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2011年28卷2期

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专论
全球化粮农危机与中国大农业草产业系统工程
李毓堂
2011, 5(2): 171-175.
[摘要](1361) [PDF 751KB](793)
摘要:
本研(yan)究(jiu)论述了(le)(le)世界(jie)粮(liang)(liang)食(shi)危(wei)机现状和(he)主要成因,分(fen)析了(le)(le)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)粮(liang)(liang)农(nong)(nong)生产现状、潜在危(wei)机和(he)未(wei)来发(fa)展的两种走向对(dui)世界(jie)产生的不同影响(xiang)。提(ti)出了(le)(le)未(wei)来中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)农(nong)(nong)业(ye)应(ying)走创(chuang)新(xin)发(fa)展之(zhi)路,即实施大农(nong)(nong)业(ye)草(cao)产业(ye)系统(tong)工(gong)程,阐(chan)述了(le)(le)它的科学(xue)理论与创(chuang)新(xin)意(yi)义,提(ti)出了(le)(le)当前保障(zhang)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)粮(liang)(liang)食(shi)安全的草(cao)业(ye)核心技术(shu),并预测(ce)了(le)(le)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)走农(nong)(nong)业(ye)创(chuang)新(xin)发(fa)展之(zhi)路对(dui)缓(huan)解世界(jie)粮(liang)(liang)食(shi)危(wei)机可起到的积极意(yi)义。
前植物生产层
河北省草地资源评价
2011, 5(2): 176-179.
[摘要](1236) [PDF 448KB](814)
摘要:
为掌握河北省草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)资(zi)源动态,于2005-2007年进(jin)行了草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)资(zi)源调(diao)查(cha),根据草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)植被(bei)产量、适口(kou)性(xing)(xing)及利用性(xing)(xing)状分(fen)析结(jie)果进(jin)行了草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)等(deng)(deng)(deng)(deng)级评(ping)价。结(jie)果表明, 1)Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ和(he)(he)Ⅴ等(deng)(deng)(deng)(deng)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)占调(diao)查(cha)样(yang)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的比(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)(li)(li)分(fen)别为0.91%、13.64%、31.82%、30.91%和(he)(he)22.73%。总体来看,Ⅲ、Ⅳ等(deng)(deng)(deng)(deng)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)所占的比(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)(li)(li)较(jiao)(jiao)大,占调(diao)查(cha)样(yang)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的62.73%。不同草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)类差异较(jiao)(jiao)大,温性(xing)(xing)草(cao)(cao)原、暖性(xing)(xing)草(cao)(cao)丛基(ji)(ji)本属于Ⅲ、Ⅳ等(deng)(deng)(deng)(deng)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di);温性(xing)(xing)草(cao)(cao)甸(dian)和(he)(he)山地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)草(cao)(cao)甸(dian)基(ji)(ji)本属于Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ等(deng)(deng)(deng)(deng)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di);暖性(xing)(xing)灌草(cao)(cao)丛、低(di)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)草(cao)(cao)甸(dian)以Ⅳ、Ⅴ等(deng)(deng)(deng)(deng)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)为主;沼泽草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)为Ⅳ等(deng)(deng)(deng)(deng)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)。2) 18级草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)占调(diao)查(cha)样(yang)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的比(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)(li)(li)分(fen)别为7.27%、4.55%、11.82%、15.45%、27.27%、14.55%、10.91%和(he)(he)8.18%。3)与(yu)20世纪(ji)80年代河北省草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)等(deng)(deng)(deng)(deng)级评(ping)价结(jie)果相比(bi)(bi),Ⅰ、Ⅱ等(deng)(deng)(deng)(deng)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的比(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)(li)(li)下(xia)降,Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ等(deng)(deng)(deng)(deng)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)比(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)(li)(li)上升(sheng)(sheng);14级草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)比(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)(li)(li)降低(di),58级草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)比(bi)(bi)例(li)(li)(li)(li)升(sheng)(sheng)高,草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)整体呈恶化趋势。
濒危植物膜荚黄芪种群生活史分析
2011, 5(2): 180-184.
[摘要](1456) [PDF 624KB](856)
摘要:
膜(mo)(mo)(mo)荚(jia)(jia)黄(huang)(huang)(huang)芪(Astragalus membranaceus)属(shu)(shu)国(guo)家(jia)保(bao)护植(zhi)物。采用种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)结构、生命表(biao)和生存函(han)(han)数(shu)分(fen)析(xi)(xi)方法,分(fen)析(xi)(xi)了祁连山(shan)中部西(xi)水林区膜(mo)(mo)(mo)荚(jia)(jia)黄(huang)(huang)(huang)芪种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)的(de)(de)生活(huo)史(shi)。结果(guo)表(biao)明,膜(mo)(mo)(mo)荚(jia)(jia)黄(huang)(huang)(huang)芪种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)属(shu)(shu)衰退种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun),Ⅰ级个体数(shu)量(liang)不足,种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)的(de)(de)存活(huo)曲(qu)(qu)线符合DeeveyⅡ型曲(qu)(qu)线;存活(huo)曲(qu)(qu)线、死亡率(lv)(lv)曲(qu)(qu)线和消失率(lv)(lv)曲(qu)(qu)线从整体上反映了膜(mo)(mo)(mo)荚(jia)(jia)黄(huang)(huang)(huang)芪种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)数(shu)量(liang)的(de)(de)动态变(bian)化趋势;生存率(lv)(lv)函(han)(han)数(shu)、累(lei)计死亡率(lv)(lv)函(han)(han)数(shu)、死亡密度函(han)(han)数(shu)、危(wei)险率(lv)(lv)函(han)(han)数(shu)反映了膜(mo)(mo)(mo)荚(jia)(jia)黄(huang)(huang)(huang)芪种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)的(de)(de)动态和结构。放牧(mu)和挖药材是膜(mo)(mo)(mo)荚(jia)(jia)黄(huang)(huang)(huang)芪种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)致危(wei)的(de)(de)主要因素。
干旱和灌溉条件下少花蒺藜草分株生物量分配特征
2011, 5(2): 185-188.
[摘要](1368) [PDF 484KB](832)
摘要:
调查了生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长在科尔沁沙地干(gan)(gan)旱(han)、灌(guan)溉2个条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)的(de)少(shao)花蒺藜草(Cenchrus pauciflorus)分(fen)蘖(nie)丛。对分(fen)株(zhu)高(gao)度、分(fen)株(zhu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)以及根(gen)、茎、叶、穗(sui)、叶鞘等构(gou)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)进行了定量(liang)统计分(fen)析。结果(guo)显示(shi),灌(guan)溉条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia),植株(zhu)高(gao)度为41.2 cm,明(ming)显高(gao)于干(gan)(gan)旱(han)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)33.7 cm。灌(guan)溉条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)果(guo)穗(sui)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)是干(gan)(gan)旱(han)环境下(xia)(xia)(xia)的(de)1.8倍。2种条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia),根(gen)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)、茎生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)、叶片生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)、叶鞘生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)均(jun)与分(fen)株(zhu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)呈极(ji)显著(zhu)的(de)正相(xiang)关(guan)(P0.01),并符合y=axb幂函(han)数的(de)变(bian)(bian)化规(gui)(gui)律;根(gen)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)、茎生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)、叶片生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)、叶鞘生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)之(zhi)间呈显著(zhu)的(de)正相(xiang)关(guan)(P0.05),并符合y=ax+b线性函(han)数的(de)变(bian)(bian)化规(gui)(gui)律。随(sui)着分(fen)株(zhu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)的(de)增加,灌(guan)溉条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)各构(gou)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)增长速度均(jun)高(gao)于干(gan)(gan)旱(han)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)的(de)。分(fen)析认为,在生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)分(fen)配上干(gan)(gan)旱(han)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)少(shao)花蒺藜草表现出存活对策(ce),灌(guan)溉条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)表现出竞争和繁殖生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长对策(ce)。
土壤管理方式对苹果园土壤理化性状的影响
2011, 5(2): 189-193.
[摘要](1482) [PDF 553KB](973)
摘要:
对新疆南部苹果园不同(tong)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤管(guan)理(li)(li)方式下(xia)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤理(li)(li)化(hua)性状进行了(le)测定(ding)分析。结(jie)果表明,与清(qing)(qing)耕(geng)相比,各处(chu)理(li)(li)均(jun)不同(tong)程(cheng)度地降低了(le)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤容(rong)重(zhong),增(zeng)加(jia)了(le)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤孔隙度。各处(chu)理(li)(li)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤水分含量表现(xian)(xian)为覆草(cao)(cao)>生(sheng)草(cao)(cao)>免耕(geng)>清(qing)(qing)耕(geng)。各处(chu)理(li)(li)均(jun)在不同(tong)程(cheng)度上改善了(le)0~40 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)(ceng)有(you)机质含量,表土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)(ceng)中有(you)机质增(zeng)加(jia)较深层(ceng)(ceng)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤更为显(xian)著。土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤速效养分值都较清(qing)(qing)耕(geng)高,生(sheng)草(cao)(cao)区020 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)(ceng)全(quan)氮含量比对照有(you)所(suo)降低,表现(xian)(xian)为免耕(geng)>覆草(cao)(cao)>清(qing)(qing)耕(geng)>生(sheng)草(cao)(cao),土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤全(quan)磷、全(quan)钾变化(hua)相同(tong),各处(chu)理(li)(li)呈现(xian)(xian)为生(sheng)草(cao)(cao)>免耕(geng)>覆草(cao)(cao)>清(qing)(qing)耕(geng),且以表层(ceng)(ceng)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤表现(xian)(xian)更为显(xian)著。
暑期教学实习记事《草人诗记》之二
任继周
2011, 5(2): 194-195.
[摘要](1173) [PDF 350KB](1606)
摘要:
植物生产层
吉林省野生牧草种质资源的考察与搜集
2011, 5(2): 196-200.
[摘要](1338) [PDF 544KB](808)
摘要:
搜集(ji)(ji)吉(ji)林省(sheng)境内(nei)有利(li)用价值的野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)牧草(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)资(zi)源(yuan),为吉(ji)林省(sheng)野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)牧草(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)资(zi)源(yuan)保护(hu)、研究和(he)(he)开发利(li)用提(ti)供(gong)基础(chu)材(cai)料。2008-2009年连续(xu)2年对吉(ji)林省(sheng)内(nei)野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)牧草(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)资(zi)源(yuan)进行考察与搜集(ji)(ji),共采集(ji)(ji)野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)牧草(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)资(zi)源(yuan)材(cai)料191份,涵盖18科59 属89种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),其中,豆(dou)科91份,禾本科64份,其他科36份。这些(xie)(xie)野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)牧草(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)材(cai)料中既有独特的地方野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)和(he)(he)一些(xie)(xie)适(shi)应性强、分(fen)布广的变异种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),也有不(bu)同(tong)生(sheng)境条件下优良(liang)栽(zai)培(pei)牧草(cao)的野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)和(he)(he)野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)近缘种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)。并初步掌握了(le)一些(xie)(xie)重(zhong)点属、种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的分(fen)布规(gui)律及其与生(sheng)境条件的关系。为筛选和(he)(he)培(pei)育优良(liang)牧草(cao)新(xin)品种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)提(ti)供(gong)丰富的野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)材(cai)料的同(tong)时(shi),也为重(zhong)点野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)牧草(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)资(zi)源(yuan)的保护(hu)和(he)(he)开发利(li)用提(ti)供(gong)了(le)科学资(zi)料。
AtPCS1基因表达载体构建与转化苜蓿的研究
2011, 5(2): 201-206.
[摘要](1560) [PDF 613KB](842)
摘要:
扩增拟南芥(jie)(Arabidopsis thaliana)螯合(he)肽合(he)成酶(AtPCS1)全(quan)长基(ji)因(yin);构建AtPCS1植(zhi)物表(biao)达载体pBⅠ121AtPCS1,进一步(bu)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)化农杆菌EHA105;利用转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)化的农杆菌EHA105侵染甘(gan)农一号苜蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)叶片(pian),经(jing)过80100 d 的筛(shai)选与培养,获得57株再生转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)基(ji)因(yin)植(zhi)株。随机抽取其中9株进行PCR检测,其中6株为阳性。初步(bu)结果表(biao)明(ming),AtPCS1基(ji)因(yin)已整(zheng)合(he)到苜蓿(xu)基(ji)因(yin)组中。
紫花苜蓿复合体的形态变异式样及分类学研究
2011, 5(2): 207-216.
[摘要](9761) [PDF 252KB](19264)
摘要:
紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)复(fu)(fu)合体(Medicago sativa complex)是极为(wei)(wei)重(zhong)要的(de)(de)牧草资源,其(qi)成(cheng)员间具有(you)明显(xian)的(de)(de)形(xing)(xing)(xing)态(tai)渐渡特征。为(wei)(wei)摸清其(qi)种(zhong)质资源状况(kuang)并明确其(qi)分类(lei)学问(wen)题,通过查阅馆藏腊叶标本和(he)野外居群采样(yang),观测(ce)了39个形(xing)(xing)(xing)态(tai)性(xing)状,并利用主成(cheng)分分析和(he)聚类(lei)分析的(de)(de)方法进行运(yun)算(suan)。结果(guo)表明,紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)复(fu)(fu)合体的(de)(de)花(hua)器官有(you)形(xing)(xing)(xing)成(cheng)大(da)花(hua)类(lei)型(xing)和(he)小花(hua)类(lei)型(xing)的(de)(de)趋势,但花(hua)的(de)(de)大(da)小尚不(bu)能作为(wei)(wei)独(du)立的(de)(de)分类(lei)依据(ju);荚果(guo)的(de)(de)变(bian)异相(xiang)对稳定,可以(yi)作为(wei)(wei)比(bi)较(jiao)可靠的(de)(de)分类(lei)依据(ju);而营(ying)养器官的(de)(de)形(xing)(xing)(xing)态(tai)相(xiang)似度极高,分类(lei)价值相(xiang)当(dang)有(you)限。同时,认为(wei)(wei)我国境(jing)内(nei)的(de)(de)紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)复(fu)(fu)合体应(ying)包括4个种(zhong)和(he)3个变(bian)型(xing)。
不同种质苜蓿苗期耐旱性评价及其方法的比较
2011, 5(2): 217-225.
[摘要](1278) [PDF 621KB](822)
摘要:
由于国内苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago spp.)耐(nai)旱(han)(han)(han)性(xing)(xing)评价(jia)(jia)方(fang)法不(bu)统(tong)一(yi),在已有的(de)方(fang)法的(de)基础上进行(xing)(xing)综合(he)整理(li)、适当(dang)修改,对来自国内外的(de)133份(fen)不(bu)同苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)种(zhong)质资(zi)源进行(xing)(xing)2次(ci)抗(kang)(kang)旱(han)(han)(han)性(xing)(xing)评价(jia)(jia)(控(kong)水方(fang)法不(bu)同),并对2种(zhong)控(kong)水方(fang)法进行(xing)(xing)比较。以干旱(han)(han)(han)反(fan)应征(zheng)状(zhuang)指(zhi)(zhi)数(ASI)和(he)(he)复水后的(de)存(cun)(cun)活率作为(wei)2个(ge)变量,运用SAS软件(jian)进行(xing)(xing)综合(he)分析(xi)(xi)。2次(ci)评价(jia)(jia)结果表明,有15份(fen)材料(liao)(肇东苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)、草(cao)原2号(hao)、草(cao)原3号(hao)、沧州(zhou)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)、陇东苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)、甘农(nong)1号(hao)、中(zhong)兰1号(hao)、准(zhun)格尔苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)、龙牧801、龙牧803、中(zhong)苜(mu)(mu)1号(hao)、Rambler、ACGRAZEhAND、Ameristand 201+2和(he)(he)AmeriGraze 401+2)表现(xian)出(chu)稳定(ding)的(de)强(qiang)抗(kang)(kang)旱(han)(han)(han)性(xing)(xing);11份(fen)材料(liao)(敖汉苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)、公农(nong)3号(hao)、新(xin)疆大叶(ye)、天(tian)水苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)、新(xin)牧1号(hao)、Caliverde、KANZA、MESASIRSA、Moapa 69、5264和(he)(he)Malone)表现(xian)出(chu)稳定(ding)的(de)最弱(ruo)抗(kang)(kang)旱(han)(han)(han)性(xing)(xing);且材料(liao)所属的(de)评价(jia)(jia)等级(ji),经分析(xi)(xi)不(bu)存(cun)(cun)在显著(zhu)(zhu)性(xing)(xing)差(cha)异(P0.05)。分析(xi)(xi)发芽指(zhi)(zhi)数与抗(kang)(kang)旱(han)(han)(han)性(xing)(xing)的(de)相(xiang)关(guan)性(xing)(xing),苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)2次(ci)评价(jia)(jia)的(de)发芽指(zhi)(zhi)数均与其抗(kang)(kang)旱(han)(han)(han)性(xing)(xing)呈负相(xiang)关(guan),第(di)1次(ci)呈极显著(zhu)(zhu)负相(xiang)关(guan)(P0.01);第(di)2次(ci)呈显著(zhu)(zhu)负相(xiang)关(guan)(P0.05)。
多叶苜蓿自交S1代的胚挽救培养
2011, 5(2): 226-230.
[摘要](1501) [PDF 578KB](907)
摘要:
以(yi)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)多(duo)叶性(xing)状S1代的(de)(de)3个单株(zhu)为材(cai)(cai)(cai)料,研究了(le)3份参试材(cai)(cai)(cai)料的(de)(de)败育率,测定(ding)了(le)开展(zhan)胚(pei)挽(wan)救(jiu)(jiu)培养(yang)的(de)(de)最佳(jia)(jia)取材(cai)(cai)(cai)时间(jian)(jian)和不同激素水平(ping)对苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)自(zi)交系胚(pei)挽(wan)救(jiu)(jiu)的(de)(de)影响。结(jie)(jie)果表(biao)明,参试材(cai)(cai)(cai)料平(ping)均(jun)败育率为37.59%;进行(xing)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)胚(pei)挽(wan)救(jiu)(jiu)培养(yang)的(de)(de)最佳(jia)(jia)取样时间(jian)(jian)为授粉后30 d;胚(pei)挽(wan)救(jiu)(jiu)培养(yang)的(de)(de)最佳(jia)(jia)培养(yang)基(ji)配方为MS+0.5 mg/L IAA +0.07 mg/L 6BA,蔗糖30 g/L,琼脂7 g/L,pH值5.8~6.1。对萌动的(de)(de)胚(pei)进行(xing)愈伤(shang)组(zu)织(zhi)诱导(dao)发(fa)现,参试材(cai)(cai)(cai)料平(ping)均(jun)诱导(dao)率为85.32%,愈伤(shang)组(zu)织(zhi)平(ping)均(jun)分化率为75.66%。研究以(yi)期为苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)胚(pei)挽(wan)救(jiu)(jiu)育种提供理论基(ji)础(chu),并为苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)特(te)异(yi)性(xing)状自(zi)交系结(jie)(jie)实率低等方面的(de)(de)研究提供有效的(de)(de)解决途径。
坝上地区紫花苜蓿土壤有效磷、钾丰缺指标初探
2011, 5(2): 231-235.
[摘要](1582) [PDF 587KB](743)
摘要:
从坝(ba)上(shang)地(di)区(qu)的(de)(de)17个(ge)土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)样品中(zhong)选取养(yang)分含量差异较大的(de)(de)5个(ge)地(di)点的(de)(de)土(tu)壤(rang)(rang),进行盆栽试验,设全(quan)肥(fei)(施N、P、K肥(fei))、缺(que)(que)磷、缺(que)(que)钾(jia)和(he)不施肥(fei)的(de)(de)4个(ge)处理,初步探索坝(ba)上(shang)地(di)区(qu)紫(zi)花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)磷、钾(jia)丰缺(que)(que)指标。结果表明(ming),用(yong)坝(ba)上(shang)地(di)区(qu)土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)种植紫(zi)花苜蓿,土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)效(xiao)磷极(ji)缺(que)(que)、缺(que)(que)、中(zhong)等、丰富(fu)和(he)极(ji)丰富(fu)的(de)(de)指标依(yi)次(ci)为<3.5、3.5~9.8、9.8~21.4、21.4~27.7和(he)>27.7 mg/kg;有(you)(you)效(xiao)钾(jia)极(ji)缺(que)(que)、缺(que)(que)、中(zhong)等、丰富(fu)和(he)极(ji)丰富(fu)的(de)(de)指标依(yi)次(ci)为<2.4、2.4~15.6、15.6~63.4、63.4~101.2和(he)>101.2 mg/kg。
石油污染对紫花苜蓿部分生理指标的影响
2011, 5(2): 236-240.
[摘要](1520) [PDF 588KB](798)
摘要:
本研究以紫花苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)为(wei)(wei)材料,观测(ce)其对(dui)(dui)石(shi)油污(wu)染的耐受性(xing),研究不同质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)(fen)数(shu)(shu)的石(shi)油污(wu)染(0、2 500、5 000、7 500 mg/kg)对(dui)(dui)紫花苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)生长和生理指(zhi)标的影响,从(cong)而(er)初(chu)步了解(jie)紫花苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)对(dui)(dui)石(shi)油污(wu)染土壤的生物(wu)修(xiu)复(fu)机制。结果显示,随着(zhe)石(shi)油处理质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)(fen)数(shu)(shu)的增加,紫花苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)的生长受到(dao)明显抑制,其株(zhu)高、叶片(pian)数(shu)(shu)、地上干(gan)物(wu)质(zhi)(zhi)和根(gen)系干(gan)物(wu)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)与(yu)(yu)对(dui)(dui)照比较明显降低。叶片(pian)可(ke)溶性(xing)蛋(dan)白、淀(dian)粉(fen)、丙二醛等均随着(zhe)石(shi)油质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)(fen)数(shu)(shu)的提高呈先(xian)上升(sheng)后下(xia)降趋势;可(ke)溶性(xing)蛋(dan)白含(han)量(liang)(liang)在(zai)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)(fen)数(shu)(shu)超过7 500 mg/kg时开始下(xia)降,淀(dian)粉(fen)含(han)量(liang)(liang)在(zai)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)(fen)数(shu)(shu)为(wei)(wei)5 000 mg/kg时达到(dao)最大值,丙二醛含(han)量(liang)(liang)在(zai)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)(fen)数(shu)(shu)为(wei)(wei)2 500 mg/kg时达到(dao)最高;混油的3组(zu)处理的叶绿素含(han)量(liang)(liang)与(yu)(yu)对(dui)(dui)照组(zu)相比都(dou)有不同程度地上升(sheng)。
奇台苏丹草种皮不同色泽类型与种子产量形成的关系
2011, 5(2): 241-244.
[摘要](1765) [PDF 434KB](765)
摘要:
为(wei)了探索苏丹草(cao)种(zhong)皮不同(tong)色(se)泽类型间种(zhong)子(zi)产(chan)量差异,试验以奇(qi)台苏丹草(cao)(Sorghum sudanense cv.Qitai)种(zhong)子(zi)的(de)(de)黑(hei)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)、红壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)、黄(huang)(huang)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)3种(zhong)色(se)泽类型为(wei)材料,研究了生育期、形态(tai)及种(zhong)子(zi)产(chan)量构成等指(zhi)标。结(jie)果表明(ming),黑(hei)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)生产(chan)的(de)(de)种(zhong)子(zi)的(de)(de)千粒重最大,红壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)次之,黄(huang)(huang)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)最低(di),分(fen)别为(wei)14.66、13.36和12.77 g。黑(hei)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)的(de)(de)单(dan)株籽粒数(shu)最多,黄(huang)(huang)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)次之,红壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)最低(di),分(fen)别为(wei)1 319、1 217和908 粒。黑(hei)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)的(de)(de)单(dan)株种(zhong)子(zi)产(chan)量最高(gao)、黄(huang)(huang)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)次之、红壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)最低(di),分(fen)别为(wei)18.59、16.29和14.65 g。黑(hei)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)产(chan)量最高(gao),红壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)次之,黄(huang)(huang)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)最低(di),分(fen)别为(wei)3 593.52、2 654.89和2 649.60 kg/hm2。
盐碱胁迫对芨芨草种子萌发的影响
2011, 5(2): 245-250.
[摘要](1541) [PDF 567KB](852)
摘要:
研究了5种(zhong)(zhong)盐(yan)(yan)碱(NaCl、Na2SO4、NaHCO3、Na2CO3及(ji)该4种(zhong)(zhong)盐(yan)(yan)按(an)1∶9∶9∶1的(de)(de)(de)物质的(de)(de)(de)量(liang)比例(li)配(pei)置(zhi)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)混(hun)(hun)合溶液)及(ji)其在(zai)不(bu)同(tong)浓(nong)度(du)处理下(xia)(xia)对芨(ji)(ji)芨(ji)(ji)草(Achnatherum splendens)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响。结(jie)果表(biao)明,在(zai)不(bu)同(tong)盐(yan)(yan)碱处理下(xia)(xia),随(sui)着浓(nong)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)加,种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽率、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽势、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽指数逐渐降低(di)(di),种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)抑(yi)制作用逐渐增(zeng)强。低(di)(di)浓(nong)度(du)(80 mmol/L)的(de)(de)(de)NaHCO3和混(hun)(hun)合盐(yan)(yan)能够促进种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)。不(bu)同(tong)盐(yan)(yan)碱对芨(ji)(ji)芨(ji)(ji)草种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)(de)抑(yi)制作用表(biao)现(xian)为碳(tan)酸盐(yan)(yan)混(hun)(hun)合盐(yan)(yan)硫酸盐(yan)(yan)碳(tan)酸氢盐(yan)(yan)氯化盐(yan)(yan)。种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)趋势表(biao)现(xian)为种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)初始天数推迟;种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)达到高峰(feng)时(shi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽数降低(di)(di)。
黄顶菊对2种蔬菜种子和幼苗的化感效应
2011, 5(2): 251-254.
[摘要](1692) [PDF 484KB](777)
摘要:
为了(le)解黄顶(ding)菊(ju)(ju)(Flaveria bidentis)对(dui)(dui)(dui)2种蔬菜(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)[油(you)(you)菜(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)(Brassica napus)和(he)(he)油(you)(you)麦(Lactuca sativa)]的(de)(de)化(hua)感(gan)作用(yong),研(yan)究了(le)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)质量(liang)(liang)分数的(de)(de)黄顶(ding)菊(ju)(ju)水浸(jin)提液(ye)的(de)(de)化(hua)感(gan)效(xiao)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)。结果(guo)表明,黄顶(ding)菊(ju)(ju)浸(jin)提液(ye)对(dui)(dui)(dui)油(you)(you)麦种子(zi)发芽率和(he)(he)发芽速度指数均有显著的(de)(de)抑(yi)制效(xiao)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying),而对(dui)(dui)(dui)油(you)(you)菜(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)影响不(bu)显著;黄顶(ding)菊(ju)(ju)浸(jin)提液(ye)能显著抑(yi)制油(you)(you)菜(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)、油(you)(you)麦幼苗的(de)(de)根(gen)长和(he)(he)苗高。综合各项指标,黄顶(ding)菊(ju)(ju)对(dui)(dui)(dui)2种蔬菜(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)的(de)(de)化(hua)感(gan)综合效(xiao)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(SE)随黄顶(ding)菊(ju)(ju)根(gen)、茎叶浸(jin)提液(ye)质量(liang)(liang)分数的(de)(de)增加而增大,对(dui)(dui)(dui)同(tong)(tong)一受(shou)试植物而言,黄顶(ding)菊(ju)(ju)根(gen)的(de)(de)浸(jin)提液(ye)化(hua)感(gan)效(xiao)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)大于(yu)茎叶化(hua)感(gan)效(xiao)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying);油(you)(you)麦受(shou)黄顶(ding)菊(ju)(ju)化(hua)感(gan)抑(yi)制作用(yong)的(de)(de)影响大于(yu)油(you)(you)菜(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai);黄顶(ding)菊(ju)(ju)对(dui)(dui)(dui)油(you)(you)菜(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)、油(you)(you)麦根(gen)部生(sheng)长的(de)(de)影响大于(yu)地(di)上部。不(bu)同(tong)(tong)生(sheng)长时(shi)期对(dui)(dui)(dui)化(hua)感(gan)物质的(de)(de)敏(min)(min)感(gan)程度不(bu)同(tong)(tong),苗期比发芽期敏(min)(min)感(gan)。
川东地区白三叶引种适应性试验研究
2011, 5(2): 255-259.
[摘要](1414) [PDF 500KB](714)
摘要:
从2003年(nian)开始(shi),在(zai)四川(chuan)达州试(shi)验点连续5年(nian)对(dui)拉丁诺和胡(hu)依(yi)阿(a)两品(pin)种(zhong)白三(san)叶(ye)(Trifolium repens)生长发育、根系生长情况、茎叶(ye)比、草(cao)产(chan)量(liang)以及种(zhong)子产(chan)量(liang)进行观察(cha)测定(ding)。结果表明,两品(pin)种(zhong)较(jiao)为适(shi)应川(chuan)东(dong)地区的(de)夏季(ji)高温(wen)伏(fu)旱(han)天气,能(neng)完成(cheng)整个(ge)生育周期,全年(nian)生长,无(wu)明显枯黄(huang)期,青绿期320 d以上,越(yue)夏率100%,抗病(bing)力强;具有较(jiao)高且稳(wen)定(ding)的(de)草(cao)产(chan)量(liang),年(nian)均鲜草(cao)产(chan)量(liang)拉丁诺87 784 kg/hm2,胡(hu)依(yi)阿(a)89 865 kg/hm2,年(nian)均干草(cao)产(chan)量(liang)前者(zhe)12 483 kg/hm2,后者(zhe)12 847 kg/hm2;较(jiao)适(shi)于川(chuan)东(dong)伏(fu)旱(han)高温(wen)区开展(zhan)栽培(pei)草(cao)地建设,但不适(shi)于生产(chan)种(zhong)子。
施肥对黑麦草生长和产量的影响
2011, 5(2): 260-265.
[摘要](1451) [PDF 638KB](859)
摘要:
通(tong)过大田试验(yan),研究了(le)不同施(shi)(shi)(shi)肥(fei)(fei)措(cuo)施(shi)(shi)(shi)对(dui)(dui)一年生黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Lolium multiflorum)生长、叶(ye)绿(lv)素含(han)量(liang)和(he)(he)鲜(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产量(liang)的(de)(de)影响。结果(guo)表明,氮磷钾肥(fei)(fei)配合施(shi)(shi)(shi)用(NPK)、等氮量(liang)的(de)(de)有机肥(fei)(fei)(OM)处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)均显著(zhu)促进黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)生长和(he)(he)提高其鲜(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产量(liang)。NPK处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)分(fen)蘖数、株高、表观(guan)叶(ye)面积较不施(shi)(shi)(shi)肥(fei)(fei)对(dui)(dui)照(CK)、不施(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(PK)和(he)(he)不施(shi)(shi)(shi)磷(NK)处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)均有显著(zhu)增加(jia)(jia),OM处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)与NPK处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)生长状况(kuang)基(ji)本一致。NPK和(he)(he)OM处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)明显提高黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)叶(ye)片叶(ye)绿(lv)素含(han)量(liang),NPK处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)叶(ye)绿(lv)素a含(han)量(liang)分(fen)别比CK、PK、NK和(he)(he)不施(shi)(shi)(shi)钾(NP)处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)增加(jia)(jia)了(le)205.6%、189.5%、29.9%和(he)(he)3.1%,叶(ye)绿(lv)素b含(han)量(liang)分(fen)别增加(jia)(jia)了(le)292.3%、218.8%、50.0%和(he)(he)2.0%,OM处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)和(he)(he)NPK处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)效(xiao)果(guo)相当(dang)。NPK处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)鲜(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产量(liang)分(fen)别比CK、PK、NK和(he)(he)NP处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)增加(jia)(jia)了(le)255.0%、329.1%、37.5%和(he)(he)9.0%。N、P、K 3种养分(fen)的(de)(de)施(shi)(shi)(shi)用效(xiao)果(guo)顺(shun)序(xu)为(wei)NPK,有机肥(fei)(fei)施(shi)(shi)(shi)用效(xiao)果(guo)与NPK化肥(fei)(fei)配合施(shi)(shi)(shi)用处(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)基(ji)本相当(dang)。
根竞争对窄叶野豌豆生长的影响: 公共的悲剧?
2011, 5(2): 266-272.
[摘要](1326) [PDF 637KB](855)
摘要:
以甘南高寒草甸常见牧草窄(zhai)叶(ye)野(ye)豌豆(Vicia angustifolia)为研究(jiu)(jiu)对象,探讨不同营养、分(fen)割和(he)活性炭(tan)条(tiao)件下,是否存在公(gong)共(gong)的(de)(de)悲(bei)剧以及根(gen)识别的(de)(de)机制。研究(jiu)(jiu)发现,营养只对繁殖(zhi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)有(you)显(xian)著(zhu)的(de)(de)影(ying)响(xiang),分(fen)割和(he)活性炭(tan)对大多(duo)数(shu)检验参数(shu)都有(you)显(xian)著(zhu)的(de)(de)影(ying)响(xiang);与没有(you)邻体的(de)(de)个(ge)体相比(bi),有(you)邻体的(de)(de)个(ge)体明(ming)显(xian)产生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)了(le)较多(duo)的(de)(de)根(gen)、冠、总生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)、繁殖(zhi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)、花的(de)(de)数(shu)量(liang)(liang)和(he)荚果(guo)数(shu)量(liang)(liang)以及较高的(de)(de)繁殖(zhi)与总生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)比(bi)值(zhi),表明(ming)窄(zhai)叶(ye)野(ye)豌豆生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)分(fen)配(pei)对于根(gen)竞争(zheng)的(de)(de)响(xiang)应(ying)不存在公(gong)共(gong)的(de)(de)悲(bei)剧,根(gen)的(de)(de)投资与繁殖(zhi)分(fen)配(pei)不存在权衡;另外,窄(zhai)叶(ye)野(ye)豌豆的(de)(de)识别机制是通过化感作(zuo)用。
甘肃中华羊茅内生真菌形态多样性
2011, 5(2): 273-278.
[摘要](1588) [PDF 568KB](986)
摘要:
本(ben)研究以采自甘(gan)肃(su)夏河(he)桑(sang)科草原和甘(gan)加(jia)草原的野生(sheng)中(zhong)华羊(yang)茅(Festuca sinensis)为材(cai)料,通(tong)过对种子(zi)和茎髓部内生(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)带菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)的检测,并在PDA培(pei)养(yang)(yang)基(ji)(ji)上进行分(fen)(fen)离培(pei)养(yang)(yang),总共得到48个(ge)内生(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)。再(zai)经水(shui)琼脂培(pei)养(yang)(yang)基(ji)(ji)次级培(pei)养(yang)(yang)以促(cu)进产孢(bao),依据菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)落生(sheng)长(zhang)形(xing)(xing)态(tai)、分(fen)(fen)生(sheng)孢(bao)子(zi)、分(fen)(fen)生(sheng)孢(bao)子(zi)梗等(deng)形(xing)(xing)态(tai)学特征的观察与测定,最终可将其分(fen)(fen)为3个(ge)形(xing)(xing)态(tai)群。其中(zhong),13个(ge)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)属ZHYMⅠ形(xing)(xing)态(tai)群,20个(ge)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)属ZHYMⅡ形(xing)(xing)态(tai)群,15个(ge)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)属ZHYMⅢ形(xing)(xing)态(tai)群。分(fen)(fen)离自中(zhong)华羊(yang)茅的48个(ge)内生(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)的形(xing)(xing)态(tai)学多样性十分(fen)(fen)显(xian)著。
北京地区结缕草锈病流行规律及种质抗病性鉴定
2011, 5(2): 279-285.
[摘要](1440) [PDF 799KB](854)
摘要:
本(ben)研(yan)(yan)究以(yi)采集自6个不同地点的(de)(de)(de)162个结(jie)缕草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Zoysia japonica)植株(zhu)为(wei)(wei)研(yan)(yan)究材料(liao),于2008-2009年(nian)对参(can)试材料(liao)在北京(jing)地区的(de)(de)(de)锈(xiu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)原菌、病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)害流行规律以(yi)及(ji)植株(zhu)抗(kang)(kang)(kang)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)性进行了评价。结(jie)果表明(ming),1)引起(qi)锈(xiu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)的(de)(de)(de)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)原菌均为(wei)(wei)结(jie)缕草(cao)(cao)(cao)柄(bing)锈(xiu)菌(Puccinia zoysiae);2)北京(jing)地区结(jie)缕草(cao)(cao)(cao)锈(xiu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)情(qing)指数(shu)整体(ti)呈单(dan)(dan)峰型发(fa)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)特点,病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)情(qing)始发(fa)期(qi)(qi)集中于6月初(chu)-7月中旬(xun),发(fa)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)高峰期(qi)(qi)在9月中旬(xun)-10月上(shang)旬(xun),11月底随着(zhe)植株(zhu)枯黄期(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)到(dao)来(lai),病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)情(qing)发(fa)展逐渐停止;3)从参(can)试材料(liao)中,初(chu)步确定(ding)了3个具有抗(kang)(kang)(kang)锈(xiu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)性状(zhuang)表现差(cha)异的(de)(de)(de)材料(liao)群体(ti)SD1、SD2和(he)SD3,筛选(xuan)出14个抗(kang)(kang)(kang)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)的(de)(de)(de)单(dan)(dan)株(zhu)和(he)29个感(gan)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)的(de)(de)(de)单(dan)(dan)株(zhu)。本(ben)研(yan)(yan)究结(jie)果为(wei)(wei)我国结(jie)缕草(cao)(cao)(cao)抗(kang)(kang)(kang)锈(xiu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)选(xuan)育及(ji)遗(yi)传(chuan)研(yan)(yan)究提(ti)供了病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)理学依据(ju)和(he)适(shi)合的(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)质材料(liao)
气候变化对西北地区生态环境影响的若干进展
2011, 5(2): 286-295.
[摘要](1865) [PDF 1237KB](1025)
摘要:
全(quan)(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)变(bian)化(hua)与(yu)陆(lu)地生(sheng)态(tai)(tai)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)是当(dang)(dang)前全(quan)(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)变(bian)化(hua)研(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)究(jiu)的重(zhong)要内容,气(qi)(qi)候(hou)(hou)变(bian)化(hua)对(dui)陆(lu)地生(sheng)态(tai)(tai)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的影(ying)响(xiang)及(ji)反(fan)馈(kui)一直是全(quan)(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)变(bian)化(hua)研(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)究(jiu)的焦点问题(ti)之一。本研(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)究(jiu)总结(jie)了有关气(qi)(qi)候(hou)(hou)变(bian)化(hua)对(dui)西(xi)北(bei)地区(qu)生(sheng)态(tai)(tai)环境影(ying)响(xiang)研(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)究(jiu)的趋势,分别通(tong)过气(qi)(qi)候(hou)(hou)变(bian)化(hua)对(dui)植被(bei)、生(sheng)物(wu)多样性(xing)、湿地以及(ji)水资源(yuan)等方面影(ying)响(xiang)研(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)究(jiu)的动(dong)态(tai)(tai),阐述了西(xi)北(bei)地区(qu)生(sheng)态(tai)(tai)环境对(dui)气(qi)(qi)候(hou)(hou)变(bian)化(hua)的响(xiang)应,对(dui)存在(zai)的问题(ti)进(jin)行了探(tan)讨,并结(jie)合当(dang)(dang)前研(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)究(jiu)状(zhuang)况(kuang)提出西(xi)北(bei)地区(qu)应对(dui)气(qi)(qi)候(hou)(hou)变(bian)化(hua)的对(dui)策及(ji)措施。
种子超干贮存研究进展
2011, 5(2): 296-303.
[摘要](1335) [PDF 887KB](847)
摘要:
种子(zi)超干贮(zhu)存即采取低含水量(liang)种子(zi)密(mi)闭贮(zhu)藏(zang)在(zai)常(chang)温条件下的方法,以达到部(bu)分(fen)或全部(bu)取代(dai)低温库(ku)的目的。超干贮(zhu)存能提高种子(zi)的耐藏(zang)稳定性,但并不是越(yue)低越(yue)好(hao),蛋白(bai)质、抗氧化系(xi)统、糖、细胞膜系(xi)统都与(yu)种子(zi)的耐脱水性有关,种子(zi)超干贮(zhu)存不仅要提高种子(zi)生活力还要保持种子(zi)的遗传稳定性。
动物生产层
8种生物农药对草原蝗虫的田间防治效果评价
2011, 5(2): 304-307.
[摘要](1735) [PDF 490KB](789)
摘要:
应用(yong)4种(zhong)绿僵(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)菌、白僵(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)菌、0.3%印(yin)楝素(su)、1%苦参碱和森(sen)得保(bao)8种(zhong)生物(wu)(wu)农(nong)药(yao)对草(cao)原蝗虫(chong)进(jin)行了田间药(yao)效(xiao)(xiao)对比(bi)试验,以期筛选出防效(xiao)(xiao)较(jiao)好的生物(wu)(wu)农(nong)药(yao)用(yong)于(yu)大(da)面(mian)积推广。研究表明,0.3%印(yin)楝素(su)、1%苦参碱和森(sen)得保(bao)防治效(xiao)(xiao)果显(xian)著优于(yu)其(qi)他5种(zhong)生物(wu)(wu)杀虫(chong)剂(ji),药(yao)后11 d防效(xiao)(xiao)均(jun)在90%以上。几种(zhong)杀蝗绿僵(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)菌油悬(xuan)浮剂(ji)药(yao)后11 d防效(xiao)(xiao)在65%以上,白僵(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)菌油悬(xuan)浮剂(ji)防效(xiao)(xiao)较(jiao)差。杀蝗绿僵(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)菌、印(yin)楝素(su)、苦参碱和森(sen)得保(bao)几种(zhong)药(yao)剂(ji)均(jun)为高效(xiao)(xiao)、低毒的生物(wu)(wu)农(nong)药(yao)和植物(wu)(wu)源农(nong)药(yao),可以替代化学农(nong)药(yao)用(yong)于(yu)草(cao)原蝗虫(chong)的防治。
草地蝗虫防治的经济阈值与生态阈值研究进展
2011, 5(2): 308-312.
[摘要](1341) [PDF 699KB](769)
摘要:
进入(ru)21世纪以(yi)来,我国(guo)草(cao)地蝗灾连年发(fa)生,严重威胁着畜牧业发(fa)展和(he)北方生态(tai)(tai)安(an)全(quan)。经济(ji)阈(yu)(yu)值和(he)生态(tai)(tai)阈(yu)(yu)值作为(wei)蝗虫防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)的决(jue)策(ce)依(yi)据,是草(cao)地植保领(ling)域(yu)的重要研(yan)(yan)究课题之一。对国(guo)内外有关害虫防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)经济(ji)阈(yu)(yu)值和(he)生态(tai)(tai)阈(yu)(yu)值的概念及理(li)论进行了(le)概述整(zheng)理(li),全(quan)面(mian)总结了(le)我国(guo)在(zai)草(cao)地蝗虫防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)经济(ji)阈(yu)(yu)值与生态(tai)(tai)阈(yu)(yu)值方面(mian)的研(yan)(yan)究进展,分析了(le)2个阈(yu)(yu)值在(zai)实际应用中的关系。目前,本领(ling)域(yu)研(yan)(yan)究缺乏系统(tong)性(xing)和(he)持续性(xing),难以(yi)有效指导草(cao)地上复杂的蝗虫灾变形(xing)势,为(wei)此对今后的研(yan)(yan)究提(ti)出(chu)了(le)几点建议。
后生物生产层
草地股份制合作经营模式探索 以甘肃玛曲县为例
杨春雷
2011, 5(2): 313-318.
[摘要](1830) [PDF 916KB](843)
摘要:
青(qing)藏高原东端玛(ma)曲县草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)家(jia)庭(ting)承(cheng)包完成(cheng)了第一步(bu),为发展(zhan)该牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)区(qu)经(jing)济奠(dian)定了基础,但(dan)在(zai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)生态和牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)民(min)生产(chan)生活方(fang)面还存(cun)在(zai)一定问(wen)(wen)题(ti)。为此,该区(qu)在(zai)继承(cheng)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)家(jia)庭(ting)承(cheng)包取得的(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)果产(chan)权落实(shi)的(de)(de)(de)基础上,参考玛(ma)曲县部分牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)村草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)家(jia)庭(ting)承(cheng)包后草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)按(an)股(gu)(gu)份(fen)(fen)利用的(de)(de)(de)方(fang)式,引用股(gu)(gu)份(fen)(fen)制(zhi)(zhi)整(zheng)合(he)资(zi)源、股(gu)(gu)份(fen)(fen)管(guan)理(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)机制(zhi)(zhi),探索建立(li)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)股(gu)(gu)份(fen)(fen)制(zhi)(zhi)合(he)作(zuo)经(jing)营管(guan)理(li)(li)模(mo)式冬春草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)股(gu)(gu)份(fen)(fen)制(zhi)(zhi)联户合(he)作(zuo)经(jing)营、夏秋草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)股(gu)(gu)份(fen)(fen)制(zhi)(zhi)集体(自然村)统(tong)一经(jing)营管(guan)理(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)双(shuang)重机制(zhi)(zhi)模(mo)式,平衡草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)生态保护、牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)民(min)生产(chan)和生活三者之(zhi)间和谐统(tong)筹(chou)发展(zhan)问(wen)(wen)题(ti),以期完善青(qing)藏高原地(di)(di)(di)区(qu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)家(jia)庭(ting)承(cheng)包,促进生态草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)畜牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)业可持(chi)续(xu)发展(zhan)。
青藏高原牧草太阳能烘干温室及干燥装置的设计
2011, 5(2): 319-322.
[摘要](1311) [PDF 510KB](759)
摘要:
为了(le)(le)低(di)成本的(de)干(gan)(gan)燥(zao)(zao)新鲜(xian)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao),本研(yan)究(jiu)设(she)计(ji)了(le)(le)以青藏(zang)高原丰(feng)富的(de)太(tai)阳能(neng)资源(yuan)为干(gan)(gan)燥(zao)(zao)能(neng)源(yuan)的(de)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)烘干(gan)(gan)温(wen)室及干(gan)(gan)燥(zao)(zao)装置(zhi)。该装置(zhi)用太(tai)阳能(neng)空(kong)(kong)气(qi)集(ji)热(re)器加热(re)空(kong)(kong)气(qi),热(re)空(kong)(kong)气(qi)进入高温(wen)温(wen)室,对(dui)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)进行加热(re)干(gan)(gan)燥(zao)(zao)。将它与小型滚筒式牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)干(gan)(gan)燥(zao)(zao)机相结合,可(ke)提(ti)高工作效率(lv),节约常(chang)规能(neng)耗(hao),显著(zhu)地降低(di)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)干(gan)(gan)燥(zao)(zao)成本,有(you)效解决(jue)青藏(zang)高原新鲜(xian)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)的(de)干(gan)(gan)燥(zao)(zao)问题。
添加剂对柠条青贮影响的研究
2011, 5(2): 323-326.
[摘要](1601) [PDF 463KB](785)
摘要:
为探讨不(bu)同添(tian)加(jia)(jia)剂对柠(ning)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(Caragana korshinskii)青(qing)贮的影响,以(yi)(yi)开(kai)花期柠(ning)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)为原料(liao),分(fen)别设计对照、添(tian)加(jia)(jia)甲(jia)酸(suan)(6 mL/kg)或蔗(zhe)(zhe)糖(tang)(2%)处理(li),袋装密封青(qing)贮360 d后(hou)取样(yang)分(fen)析。结果表明,添(tian)加(jia)(jia)蔗(zhe)(zhe)糖(tang)和(he)甲(jia)酸(suan)能改善柠(ning)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)青(qing)贮饲(si)料(liao)的发酵品(pin)(pin)质。添(tian)加(jia)(jia)蔗(zhe)(zhe)糖(tang)显著降低青(qing)贮饲(si)料(liao)的pH值(P0.05),极显著增加(jia)(jia)乳(ru)酸(suan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)降低氨态氮(dan)(dan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(P0.01)。添(tian)加(jia)(jia)甲(jia)酸(suan)极显著增加(jia)(jia)柠(ning)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)青(qing)贮饲(si)料(liao)的乳(ru)酸(suan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang),降低氨态氮(dan)(dan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(P0.01)。添(tian)加(jia)(jia)甲(jia)酸(suan)或蔗(zhe)(zhe)糖(tang)显著提(ti)高柠(ning)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)青(qing)贮饲(si)料(liao)的干物质保(bao)存率(P0.05)。青(qing)贮之后(hou),硝酸(suan)盐含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)下(xia)降。说明柠(ning)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)青(qing)贮时添(tian)加(jia)(jia)蔗(zhe)(zhe)糖(tang)或甲(jia)酸(suan),可以(yi)(yi)获得(de)发酵品(pin)(pin)质良好的青(qing)贮饲(si)料(liao)。
基层园地
甘肃苜蓿产业化存在的主要问题和发展趋势
2011, 5(2): 327-330.
[摘要](1372) [PDF 635KB](797)
摘要:
甘肃(su)是全(quan)国(guo)的(de)草(cao)(cao)(cao)业(ye)(ye)大(da)省,栽(zai)培草(cao)(cao)(cao)地面(mian)积居全(quan)国(guo)第二,苜蓿(Medicago spp.)种植面(mian)积居全(quan)国(guo)第一,草(cao)(cao)(cao)业(ye)(ye)科技(ji)在全(quan)国(guo)占(zhan)有(you)(you)重要地位,但还(hai)没有(you)(you)把资源优(you)势变为(wei)(wei)经济优(you)势。草(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)业(ye)(ye)还(hai)面(mian)临产(chan)业(ye)(ye)化的(de)巨大(da)投(tou)资需(xu)求(qiu)(qiu)与(yu)(yu)实(shi)际投(tou)入严重不足的(de)问(wen)题;市场对产(chan)品(pin)(pin)的(de)要求(qiu)(qiu)和产(chan)品(pin)(pin)数量品(pin)(pin)质之(zhi)间的(de)问(wen)题;行业(ye)(ye)整(zheng)体效(xiao)益逐步提高(gao)与(yu)(yu)市场、自然(ran)条件双重风险的(de)问(wen)题;产(chan)品(pin)(pin)结构优(you)化升级(ji)需(xu)求(qiu)(qiu)与(yu)(yu)科研投(tou)入管理滞后的(de)问(wen)题。表(biao)现(xian)为(wei)(wei)栽(zai)培草(cao)(cao)(cao)地建设依然(ran)呈减(jian)少趋势;草(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)品(pin)(pin)市场依然(ran)活跃,价格稳中有(you)(you)升;种草(cao)(cao)(cao)养(yang)畜(chu)继续保持良好发展势头。
陇东黄土高原草地农业资源利用现状分析 以甘肃环县为例
2011, 5(2): 331-333.
[摘要](1552) [PDF 487KB](775)
摘要:
甘肃环县(xian)位(wei)于典型(xing)的(de)(de)黄土高原农(nong)(nong)牧交错带,不合理(li)的(de)(de)农(nong)(nong)业结构和资源不当利(li)用(yong)一直羁绊着该县(xian)农(nong)(nong)业系(xi)(xi)统的(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展。通过了解当地(di)(di)自然(ran)资源和草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)农(nong)(nong)业结构现状,分析当地(di)(di)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)资源优势(shi),认(ren)为合理(li)利(li)用(yong)和保护(hu)建设天然(ran)草(cao)(cao)原,大(da)力进行栽培草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)建设,重视农(nong)(nong)作物秸秆合理(li)利(li)用(yong),对促进畜牧业可持(chi)续(xu)发(fa)(fa)展,维护(hu)自然(ran)生态系(xi)(xi)统有着重要意义。
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