 251-254.
[摘要](1681) [PDF 484KB](776)
摘要:
为了解(jie)黄(huang)顶菊(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(Flaveria bidentis)对2种(zhong)蔬菜(cai)[油(you)(you)(you)(you)菜(cai)(Brassica napus)和(he)油(you)(you)(you)(you)麦(mai)(mai)(Lactuca sativa)]的(de)(de)(de)化(hua)(hua)感(gan)(gan)作用,研究了不(bu)同质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)分数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)黄(huang)顶菊(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)水浸提液(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)化(hua)(hua)感(gan)(gan)效应(ying)。结果表明,黄(huang)顶菊(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)浸提液(ye)(ye)对油(you)(you)(you)(you)麦(mai)(mai)种(zhong)子发芽率和(he)发芽速(su)度指(zhi)数(shu)均(jun)有显著的(de)(de)(de)抑制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)效应(ying),而(er)对油(you)(you)(you)(you)菜(cai)影响(xiang)不(bu)显著;黄(huang)顶菊(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)浸提液(ye)(ye)能显著抑制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)油(you)(you)(you)(you)菜(cai)、油(you)(you)(you)(you)麦(mai)(mai)幼苗的(de)(de)(de)根(gen)长(zhang)和(he)苗高。综合各项指(zhi)标(biao),黄(huang)顶菊(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)对2种(zhong)蔬菜(cai)的(de)(de)(de)化(hua)(hua)感(gan)(gan)综合效应(ying)(SE)随黄(huang)顶菊(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)根(gen)、茎叶浸提液(ye)(ye)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)分数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)增加(jia)而(er)增大,对同一受(shou)试植物而(er)言,黄(huang)顶菊(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)根(gen)的(de)(de)(de)浸提液(ye)(ye)化(hua)(hua)感(gan)(gan)效应(ying)大于茎叶化(hua)(hua)感(gan)(gan)效应(ying);油(you)(you)(you)(you)麦(mai)(mai)受(shou)黄(huang)顶菊(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)化(hua)(hua)感(gan)(gan)抑制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)作用的(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)大于油(you)(you)(you)(you)菜(cai);黄(huang)顶菊(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)对油(you)(you)(you)(you)菜(cai)、油(you)(you)(you)(you)麦(mai)(mai)根(gen)部(bu)生长(zhang)的(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)大于地上部(bu)。不(bu)同生长(zhang)时期对化(hua)(hua)感(gan)(gan)物质(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)敏感(gan)(gan)程度不(bu)同,苗期比发芽期敏感(gan)(gan)。
川东地区白三叶引种适应性试验研究
2011, 5(2): 255-259.
[摘要](1406) [PDF 500KB](713)
摘要:
从2003年(nian)(nian)开始,在四(si)川达(da)州试验点连续5年(nian)(nian)对拉丁诺和胡依阿两品种(zhong)白三叶(Trifolium repens)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)发育(yu)、根系生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)情况(kuang)、茎叶比(bi)、草(cao)(cao)产量(liang)以及种(zhong)子(zi)产量(liang)进行观察测定。结果表明,两品种(zhong)较为适(shi)应川东地区的夏(xia)(xia)季高(gao)温(wen)伏旱(han)天气,能(neng)完(wan)成整个(ge)生(sheng)(sheng)育(yu)周期(qi),全年(nian)(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang),无明显枯黄期(qi),青绿期(qi)320 d以上,越夏(xia)(xia)率100%,抗病力(li)强;具有较高(gao)且稳定的草(cao)(cao)产量(liang),年(nian)(nian)均(jun)鲜草(cao)(cao)产量(liang)拉丁诺87 784 kg/hm2,胡依阿89 865 kg/hm2,年(nian)(nian)均(jun)干草(cao)(cao)产量(liang)前者12 483 kg/hm2,后者12 847 kg/hm2;较适(shi)于(yu)川东伏旱(han)高(gao)温(wen)区开展栽培草(cao)(cao)地建设(she),但不适(shi)于(yu)生(sheng)(sheng)产种(zhong)子(zi)。
施肥对黑麦草生长和产量的影响
2011, 5(2): 260-265.
[摘要](1443) [PDF 638KB](858)
摘要:
通(tong)过大田(tian)试(shi)验,研究了(le)不(bu)(bu)同施(shi)肥(fei)措(cuo)施(shi)对(dui)一(yi)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑麦(mai)草(Lolium multiflorum)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长、叶绿(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)含量(liang)和(he)(he)鲜草产量(liang)的(de)(de)影响。结(jie)果表(biao)明(ming),氮磷(lin)钾(jia)肥(fei)配合施(shi)用(yong)(NPK)、等氮量(liang)的(de)(de)有机(ji)肥(fei)(OM)处(chu)理(li)均显著(zhu)促进黑麦(mai)草的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长和(he)(he)提高(gao)其(qi)鲜草产量(liang)。NPK处(chu)理(li)的(de)(de)黑麦(mai)草分(fen)(fen)蘖(nie)数、株高(gao)、表(biao)观叶面(mian)积较不(bu)(bu)施(shi)肥(fei)对(dui)照(CK)、不(bu)(bu)施(shi)氮(PK)和(he)(he)不(bu)(bu)施(shi)磷(lin)(NK)处(chu)理(li)均有显著(zhu)增(zeng)加,OM处(chu)理(li)与(yu)(yu)NPK处(chu)理(li)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长状况(kuang)基本(ben)一(yi)致。NPK和(he)(he)OM处(chu)理(li)明(ming)显提高(gao)黑麦(mai)草叶片叶绿(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)含量(liang),NPK处(chu)理(li)的(de)(de)叶绿(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)a含量(liang)分(fen)(fen)别比CK、PK、NK和(he)(he)不(bu)(bu)施(shi)钾(jia)(NP)处(chu)理(li)增(zeng)加了(le)205.6%、189.5%、29.9%和(he)(he)3.1%,叶绿(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)b含量(liang)分(fen)(fen)别增(zeng)加了(le)292.3%、218.8%、50.0%和(he)(he)2.0%,OM处(chu)理(li)和(he)(he)NPK处(chu)理(li)效(xiao)果相(xiang)当。NPK处(chu)理(li)的(de)(de)鲜草产量(liang)分(fen)(fen)别比CK、PK、NK和(he)(he)NP处(chu)理(li)增(zeng)加了(le)255.0%、329.1%、37.5%和(he)(he)9.0%。N、P、K 3种养分(fen)(fen)的(de)(de)施(shi)用(yong)效(xiao)果顺序为(wei)NPK,有机(ji)肥(fei)施(shi)用(yong)效(xiao)果与(yu)(yu)NPK化肥(fei)配合施(shi)用(yong)处(chu)理(li)基本(ben)相(xiang)当。
根竞争对窄叶野豌豆生长的影响: 公共的悲剧?
2011, 5(2): 266-272.
[摘要](1317) [PDF 637KB](854)
摘要:
以甘南(nan)高寒(han)草甸(dian)常见牧(mu)草窄叶(ye)野豌豆(dou)(dou)(Vicia angustifolia)为(wei)研(yan)究(jiu)对象,探讨不同营养(yang)、分割和(he)(he)活(huo)性(xing)炭(tan)条件下,是否存(cun)在公共的(de)悲剧以及根识别的(de)机制(zhi)。研(yan)究(jiu)发(fa)现,营养(yang)只对繁(fan)殖(zhi)生物量(liang)(liang)有显(xian)著(zhu)的(de)影响,分割和(he)(he)活(huo)性(xing)炭(tan)对大多(duo)数(shu)检验参数(shu)都有显(xian)著(zhu)的(de)影响;与(yu)没有邻体(ti)的(de)个体(ti)相比,有邻体(ti)的(de)个体(ti)明(ming)显(xian)产生了较多(duo)的(de)根、冠、总(zong)生物量(liang)(liang)、繁(fan)殖(zhi)生物量(liang)(liang)、花的(de)数(shu)量(liang)(liang)和(he)(he)荚果数(shu)量(liang)(liang)以及较高的(de)繁(fan)殖(zhi)与(yu)总(zong)生物量(liang)(liang)的(de)比值,表明(ming)窄叶(ye)野豌豆(dou)(dou)生物量(liang)(liang)分配对于根竞争的(de)响应不存(cun)在公共的(de)悲剧,根的(de)投资与(yu)繁(fan)殖(zhi)分配不存(cun)在权衡(heng);另外,窄叶(ye)野豌豆(dou)(dou)的(de)识别机制(zhi)是通过化(hua)感作用。
甘肃中华羊茅内生真菌形态多样性
2011, 5(2): 273-278.
[摘要](1580) [PDF 568KB](985)
摘要:
本研究(jiu)以采(cai)自甘(gan)肃夏(xia)河桑科草原和(he)甘(gan)加草原的(de)野生(sheng)中(zhong)华羊茅(Festuca sinensis)为材料,通(tong)过对种子(zi)和(he)茎髓部(bu)内生(sheng)真菌(jun)带菌(jun)的(de)检测,并(bing)在PDA培养(yang)基上进(jin)行分(fen)离(li)(li)培养(yang),总共得到(dao)48个(ge)(ge)内生(sheng)真菌(jun)菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)。再(zai)经水琼脂培养(yang)基次级(ji)培养(yang)以促进(jin)产孢,依据菌(jun)落生(sheng)长形(xing)(xing)态(tai)、分(fen)生(sheng)孢子(zi)、分(fen)生(sheng)孢子(zi)梗(geng)等形(xing)(xing)态(tai)学特征的(de)观察与测定,最终可将其分(fen)为3个(ge)(ge)形(xing)(xing)态(tai)群(qun)(qun)。其中(zhong),13个(ge)(ge)菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)属ZHYMⅠ形(xing)(xing)态(tai)群(qun)(qun),20个(ge)(ge)菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)属ZHYMⅡ形(xing)(xing)态(tai)群(qun)(qun),15个(ge)(ge)菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)属ZHYMⅢ形(xing)(xing)态(tai)群(qun)(qun)。分(fen)离(li)(li)自中(zhong)华羊茅的(de)48个(ge)(ge)内生(sheng)真菌(jun)菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)的(de)形(xing)(xing)态(tai)学多(duo)样性十分(fen)显著。
北京地区结缕草锈病流行规律及种质抗病性鉴定
2011, 5(2): 279-285.
[摘要](1432) [PDF 799KB](853)
摘要:
本研(yan)究(jiu)以(yi)采集自6个不同地点的(de)(de)(de)162个结(jie)缕(lv)草(Zoysia japonica)植株(zhu)(zhu)为(wei)研(yan)究(jiu)材(cai)料(liao)(liao),于(yu)2008-2009年对(dui)参试材(cai)料(liao)(liao)在(zai)北京(jing)地区的(de)(de)(de)锈(xiu)(xiu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)原(yuan)菌、病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)害流(liu)行规律(lv)以(yi)及植株(zhu)(zhu)抗病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)性进行了评(ping)价。结(jie)果(guo)表明,1)引起(qi)锈(xiu)(xiu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)的(de)(de)(de)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)原(yuan)菌均为(wei)结(jie)缕(lv)草柄(bing)锈(xiu)(xiu)菌(Puccinia zoysiae);2)北京(jing)地区结(jie)缕(lv)草锈(xiu)(xiu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)情指数整体(ti)呈单峰(feng)型发(fa)(fa)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)特(te)点,病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)情始发(fa)(fa)期集中(zhong)于(yu)6月初-7月中(zhong)旬,发(fa)(fa)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)高(gao)峰(feng)期在(zai)9月中(zhong)旬-10月上旬,11月底(di)随(sui)着植株(zhu)(zhu)枯(ku)黄期的(de)(de)(de)到(dao)来,病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)情发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)逐渐停(ting)止;3)从参试材(cai)料(liao)(liao)中(zhong),初步确定了3个具有抗锈(xiu)(xiu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)性状表现差异的(de)(de)(de)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)群体(ti)SD1、SD2和SD3,筛选出14个抗病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)的(de)(de)(de)单株(zhu)(zhu)和29个感病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)的(de)(de)(de)单株(zhu)(zhu)。本研(yan)究(jiu)结(jie)果(guo)为(wei)我国结(jie)缕(lv)草抗锈(xiu)(xiu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)选育及遗传研(yan)究(jiu)提供了病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)理学依据和适合的(de)(de)(de)种质(zhi)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)
气候变化对西北地区生态环境影响的若干进展
2011, 5(2): 286-295.
[摘要](1856) [PDF 1237KB](1024)
摘要:
全(quan)(quan)球(qiu)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)与(yu)陆地(di)(di)生(sheng)态(tai)系统是当(dang)前(qian)全(quan)(quan)球(qiu)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)研(yan)究(jiu)的(de)重要(yao)内(nei)容,气候(hou)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)对(dui)陆地(di)(di)生(sheng)态(tai)系统的(de)影(ying)响及反馈一直是全(quan)(quan)球(qiu)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)研(yan)究(jiu)的(de)焦点问题之一。本研(yan)究(jiu)总结了有(you)关气候(hou)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)对(dui)西北(bei)地(di)(di)区(qu)生(sheng)态(tai)环境影(ying)响研(yan)究(jiu)的(de)趋(qu)势,分别(bie)通过(guo)气候(hou)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)对(dui)植被(bei)、生(sheng)物多样性、湿地(di)(di)以及水资(zi)源等方(fang)面影(ying)响研(yan)究(jiu)的(de)动态(tai),阐述了西北(bei)地(di)(di)区(qu)生(sheng)态(tai)环境对(dui)气候(hou)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)的(de)响应,对(dui)存在(zai)的(de)问题进行了探讨,并结合当(dang)前(qian)研(yan)究(jiu)状况提出西北(bei)地(di)(di)区(qu)应对(dui)气候(hou)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)的(de)对(dui)策及措施。
种子超干贮存研究进展
2011, 5(2): 296-303.
[摘要](1329) [PDF 887KB](846)
摘要:
种(zhong)子(zi)超(chao)干(gan)贮(zhu)(zhu)存(cun)即采取(qu)(qu)低含水量种(zhong)子(zi)密(mi)闭贮(zhu)(zhu)藏在常(chang)温条件下的(de)(de)(de)方法,以达(da)到部分或(huo)全部取(qu)(qu)代(dai)低温库(ku)的(de)(de)(de)目的(de)(de)(de)。超(chao)干(gan)贮(zhu)(zhu)存(cun)能提高(gao)种(zhong)子(zi)的(de)(de)(de)耐藏稳定(ding)性,但并不(bu)是(shi)越低越好,蛋白(bai)质、抗氧(yang)化系统(tong)(tong)、糖(tang)、细胞膜系统(tong)(tong)都与种(zhong)子(zi)的(de)(de)(de)耐脱水性有关,种(zhong)子(zi)超(chao)干(gan)贮(zhu)(zhu)存(cun)不(bu)仅要提高(gao)种(zhong)子(zi)生(sheng)活力还要保持种(zhong)子(zi)的(de)(de)(de)遗传稳定(ding)性。
动物生产层
8种生物农药对草原蝗虫的田间防治效果评价
2011, 5(2): 304-307.
[摘要](1725) [PDF 490KB](788)
摘要:
应用(yong)(yong)4种(zhong)(zhong)绿(lv)僵菌(jun)(jun)(jun)、白僵菌(jun)(jun)(jun)、0.3%印(yin)楝(lian)素(su)、1%苦(ku)参(can)碱和(he)森得(de)保8种(zhong)(zhong)生物农(nong)药(yao)(yao)对草原蝗(huang)(huang)虫(chong)进行了田间(jian)药(yao)(yao)效(xiao)对比试验(yan),以(yi)期筛选出防(fang)效(xiao)较好(hao)的(de)生物农(nong)药(yao)(yao)用(yong)(yong)于大(da)面积(ji)推广。研究表明,0.3%印(yin)楝(lian)素(su)、1%苦(ku)参(can)碱和(he)森得(de)保防(fang)治效(xiao)果显著优于其他(ta)5种(zhong)(zhong)生物杀虫(chong)剂(ji)(ji),药(yao)(yao)后(hou)11 d防(fang)效(xiao)均在90%以(yi)上。几种(zhong)(zhong)杀蝗(huang)(huang)绿(lv)僵菌(jun)(jun)(jun)油悬(xuan)浮剂(ji)(ji)药(yao)(yao)后(hou)11 d防(fang)效(xiao)在65%以(yi)上,白僵菌(jun)(jun)(jun)油悬(xuan)浮剂(ji)(ji)防(fang)效(xiao)较差。杀蝗(huang)(huang)绿(lv)僵菌(jun)(jun)(jun)、印(yin)楝(lian)素(su)、苦(ku)参(can)碱和(he)森得(de)保几种(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)剂(ji)(ji)均为高(gao)效(xiao)、低毒的(de)生物农(nong)药(yao)(yao)和(he)植(zhi)物源农(nong)药(yao)(yao),可以(yi)替代化学(xue)农(nong)药(yao)(yao)用(yong)(yong)于草原蝗(huang)(huang)虫(chong)的(de)防(fang)治。
草地蝗虫防治的经济阈值与生态阈值研究进展
2011, 5(2): 308-312.
[摘要](1334) [PDF 699KB](768)
摘要:
进(jin)(jin)入21世纪以(yi)来,我国草(cao)地(di)蝗(huang)(huang)(huang)灾连(lian)年发生,严重威胁着畜牧业发展和北方生态(tai)安全(quan)(quan)。经(jing)济(ji)阈(yu)(yu)值和生态(tai)阈(yu)(yu)值作为蝗(huang)(huang)(huang)虫(chong)防(fang)治的(de)决(jue)策依据(ju),是草(cao)地(di)植保领域的(de)重要(yao)研究(jiu)(jiu)课题之一。对(dui)国内外有关害虫(chong)防(fang)治经(jing)济(ji)阈(yu)(yu)值和生态(tai)阈(yu)(yu)值的(de)概念及理论(lun)进(jin)(jin)行了概述(shu)整理,全(quan)(quan)面总结了我国在(zai)草(cao)地(di)蝗(huang)(huang)(huang)虫(chong)防(fang)治经(jing)济(ji)阈(yu)(yu)值与(yu)生态(tai)阈(yu)(yu)值方面的(de)研究(jiu)(jiu)进(jin)(jin)展,分析了2个阈(yu)(yu)值在(zai)实际应用中的(de)关系。目前,本领域研究(jiu)(jiu)缺(que)乏系统性和持续性,难以(yi)有效指导(dao)草(cao)地(di)上复(fu)杂的(de)蝗(huang)(huang)(huang)虫(chong)灾变形(xing)势,为此对(dui)今后(hou)的(de)研究(jiu)(jiu)提出了几点建议。
后生物生产层
草地股份制合作经营模式探索 以甘肃玛曲县为例
杨春雷
2011, 5(2): 313-318.
[摘要](1822) [PDF 916KB](842)
摘要:
青藏(zang)高原东端玛曲县草(cao)地(di)(di)家(jia)庭(ting)(ting)承(cheng)(cheng)包(bao)完(wan)成了(le)第一(yi)步,为发(fa)(fa)展该牧(mu)(mu)区(qu)经济奠定(ding)了(le)基础(chu),但在(zai)草(cao)地(di)(di)生(sheng)(sheng)态和牧(mu)(mu)民生(sheng)(sheng)产生(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)方(fang)面还存在(zai)一(yi)定(ding)问题(ti)。为此,该区(qu)在(zai)继承(cheng)(cheng)草(cao)地(di)(di)家(jia)庭(ting)(ting)承(cheng)(cheng)包(bao)取(qu)得的成果产权落(luo)实的基础(chu)上,参考玛曲县部分牧(mu)(mu)村草(cao)地(di)(di)家(jia)庭(ting)(ting)承(cheng)(cheng)包(bao)后草(cao)地(di)(di)按股(gu)份(fen)利用的方(fang)式,引用股(gu)份(fen)制整合(he)资(zi)源、股(gu)份(fen)管(guan)理(li)的机制,探索建立草(cao)地(di)(di)股(gu)份(fen)制合(he)作经营管(guan)理(li)模式冬春草(cao)地(di)(di)股(gu)份(fen)制联户合(he)作经营、夏秋草(cao)地(di)(di)股(gu)份(fen)制集体(自然村)统一(yi)经营管(guan)理(li)的双重机制模式,平衡草(cao)地(di)(di)生(sheng)(sheng)态保护、牧(mu)(mu)民生(sheng)(sheng)产和生(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)三(san)者之间和谐统筹(chou)发(fa)(fa)展问题(ti),以期完(wan)善青藏(zang)高原地(di)(di)区(qu)草(cao)地(di)(di)家(jia)庭(ting)(ting)承(cheng)(cheng)包(bao),促进生(sheng)(sheng)态草(cao)地(di)(di)畜牧(mu)(mu)业可(ke)持续(xu)发(fa)(fa)展。
青藏高原牧草太阳能烘干温室及干燥装置的设计
2011, 5(2): 319-322.
[摘要](1298) [PDF 510KB](758)
摘要:
为了(le)低(di)(di)成(cheng)本的(de)干(gan)燥新鲜(xian)牧草(cao)(cao),本研究设计了(le)以青藏高(gao)原(yuan)丰(feng)富(fu)的(de)太阳(yang)能(neng)资源(yuan)为干(gan)燥能(neng)源(yuan)的(de)牧草(cao)(cao)烘干(gan)温(wen)室及干(gan)燥装(zhuang)置。该装(zhuang)置用太阳(yang)能(neng)空气集热器加热空气,热空气进入高(gao)温(wen)温(wen)室,对牧草(cao)(cao)进行加热干(gan)燥。将它(ta)与小型滚(gun)筒式牧草(cao)(cao)干(gan)燥机相结合,可提高(gao)工作效率,节约常规能(neng)耗,显(xian)著(zhu)地降低(di)(di)牧草(cao)(cao)干(gan)燥成(cheng)本,有效解决青藏高(gao)原(yuan)新鲜(xian)牧草(cao)(cao)的(de)干(gan)燥问题。
添加剂对柠条青贮影响的研究
2011, 5(2): 323-326.
[摘要](1590) [PDF 463KB](783)
摘要:
为探讨不同添(tian)加剂对(dui)柠条(tiao)(tiao)(Caragana korshinskii)青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)的(de)(de)(de)影响,以开花期柠条(tiao)(tiao)为原(yuan)料(liao),分别设计对(dui)照、添(tian)加甲(jia)酸(suan)(6 mL/kg)或(huo)蔗(zhe)糖(2%)处理,袋装密封青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)360 d后取样分析。结果表明,添(tian)加蔗(zhe)糖和甲(jia)酸(suan)能改善柠条(tiao)(tiao)青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)饲料(liao)的(de)(de)(de)发酵品质(zhi)(zhi)。添(tian)加蔗(zhe)糖显(xian)著降(jiang)低(di)(di)青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)饲料(liao)的(de)(de)(de)pH值(P0.05),极显(xian)著增(zeng)加乳(ru)酸(suan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)和降(jiang)低(di)(di)氨(an)态(tai)氮(dan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(P0.01)。添(tian)加甲(jia)酸(suan)极显(xian)著增(zeng)加柠条(tiao)(tiao)青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)饲料(liao)的(de)(de)(de)乳(ru)酸(suan)含(han)量(liang)(liang),降(jiang)低(di)(di)氨(an)态(tai)氮(dan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(P0.01)。添(tian)加甲(jia)酸(suan)或(huo)蔗(zhe)糖显(xian)著提高(gao)柠条(tiao)(tiao)青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)饲料(liao)的(de)(de)(de)干(gan)物质(zhi)(zhi)保(bao)存率(P0.05)。青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)之后,硝酸(suan)盐(yan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)下(xia)降(jiang)。说明柠条(tiao)(tiao)青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)时添(tian)加蔗(zhe)糖或(huo)甲(jia)酸(suan),可以获得发酵品质(zhi)(zhi)良(liang)好的(de)(de)(de)青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)饲料(liao)。
基层园地
甘肃苜蓿产业化存在的主要问题和发展趋势
2011, 5(2): 327-330.
[摘要](1364) [PDF 635KB](796)
摘要:
甘(gan)肃是全(quan)国(guo)的(de)草(cao)业(ye)大省,栽培草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)面(mian)(mian)积居(ju)全(quan)国(guo)第二,苜蓿(Medicago spp.)种植面(mian)(mian)积居(ju)全(quan)国(guo)第一,草(cao)业(ye)科技在全(quan)国(guo)占有重要地(di)(di)(di)位,但还(hai)没有把资源优(you)势变(bian)为(wei)经济优(you)势。草(cao)产(chan)业(ye)还(hai)面(mian)(mian)临产(chan)业(ye)化的(de)巨大投(tou)资需(xu)求与实(shi)际(ji)投(tou)入(ru)严(yan)重不足的(de)问(wen)题(ti)(ti);市(shi)场(chang)对产(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)的(de)要求和产(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)数量(liang)品(pin)(pin)(pin)质之(zhi)间的(de)问(wen)题(ti)(ti);行业(ye)整体效益逐步提高(gao)与市(shi)场(chang)、自然条件(jian)双重风险(xian)的(de)问(wen)题(ti)(ti);产(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)结(jie)构优(you)化升级需(xu)求与科研投(tou)入(ru)管理(li)滞后的(de)问(wen)题(ti)(ti)。表现为(wei)栽培草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)建设(she)依然呈减少趋势;草(cao)产(chan)品(pin)(pin)(pin)市(shi)场(chang)依然活跃(yue),价格稳中有升;种草(cao)养畜继续保持良好发(fa)展势头。
陇东黄土高原草地农业资源利用现状分析 以甘肃环县为例
2011, 5(2): 331-333.
[摘要](1545) [PDF 487KB](774)
摘要:
甘肃环县位于典型的黄土(tu)高原农牧(mu)交错带,不合(he)理的农业(ye)(ye)结(jie)构(gou)和资源不当(dang)利用(yong)一直羁绊着该县农业(ye)(ye)系(xi)统的发展(zhan)。通(tong)过了解当(dang)地自然(ran)资源和草(cao)地农业(ye)(ye)结(jie)构(gou)现状,分析(xi)当(dang)地草(cao)地资源优势,认为合(he)理利用(yong)和保(bao)护建设天然(ran)草(cao)原,大力进行栽(zai)培草(cao)地建设,重视(shi)农作物秸秆合(he)理利用(yong),对促进畜牧(mu)业(ye)(ye)可持续发展(zhan),维护自然(ran)生态系(xi)统有着重要意(yi)义(yi)。
欧宝体育