欧宝体育

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2012年29卷11期

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前植物生产层
不同林龄油茶林土壤酶活性及养分特征
2012, 6(11): 1647-1654.
[摘要](1178) [PDF 848KB](738)
摘要:
基于对(dui)江西不同(tong)(tong)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)龄(ling)(ling)(ling)油(you)(you)(you)茶(cha)(cha)(cha)(Camellia oleifera)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)下土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)养(yang)分(fen)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)性的(de)测定,探(tan)讨了不同(tong)(tong)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)龄(ling)(ling)(ling)油(you)(you)(you)茶(cha)(cha)(cha)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)养(yang)分(fen)、酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)性特(te)征及其(qi)相互关系。结果(guo)表明,随着(zhe)土(tu)(tu)层逐(zhu)渐加深,油(you)(you)(you)茶(cha)(cha)(cha)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)养(yang)分(fen)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)逐(zhu)渐下降,过氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)氢(qing)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)、过氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)物(wu)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)和(he)蔗糖(tang)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)性均(jun)(jun)(jun)表现为夏(xia)季(ji)(ji)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于秋(qiu)季(ji)(ji)。随着(zhe)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)龄(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)增加,土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)养(yang)分(fen)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)及土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)性呈(cheng)规律性变化(hua)(hua),0~20 cm土(tu)(tu)层,6种林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)龄(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)油(you)(you)(you)茶(cha)(cha)(cha)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)和(he)无林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)地(di)对(dui)照中,夏(xia)季(ji)(ji)有机(ji)质(zhi)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)50(年(nian)(nian)(nian))龄(ling)(ling)(ling)油(you)(you)(you)茶(cha)(cha)(cha)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(G50yr)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),为3.89%;秋(qiu)季(ji)(ji)有机(ji)质(zhi)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)10(年(nian)(nian)(nian))龄(ling)(ling)(ling)油(you)(you)(you)茶(cha)(cha)(cha)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(D10yr)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),为2.25%;夏(xia)、秋(qiu)季(ji)(ji)过氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)氢(qing)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)性均(jun)(jun)(jun)以(yi)(yi)(yi)50(年(nian)(nian)(nian))龄(ling)(ling)(ling)油(you)(you)(you)茶(cha)(cha)(cha)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(G50yr)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),分(fen)别(bie)(bie)(bie)为2.12和(he)1.61 mLg-1。夏(xia)季(ji)(ji)过氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)物(wu)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)性和(he)蔗糖(tang)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)性均(jun)(jun)(jun)以(yi)(yi)(yi)6(年(nian)(nian)(nian))龄(ling)(ling)(ling)油(you)(you)(you)茶(cha)(cha)(cha)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(C6yr)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),分(fen)别(bie)(bie)(bie)为2.45 Ug-1和(he)3.43 mLg-1。20~40 cm土(tu)(tu)层,6种林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)龄(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)油(you)(you)(you)茶(cha)(cha)(cha)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)和(he)对(dui)照林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)分(fen)中,夏(xia)、秋(qiu)季(ji)(ji)有机(ji)质(zhi)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)均(jun)(jun)(jun)以(yi)(yi)(yi)50(年(nian)(nian)(nian))龄(ling)(ling)(ling)油(you)(you)(you)茶(cha)(cha)(cha)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(G50yr)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),分(fen)别(bie)(bie)(bie)为1.97%和(he)1.31%,夏(xia)、秋(qiu)季(ji)(ji)过氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)氢(qing)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)性均(jun)(jun)(jun)以(yi)(yi)(yi)50(年(nian)(nian)(nian))龄(ling)(ling)(ling)油(you)(you)(you)茶(cha)(cha)(cha)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(G50yr)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),分(fen)别(bie)(bie)(bie)为1.50 和(he)0.95 mLg-1,秋(qiu)季(ji)(ji)过氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)物(wu)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)和(he)蔗糖(tang)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)性均(jun)(jun)(jun)以(yi)(yi)(yi)C6yr最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),分(fen)别(bie)(bie)(bie)为2.22 Ug-1和(he)1.33 mLg-1。相关分(fen)析表明,不同(tong)(tong)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)龄(ling)(ling)(ling)油(you)(you)(you)茶(cha)(cha)(cha)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)各土(tu)(tu)层上土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)养(yang)分(fen)因(yin)子与土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)性之间(jian)呈(cheng)显(xian)著或极显(xian)著相关,过氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)氢(qing)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)、过氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)物(wu)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)、蔗糖(tang)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)可作为评(ping)价土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)及肥力(li)较好的(de)生物(wu)学参考指标。
开垦种草对高寒草甸土壤理化性质的影响
2012, 6(11): 1655-1659.
[摘要](1173) [PDF 319KB](706)
摘要:
对玛曲高寒草(cao)(cao)甸天然(ran)草(cao)(cao)地及(ji)开(kai)(kai)(kai)垦种草(cao)(cao)8年(nian)和20年(nian)草(cao)(cao)地土(tu)(tu)壤理(li)化性质进行(xing)了(le)比(bi)较(jiao)研究。结果表明,土(tu)(tu)壤含(han)水量天然(ran)草(cao)(cao)地显著(zhu)高于开(kai)(kai)(kai)垦种草(cao)(cao)8年(nian)草(cao)(cao)地;土(tu)(tu)壤容(rong)重0~10 cm土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)天然(ran)草(cao)(cao)地显著(zhu)高于开(kai)(kai)(kai)垦种草(cao)(cao)20年(nian)草(cao)(cao)地;0~60 cm土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)土(tu)(tu)壤有(you)机碳(tan)含(han)量天然(ran)草(cao)(cao)地显著(zhu)高于开(kai)(kai)(kai)垦种草(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)地,比(bi)开(kai)(kai)(kai)垦种草(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)地高38.66%。土(tu)(tu)壤全氮(dan)(dan)、速(su)效(xiao)氮(dan)(dan)、全磷和速(su)效(xiao)磷含(han)量天然(ran)草(cao)(cao)地显著(zhu)高于开(kai)(kai)(kai)垦种草(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)地。土(tu)(tu)壤全氮(dan)(dan)、速(su)效(xiao)氮(dan)(dan)和全磷含(han)量随开(kai)(kai)(kai)垦种草(cao)(cao)年(nian)限增加逐(zhu)渐下降(jiang)。各样地土(tu)(tu)壤全氮(dan)(dan)、速(su)效(xiao)氮(dan)(dan)与土(tu)(tu)壤有(you)机碳(tan)呈显著(zhu)正相关关系。
西藏阿里草地资源现状及载畜量
2012, 6(11): 1660-1664.
[摘要](1236) [PDF 406KB](753)
摘要:
以西藏阿里(li)地(di)(di)区(qu)草地(di)(di)为(wei)研究对(dui)象,对(dui)草地(di)(di)资源概况、草地(di)(di)资源类(lei)型和草地(di)(di)载(zai)(zai)畜(chu)量等进(jin)行了分析。阿里(li)地(di)(di)区(qu)草地(di)(di)理论载(zai)(zai)畜(chu)量为(wei)299.37万(wan)(wan)绵羊(yang)单(dan)位,2010年实际(ji)载(zai)(zai)畜(chu)量为(wei)346.66万(wan)(wan)绵羊(yang)单(dan)位,实际(ji)载(zai)(zai)畜(chu)量与理论载(zai)(zai)畜(chu)量相比超载(zai)(zai)15.80%。通过分析认为(wei),阿里(li)地(di)(di)区(qu)应因地(di)(di)制宜地(di)(di)发展草地(di)(di)畜(chu)牧业,合理布局草地(di)(di)载(zai)(zai)畜(chu)量,科学利用草地(di)(di)资源,促进(jin)草地(di)(di)畜(chu)牧业可持(chi)续发展。
草地植被恢复措施对高寒草甸有毒植物的影响
2012, 6(11): 1665-1670.
[摘要](1034) [PDF 500KB](680)
摘要:
通过对(dui)(dui)高(gao)寒(han)草(cao)甸天然草(cao)地(di)(di)实施(shi)(shi)划(hua)破(po)(po)、补(bu)播(bo)、施(shi)(shi)肥(fei)及综合(he)(he)处理(li)(li),探讨了不(bu)同(tong)(tong)草(cao)地(di)(di)植被恢复(fu)措施(shi)(shi)对(dui)(dui)高(gao)寒(han)草(cao)甸有毒(du)(du)植物(wu)(wu)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)组(zu)成、多样性(xing)(xing)及生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)的影(ying)响。结果表明,不(bu)同(tong)(tong)处理(li)(li)草(cao)地(di)(di)中(zhong),有毒(du)(du)植物(wu)(wu)的组(zu)成及比例差异显著(P0.05)。与对(dui)(dui)照相比,补(bu)播(bo)、划(hua)破(po)(po)和(he)施(shi)(shi)肥(fei)均(jun)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)程度地(di)(di)降低了群落中(zhong)有毒(du)(du)植物(wu)(wu)的物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)数(shu)(shu)和(he)ShannonWiener指数(shu)(shu)(P0.05),不(bu)同(tong)(tong)处理(li)(li)草(cao)地(di)(di)有毒(du)(du)植物(wu)(wu)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)数(shu)(shu)和(he)ShannonWiener指数(shu)(shu)排序分别为(wei)补(bu)播(bo)施(shi)(shi)肥(fei)=综合(he)(he)处理(li)(li)划(hua)破(po)(po)对(dui)(dui)照,补(bu)播(bo)划(hua)破(po)(po)施(shi)(shi)肥(fei)对(dui)(dui)照综合(he)(he)处理(li)(li)。补(bu)播(bo)、施(shi)(shi)肥(fei)和(he)综合(he)(he)处理(li)(li)均(jun)可有效降低群落中(zhong)有毒(du)(du)植物(wu)(wu)的地(di)(di)上生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(P0.05),而草(cao)地(di)(di)划(hua)破(po)(po)在一(yi)定程度上增加了有毒(du)(du)植物(wu)(wu)的地(di)(di)上生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(P0.05),不(bu)同(tong)(tong)处理(li)(li)草(cao)地(di)(di)有毒(du)(du)植物(wu)(wu)地(di)(di)上生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)排序为(wei)补(bu)播(bo)综合(he)(he)处理(li)(li)施(shi)(shi)肥(fei)对(dui)(dui)照划(hua)破(po)(po)。补(bu)播(bo)形成的垂(chui)穗(sui)披(pi)碱草(cao)(Elymus nutans)单一(yi)优势(shi)群落使有毒(du)(du)植物(wu)(wu)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)数(shu)(shu)、物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)多样性(xing)(xing)及地(di)(di)上生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)均(jun)下降到(dao)最低值,对(dui)(dui)于(yu)毒(du)(du)杂草(cao)型退(tui)化草(cao)地(di)(di)的改良,草(cao)地(di)(di)补(bu)播(bo)是可供参考的有效恢复(fu)措施(shi)(shi)之一(yi)。
地毯草耐铝性初步评价
2012, 6(11): 1671-1677.
[摘要](1201) [PDF 618KB](646)
摘要:
本研究选取相(xiang)对(dui)总二(er)级分(fen)枝个数(shu)(shu)比(bi)、相(xiang)对(dui)总茎长比(bi)、叶(ye)片枯黄(huang)率、坪(ping)(ping)用(yong)质(zhi)量、相(xiang)对(dui)地(di)(di)上(shang)部干(gan)(gan)质(zhi)量比(bi)和(he)相(xiang)对(dui)地(di)(di)下(xia)部干(gan)(gan)质(zhi)量比(bi)6个指标(biao),对(dui)不同地(di)(di)理分(fen)布的19份地(di)(di)毯草(Axonopus compressus)种(zhong)质(zhi)和(he)1份品种(zhong)的耐(nai)(nai)铝(lv)性(xing)差(cha)异(yi)(yi)进行初(chu)步(bu)评价,从而明确地(di)(di)毯草种(zhong)质(zhi)的耐(nai)(nai)铝(lv)性(xing)。结(jie)果表明,在2.10 mmolL-1的铝(lv)处理后,不同种(zhong)质(zhi)之间(jian)的生长存在显(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05)或极显(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.01)差(cha)异(yi)(yi),不同指标(biao)间(jian)的变异(yi)(yi)系(xi)数(shu)(shu)范围为(wei)18.73%~39.63%,其中相(xiang)对(dui)地(di)(di)上(shang)部干(gan)(gan)质(zhi)量变异(yi)(yi)系(xi)数(shu)(shu)比(bi)最(zui)小(18.73%),而坪(ping)(ping)用(yong)质(zhi)量最(zui)大(da)(39.63%);部分(fen)指标(biao)间(jian)存在极显(xian)著(zhu)相(xiang)关(P<0.01),相(xiang)关系(xi)数(shu)(shu)最(zui)高达-0.920;聚(ju)类(lei)分(fen)析(xi)表明,20份优良品种(zhong)被分(fen)为(wei)三大(da)类(lei),即耐(nai)(nai)铝(lv)型、中间(jian)型和(he)敏铝(lv)型。
天祝县天然草地退化成因及对策分析
2012, 6(11): 1678-1683.
[摘要](1301) [PDF 535KB](664)
摘要:
2010年天(tian)祝县天(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)退(tui)化(hua)面积为23.00万hm2,占(zhan)草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)面积的58.76%,目前仍(reng)以每(mei)年1.33万hm2的速度(du)退(tui)化(hua)。草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)退(tui)化(hua)是自然(ran)(ran)因(yin)素和人(ren)为因(yin)素共同(tong)作用的结果,但(dan)超载过牧是主要(yao)原因(yin),它引起天(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)由轻度(du)退(tui)化(hua)向中度(du)和重度(du)退(tui)化(hua)演(yan)变(bian)。因(yin)此(ci),本研究(jiu)以控制载畜量(liang)、解决草(cao)畜矛盾为核心措施,提(ti)出天(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)综合治理对策,以促进天(tian)祝县天(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)走(zou)上可(ke)持续发展的道路,为祁连山草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)资(zi)源合理利(li)用和草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)退(tui)化(hua)防治提(ti)供(gong)技术参考。
草人诗记
二十一重读朱光潜《给青年的十二封信》
2012, 6(11): 1684-1685.
[摘要](945) [PDF 335KB](1533)
摘要:
植物生产层
不同产地麦冬遗传多样性的SRAP分析
2012, 6(11): 1686-1691.
[摘要](1068) [PDF 433KB](738)
摘要:
本(ben)研(yan)究使用SRAP分(fen)子标记技术对(dui)48份不同(tong)产地的麦冬进行遗(yi)传多样(yang)性(xing)(xing)分(fen)析(xi),筛选出(chu)11对(dui)有效(xiao)引物组合。11对(dui)引物组合共扩增(zeng)出(chu)621条清晰、可(ke)辨认条带(dai)(dai),平均每(mei)对(dui)引物扩增(zeng)出(chu)56.45条带(dai)(dai)纹(wen),多态(tai)性(xing)(xing)条带(dai)(dai)为(wei)621条,多态(tai)性(xing)(xing)位点百分(fen)率为(wei)100%,遗(yi)传相似(si)系数(GS)范(fan)围为(wei) 0.058 4~0.936 7,平均为(wei)0.497 5,说明供试材(cai)料(liao)具有丰富的遗(yi)传多样(yang)性(xing)(xing)。对(dui)所有材(cai)料(liao)聚(ju)类分(fen)析(xi)发现,在遗(yi)传距离(li)0.81处可(ke)将材(cai)料(liao)分(fen)为(wei)六大类群,部分(fen)来自同(tong)一地理位置的材(cai)料(liao)可(ke)聚(ju)为(wei)一类
苦豆子种质资源遗传多样性的RAPD分析
2012, 6(11): 1692-1697.
[摘要](1030) [PDF 500KB](557)
摘要:
为(wei)(wei)深(shen)入研(yan)究并(bing)充分利用(yong)(yong)野(ye)生(sheng)苦(ku)(ku)豆(dou)子(zi)(zi)(Sophora alopecuroides)资源(yuan)(yuan),本研(yan)究利用(yong)(yong)RAPD技术对22个(ge)苦(ku)(ku)豆(dou)子(zi)(zi)居群(qun)进行研(yan)究,从DNA水平探讨苦(ku)(ku)豆(dou)子(zi)(zi)种质资源(yuan)(yuan)的(de)遗(yi)(yi)(yi)传(chuan)多(duo)样性。结果表明,筛选得到的(de)31条RAPD随机引物共检测(ce)出(chu)314条扩增(zeng)DNA片(pian)段,其中(zhong)多(duo)态性条带285条,多(duo)态性比率为(wei)(wei)90.76%。Neis遗(yi)(yi)(yi)传(chuan)多(duo)样性指数(shu)(H)为(wei)(wei)0.301 5,Shannon信息(xi)指数(shu)(I)为(wei)(wei)0.453 1,遗(yi)(yi)(yi)传(chuan)距离变化范围(wei)为(wei)(wei)0.114~0.709,所研(yan)究的(de)苦(ku)(ku)豆(dou)子(zi)(zi)居群(qun)间(jian)具有丰富(fu)的(de)遗(yi)(yi)(yi)传(chuan)多(duo)样性。UPGMA聚类分析(xi)(xi)和主成分分析(xi)(xi)(PCA)结果显示,22个(ge)苦(ku)(ku)豆(dou)子(zi)(zi)居群(qun)聚为(wei)(wei)6类,不同居群(qun)间(jian)出(chu)现了一定的(de)遗(yi)(yi)(yi)传(chuan)分化。
30份野牛草种质的遗传多样性
2012, 6(11): 1698-1705.
[摘要](1299) [PDF 622KB](711)
摘要:
以从(cong)美国及中国收集的(de)(de)30份(fen)(fen)野(ye)牛草(cao)(cao)(Buchloe dactyloides)种质为研究对象,对供(gong)(gong)(gong)试(shi)(shi)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)的(de)(de)基本(ben)坪用(yong)性(xing)状如叶长(zhang)、叶宽、株高(gao)、茎(jing)粗、分(fen)蘖数、匍(pu)(pu)匐茎(jing)数量、匍(pu)(pu)匐茎(jing)长(zhang)度、匍(pu)(pu)匐茎(jing)节数、叶色、叶片枯黄程度等进(jin)行田间(jian)观测。利(li)用(yong)简单重(zhong)复序(xu)列(lie)(ISSR)分(fen)子标记技术(shu),对供(gong)(gong)(gong)试(shi)(shi)野(ye)牛草(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)遗(yi)传(chuan)(chuan)多样(yang)性(xing)进(jin)行分(fen)析。研究结(jie)果显(xian)示,1)供(gong)(gong)(gong)试(shi)(shi)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)的(de)(de)叶色呈现显(xian)著差异(yi)(yi)(P0.05),叶长(zhang)、叶宽、茎(jing)粗、株高(gao)、匍(pu)(pu)匐茎(jing)长(zhang)度和匍(pu)(pu)匐茎(jing)节数差异(yi)(yi)极显(xian)著(P0.01),分(fen)蘖数、匍(pu)(pu)匐茎(jing)数目(mu)和叶片枯黄程度没有(you)(you)显(xian)著差异(yi)(yi);2)7个ISSR引(yin)(yin)物(wu)对30份(fen)(fen)不同地理来源(yuan)的(de)(de)野(ye)牛草(cao)(cao)进(jin)行扩增,共检(jian)测到108个扩增位点,其中多态性(xing)位点90个,多态性(xing)比率(lv)(PPB)为82.6%,平均每条(tiao)引(yin)(yin)物(wu)可(ke)以扩增出15.6条(tiao)带,说明供(gong)(gong)(gong)试(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)野(ye)牛草(cao)(cao)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)间(jian)遗(yi)传(chuan)(chuan)差异(yi)(yi)较(jiao)大;3)30份(fen)(fen)野(ye)牛草(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)遗(yi)传(chuan)(chuan)相(xiang)似系数(GS)值变化(hua)范围为0.546~0.880,表明了(le)供(gong)(gong)(gong)试(shi)(shi)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)具有(you)(you)丰富的(de)(de)遗(yi)传(chuan)(chuan)多样(yang)性(xing);4)在遗(yi)传(chuan)(chuan)距(ju)离(li)的(de)(de)基础上进(jin)行UPGMA聚类分(fen)析,30份(fen)(fen)野(ye)牛草(cao)(cao)可(ke)被分(fen)为5组,该(gai)结(jie)果表明遗(yi)传(chuan)(chuan)距(ju)离(li)的(de)(de)差异(yi)(yi)是导致供(gong)(gong)(gong)试(shi)(shi)野(ye)牛草(cao)(cao)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)整体遗(yi)传(chuan)(chuan)差异(yi)(yi)较(jiao)大的(de)(de)主要(yao)原因(yin)。
白三叶种质资源形态变异与地理起源的关系
2012, 6(11): 1706-1714.
[摘要](1077) [PDF 422KB](532)
摘要:
分(fen)(fen)析了(le)原(yuan)产于1.02~55.8 N,87.12 E~8.9 W,海拔2~2 804 m,分(fen)(fen)属于29个国家的(de)(de)68份白(bai)三叶(ye)(Trifolium repens)种质资源(yuan)的(de)(de)形(xing)态(tai)特(te)征变异及其与(yu)地理(li)起(qi)源(yuan)的(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)系。结果(guo)表明(ming),1)供试白(bai)三叶(ye)叶(ye)片(pian)大(da)小(xiao)变异最大(da),其次(ci)是单位(wei)面(mian)积(ji)花序数和(he)株(zhu)高,而(er)生殖枝(zhi)高度和(he)每(mei)花序小(xiao)花数变异较小(xiao);2)Mantel检验(yan)表明(ming),株(zhu)高、单位(wei)面(mian)积(ji)花序数、每(mei)花序小(xiao)花数3个性状(zhuang)变化存在(zai)显著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05)的(de)(de)空间关(guan)(guan)联性,而(er)生殖枝(zhi)高度和(he)叶(ye)面(mian)积(ji)与(yu)空间的(de)(de)相关(guan)(guan)性不(bu)显著(zhu)(zhu);3)聚类分(fen)(fen)析显示(shi),白(bai)三叶(ye)形(xing)态(tai)变异与(yu)地理(li)起(qi)源(yuan)呈(cheng)较密(mi)切(qie)的(de)(de)相关(guan)(guan)性,而(er)不(bu)同起(qi)源(yuan)的(de)(de)白(bai)三叶(ye)亦出现了(le)相似的(de)(de)遗(yi)传分(fen)(fen)化,原(yuan)产欧(ou)洲的(de)(de)白(bai)三叶(ye)形(xing)态(tai)朝不(bu)同方向的(de)(de)进(jin)化趋势明(ming)显。
波斯菊核型分析
2012, 6(11): 1715-1717.
[摘要](1027) [PDF 340KB](662)
摘要:
采用(yong)常规压(ya)片(pian)制片(pian)法(fa),对波斯菊(Cosmos bipinnatus)进(jin)行(xing)了染色(se)体(ti)数目观察及核型分(fen)析(xi),旨在为(wei)波斯菊种(zhong)质鉴定、起源(yuan)分(fen)析(xi)、物种(zhong)演替(ti)、良种(zhong)培育提供必要的细胞学依据(ju)。试验结果表明(ming),波斯菊染色(se)体(ti)数目为(wei)2n=24,核型公(gong)式2n=2x=24=18m(1sat)+6sm(1sat)。波斯菊染色(se)体(ti)相(xiang)对长度(du)的平均值(zhi)(zhi)为(wei)6.20%~9.06%,最(zui)长和最(zui)短的染色(se)体(ti)比值(zhi)(zhi)为(wei)1.47,臂比大于2∶1 的染色(se)体(ti)占染色(se)体(ti)总(zong)数的16.7%,属于2A型;不对称(cheng)系(xi)数为(wei)43.25%,对称(cheng)程度(du)较高,为(wei)较对称(cheng)类型。
黑麦草属28个引进品种辐射子一代的生长性状比较
2012, 6(11): 1718-1723.
[摘要](1164) [PDF 390KB](689)
摘要:
本研究利用400、500 Gy的60Co射(she)线辐(fu)射(she)28个欧洲引进黑(hei)麦草(Lolium)干种(zhong)(zhong)子,结合大田试(shi)验(yan)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)了(le)辐(fu)射(she)对不同黑(hei)麦草品种(zhong)(zhong)发(fa)芽、分(fen)蘖(nie)数、株(zhu)高、鲜(xian)质量、抽穗(sui)期等生长性(xing)状的影响。结果表明(ming),28个品种(zhong)(zhong)对射(she)线辐(fu)照(zhao)处(chu)理(li)的反应(ying)存在明(ming)显差异,Gordo、Ligrande、Barmultra对60Co射(she)线敏感,低剂量处(chu)理(li)即导致死(si)亡,高剂量处(chu)理(li)后(hou)Remy、Bartissimo死(si)亡。射(she)线辐(fu)照(zhao)处(chu)理(li)能够改变黑(hei)麦草分(fen)蘖(nie)数、株(zhu)高、鲜(xian)质量、抽穗(sui)期等生长性(xing)状,并显著增加Zarastro、Barfort、Tosca、Orlando诱(you)(you)变材料的分(fen)蘖(nie)数,Lolita诱(you)(you)变后(hou)植株(zhu)高度和(he)鲜(xian)质量比(bi)(bi)未辐(fu)照(zhao)处(chu)理(li)材料高20%以(yi)上,表明(ming)60Co射(she)线辐(fu)照(zhao)处(chu)理(li)是(shi)快速(su)提高牧草分(fen)蘖(nie)数、株(zhu)高和(he)鲜(xian)质量的有(you)效(xiao)途径之一,可作为新(xin)材料用于进一步的新(xin)品种(zhong)(zhong)选育。
干旱胁迫下4种委陵菜属植物叶片的超微结构
2012, 6(11): 1724-1730.
[摘要](1065) [PDF 1951KB](628)
摘要:
以(yi)4种野生委(wei)(wei)陵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)菜(cai)属(Potentilla)植物(wu)(wu)作(zuo)为研究对象,通(tong)过透视(shi)电镜(jing)观察干(gan)旱(han)胁(xie)迫条件下其(qi)叶(ye)片超微结(jie)构的(de)变化。结(jie)果表明,随(sui)着干(gan)旱(han)胁(xie)迫的(de)加强(qiang),叶(ye)绿体(ti)和线粒(li)体(ti)的(de)受(shou)损(sun)程(cheng)度逐渐(jian)增大,嗜锇(e)颗(ke)粒(li)的(de)数量也逐渐(jian)增加,叶(ye)绿体(ti)逐渐(jian)减小且数量略有(you)增加。通(tong)过对比(bi)同(tong)一干(gan)旱(han)胁(xie)迫条件下4种植物(wu)(wu)叶(ye)绿体(ti)和线粒(li)体(ti)的(de)受(shou)损(sun)程(cheng)度,判断其(qi)耐(nai)(nai)旱(han)能(neng)力(li)强(qiang)弱为轮叶(ye)委(wei)(wei)陵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)菜(cai)(P.verticillaris)白(bai)叶(ye)委(wei)(wei)陵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)菜(cai)(P.leucophylla)翻白(bai)委(wei)(wei)陵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)菜(cai)(P.discolor)委(wei)(wei)陵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)菜(cai)(P.chinensis)。因(yin)此,干(gan)旱(han)胁(xie)迫下叶(ye)绿体(ti)、线粒(li)体(ti)结(jie)构的(de)破坏程(cheng)度可以(yi)作(zuo)为评价委(wei)(wei)陵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)菜(cai)属植物(wu)(wu)耐(nai)(nai)旱(han)性(xing)强(qiang)弱的(de)形态结(jie)构指标(biao)之一。
米氏冰草种群种子产量与种子雨的时间动态
2012, 6(11): 1731-1735.
[摘要](1078) [PDF 406KB](563)
摘要:
对呼伦贝尔沙(sha)(sha)化草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)半固(gu)定沙(sha)(sha)地(di)(di)和固(gu)定沙(sha)(sha)地(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)米(mi)氏冰(bing)(bing)草(cao)(cao)(Agropyron michnoi)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)雨时(shi)间(jian)动态及有性(xing)(xing)(xing)繁(fan)殖(zhi)特性(xing)(xing)(xing)进行(xing)了(le)研究(jiu)。结果表(biao)明,米(mi)氏冰(bing)(bing)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群的(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)雨时(shi)期集中在8月(yue)(yue)8日(ri)-9月(yue)(yue)22日(ri),持(chi)续45 d。米(mi)氏冰(bing)(bing)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)雨强(qiang)度的(de)(de)(de)波动变(bian)(bian)化均(jun)与最大风速呈(cheng)线性(xing)(xing)(xing)回(hui)归关系。不同生境之间(jian),半固(gu)定沙(sha)(sha)地(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)米(mi)氏冰(bing)(bing)草(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)雨强(qiang)度总是(shi)显著高于固(gu)定沙(sha)(sha)地(di)(di)。半固(gu)定沙(sha)(sha)地(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)米(mi)氏冰(bing)(bing)草(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)(de)有性(xing)(xing)(xing)繁(fan)殖(zhi)体的(de)(de)(de)穗(sui)长(zhang)、穗(sui)宽、单穗(sui)质量、每(mei)穗(sui)上的(de)(de)(de)小穗(sui)数量及种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)百粒重等均(jun)显著高于固(gu)定沙(sha)(sha)地(di)(di)。在半固(gu)定沙(sha)(sha)地(di)(di)和固(gu)定沙(sha)(sha)地(di)(di)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)雨数量分别占其种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)产量的(de)(de)(de)29%和10%。因(yin)此,沙(sha)(sha)地(di)(di)微(wei)生境的(de)(de)(de)变(bian)(bian)化对米(mi)氏冰(bing)(bing)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)雨散布的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)期及波动规(gui)律(lv)无影响(xiang),而对其有性(xing)(xing)(xing)繁(fan)殖(zhi)体的(de)(de)(de)形态特征(zheng)具有显著影响(xiang)。
用灰色关联度法综合评价扁蓿豆生产性能
2012, 6(11): 1736-1742.
[摘要](1098) [PDF 432KB](565)
摘要:
应(ying)用灰色关联(lian)度(du)法(fa)对来自内(nei)蒙古13个(ge)地区的(de)(de)(de)20份野生(sheng)扁(bian)蓿豆(Medicago ruthenica)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)在内(nei)蒙古呼和(he)(he)浩特市(shi)的(de)(de)(de)栽(zai)(zai)培生(sheng)产性能(neng)进行综合评价,采(cai)用株(zhu)高(gao)、生(sheng)育期(qi)、株(zhu)高(gao)生(sheng)长速(su)度(du)、干(gan)鲜(xian)比(bi)(bi)、鲜(xian)草(cao)产量(liang)、干(gan)草(cao)产量(liang)和(he)(he)种子产量(liang)等指标建立评价模型,综合评价各材(cai)(cai)料(liao)的(de)(de)(de)栽(zai)(zai)培生(sheng)产性能(neng)。结果(guo)表明,栽(zai)(zai)培生(sheng)产性能(neng)表现较(jiao)好的(de)(de)(de)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)有来自锡(xi)林郭勒盟(meng)(meng)灰腾(teng)梁的(de)(de)(de)M4、通辽(liao)市(shi)的(de)(de)(de)M8、锡(xi)林郭勒盟(meng)(meng)西苏旗的(de)(de)(de)M5和(he)(he)通辽(liao)市(shi)的(de)(de)(de)M6,而来自包头市(shi)达茂旗的(de)(de)(de)M20、乌兰察布市(shi)四(si)子王旗的(de)(de)(de)M19、锡(xi)林浩特市(shi)的(de)(de)(de)M3和(he)(he)赤峰市(shi)的(de)(de)(de)M10栽(zai)(zai)培生(sheng)产性能(neng)较(jiao)低。根据各性状指标的(de)(de)(de)权重比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)种子产量(liang)所占的(de)(de)(de)权重为(wei)株(zhu)高(gao)生(sheng)育期(qi)株(zhu)高(gao)生(sheng)长速(su)度(du)干(gan)草(cao)产量(liang)鲜(xian)草(cao)产量(liang)干(gan)鲜(xian)比(bi)(bi)。
沿淮地区季节性栽培紫花苜蓿的适宜播种期
2012, 6(11): 1743-1748.
[摘要](1309) [PDF 412KB](656)
摘要:
为(wei)(wei)研究播(bo)(bo)(bo)种时(shi)间(jian)对季节(jie)性栽培紫花苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)产量(liang)(liang)及(ji)其影响(xiang)(xiang)因(yin)(yin)子(zi)的(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)(xiang),以(yi)紫花苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)维多利亚品(pin)种为(wei)(wei)试(shi)验材料,于2009―2011年在(zai)阜南、淮安两地进(jin)行田间(jian)试(shi)验。结果表(biao)明,秋播(bo)(bo)(bo)、春季刈割2茬(cha)的(de)(de)(de)栽培模式(shi)下,随播(bo)(bo)(bo)期推迟(chi),紫花苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)各生长(zhang)性状和产量(liang)(liang)均(jun)呈下降趋势。其中(zhong),淮安试(shi)验点(dian)9月6日(ri)播(bo)(bo)(bo)种的(de)(de)(de)紫花苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)第(di)1茬(cha)初花期平均(jun)株(zhu)高(gao)达(da)到(dao)91.91 cm,比10月24日(ri)播(bo)(bo)(bo)种高(gao)出1.14倍;相(xiang)应地,9月6日(ri)播(bo)(bo)(bo)种的(de)(de)(de)紫花苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)鲜、干物质(zhi)产量(liang)(liang)也最高(gao),第(di)1茬(cha)分(fen)别达(da)到(dao)4.37和1.05 kgm-2。对产量(liang)(liang)影响(xiang)(xiang)因(yin)(yin)子(zi)的(de)(de)(de)分(fen)析发(fa)现,紫花苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)干物质(zhi)产量(liang)(liang)分(fen)别与株(zhu)高(gao)、分(fen)枝(zhi)数和单(dan)(dan)株(zhu)干质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)呈显著(zhu)(zhu)(P0.05)或极显著(zhu)(zhu)(P0.01)相(xiang)关(guan)。通径分(fen)析发(fa)现,株(zhu)高(gao)和单(dan)(dan)株(zhu)干质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)是紫花苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)产量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)最主(zhu)要(yao)影响(xiang)(xiang)因(yin)(yin)子(zi)。结果显示,早播(bo)(bo)(bo)主(zhu)要(yao)通过促(cu)进(jin)株(zhu)高(gao)生长(zhang)、增加单(dan)(dan)株(zhu)干质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)来(lai)提高(gao)饲草的(de)(de)(de)干物质(zhi)产量(liang)(liang)。综(zong)合2年试(shi)验结果可以(yi)认为(wei)(wei),季节(jie)性栽培紫花苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)在(zai)沿(yan)淮地区的(de)(de)(de)适宜播(bo)(bo)(bo)种时(shi)间(jian)在(zai)9月至(zhi)10月上旬。
氮缓释复合肥对玉米青贮品质的影响
2012, 6(11): 1749-1754.
[摘要](1147) [PDF 488KB](572)
摘要:
河北坝上地(di)(di)(di)(di)区地(di)(di)(di)(di)处(chu)中国农(nong)牧(mu)交错带的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)华北段(duan),农(nong)业(ye)(ye)生产以(yi)农(nong)牧(mu)复合经营为主,但(dan)是草食(shi)家畜的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)饲草料品(pin)质(zhi)(zhi)差、资源短缺(que)是该(gai)地(di)(di)(di)(di)区发展畜牧(mu)业(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)瓶颈。采(cai)用随(sui)机(ji)区组(zu)试(shi)验(yan),研究氮缓(huan)(huan)(huan)释(shi)肥(fei)(fei)脲(niao)醛(quan)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(20%、30%和40%)和施氮量(liang)(liang)(liang)(30、60、90、120、150和180 kghm-2)对坝上饲用玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)(Zea mays)青(qing)贮(zhu)后的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)营养(yang)品(pin)质(zhi)(zhi)和发酵品(pin)质(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响,以(yi)解决该(gai)地(di)(di)(di)(di)区青(qing)贮(zhu)饲料品(pin)质(zhi)(zhi)差的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)问题。结果(guo)表明,当缓(huan)(huan)(huan)释(shi)肥(fei)(fei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)脲(niao)醛(quan)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)为40%时(shi),青(qing)贮(zhu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)营养(yang)品(pin)质(zhi)(zhi)较(jiao)好,但(dan)其有(you)机(ji)酸的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产量(liang)(liang)(liang)低(di)于脲(niao)醛(quan)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)为30%和20%缓(huan)(huan)(huan)释(shi)肥(fei)(fei)处(chu)理的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)青(qing)贮(zhu)。比较(jiao)不同(tong)含氮量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)缓(huan)(huan)(huan)释(shi)肥(fei)(fei),当施用缓(huan)(huan)(huan)释(shi)肥(fei)(fei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)含氮量(liang)(liang)(liang)为120 kghm-2时(shi),玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)青(qing)贮(zhu)含氮量(liang)(liang)(liang)和干物质(zhi)(zhi)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)较(jiao)高,青(qing)贮(zhu)中中性(xing)洗涤纤维(wei)和酸性(xing)洗涤纤维(wei)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)较(jiao)低(di),青(qing)贮(zhu)中有(you)机(ji)酸含量(liang)(liang)(liang)较(jiao)高,青(qing)贮(zhu)品(pin)质(zhi)(zhi)较(jiao)好。
硼肥对热研11号黑籽雀稗种子产量和发芽的影响
2012, 6(11): 1755-1759.
[摘要](1340) [PDF 381KB](713)
摘要:
: 研究(jiu)硼(peng)肥(fei)对热(re)研11号黑籽雀稗(Paspalum atratum cv. Reyan 11)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)产量(liang)和品质的(de)影响(xiang)。试验设9个硼(peng)肥(fei)处理,质量(liang)分(fen)数(shu)范(fan)围为0~4.0%,分(fen)3次(ci)施(shi)入(ru)。结果(guo)表明(ming),施(shi)硼(peng)量(liang)3.0%(3%的(de)硼(peng)酸(suan)分(fen)3次(ci)施(shi)入(ru): 400 mL+400 mL+600 mL)的(de)效果(guo)最好,种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)产量(liang)达1 124.4 kghm-2。施(shi)硼(peng)肥(fei)可提(ti)高(gao)生(sheng)殖(zhi)枝数(shu)、小花数(shu)/小穗、可育小花数(shu)/小穗和种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)千粒重,但(dan)对小穗数(shu)/生(sheng)殖(zhi)枝影响(xiang)不显著(zhu);施(shi)硼(peng)肥(fei)能提(ti)高(gao)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)的(de)发(fa)(fa)芽(ya)率(lv)、发(fa)(fa)芽(ya)势、发(fa)(fa)芽(ya)指数(shu)以及(ji)芽(ya)长和芽(ya)质量(liang)。施(shi)硼(peng)量(liang)3.0%可以使发(fa)(fa)芽(ya)率(lv)达到20.17%,比对照(zhao)提(ti)高(gao)了(le)30%。
不同播深下硬秆仲彬草种子萌发及幼苗生长
2012, 6(11): 1760-1764.
[摘要](1205) [PDF 476KB](634)
摘要:
模(mo)拟硬(ying)秆仲(zhong)彬草(Kengyili rigidula)种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)自然(ran)埋藏深度状况,设计0、1、2、3、4和(he)(he)5 cm共6个播(bo)深,研究了(le)其出(chu)苗(miao)(miao)率(lv)(lv)及幼苗(miao)(miao)生(sheng)长对播(bo)深的(de)(de)响应。结果表明,不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)播(bo)深对硬(ying)秆仲(zhong)彬草的(de)(de)种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌发率(lv)(lv)、幼苗(miao)(miao)出(chu)苗(miao)(miao)率(lv)(lv)和(he)(he)种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)休眠率(lv)(lv)有显著(zhu)影(ying)响。硬(ying)秆仲(zhong)彬草种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)出(chu)苗(miao)(miao)率(lv)(lv)随播(bo)深的(de)(de)增加呈下降趋势,播(bo)深为1 cm时(shi)出(chu)苗(miao)(miao)率(lv)(lv)最(zui)高为78.4%,播(bo)深为2和(he)(he)3 cm时(shi)分别为63.2%和(he)(he)63.6%,播(bo)深为0时(shi)最(zui)低,为13.6%,与(yu)前三者(zhe)有显著(zhu)差异。硬(ying)秆仲(zhong)彬草种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)最(zui)适(shi)宜的(de)(de)播(bo)深为1~3 cm,0及4 cm以上播(bo)深不(bu)利于其出(chu)苗(miao)(miao)和(he)(he)幼苗(miao)(miao)生(sheng)长
刈割对干热河谷海狮苏丹草生长的影响
2012, 6(11): 1765-1770.
[摘要](1070) [PDF 680KB](584)
摘要:
以(yi)海(hai)狮苏丹(dan)草(cao)(Sorghum sudanense)为材料研究在(zai)(zai)留茬5、10、15 cm条件下,其(qi)植株高度(du)、分(fen)(fen)蘖及单位面积产量等的(de)(de)动态(tai)变(bian)化(hua)情(qing)(qing)况,并通过(guo)构(gou)造一年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)苏丹(dan)草(cao)刈割(ge)株高生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)线性模(mo)型来分(fen)(fen)析其(qi)单作(zuo)群落(luo)(luo)植物(wu)个体(ti)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)情(qing)(qing)况与(yu)整体(ti)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量的(de)(de)关(guan)系(xi)(xi)。结果表明,在(zai)(zai)一个生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)周期内,不(bu)同刈割(ge)区(qu)海(hai)狮苏丹(dan)草(cao)单作(zuo)群落(luo)(luo)的(de)(de)总生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量在(zai)(zai)一定(ding)(ding)(ding)范围内达到相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)稳定(ding)(ding)(ding)状(zhuang)(zhuang)态(tai);不(bu)同刈割(ge)时(shi)期内植株个体(ti)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)速率与(yu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)潜(qian)力呈显(xian)著负(fu)相(xiang)(xiang)关(guan),表明苏丹(dan)草(cao)单作(zuo)群落(luo)(luo)个体(ti)有通过(guo)平衡自身生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)速率与(yu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)潜(qian)力的(de)(de)关(guan)系(xi)(xi)使群落(luo)(luo)总生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量在(zai)(zai)一定(ding)(ding)(ding)范围内维持相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)稳定(ding)(ding)(ding)状(zhuang)(zhuang)态(tai)的(de)(de)倾向(xiang)。
胡枝子属植物遗传多样性及其应用价值研究进展
2012, 6(11): 1771-1777.
[摘要](1039) [PDF 524KB](585)
摘要:
胡枝(zhi)子属植(zhi)(zhi)物具有多(duo)种(zhong)优良特(te)性,应用(yong)(yong)前景(jing)非常广泛。本研究(jiu)(jiu)从形态学、生(sheng)化、细胞(bao)学和分子4个(ge)水平探讨(tao)胡枝(zhi)子属植(zhi)(zhi)物遗(yi)传多(duo)样性的研究(jiu)(jiu)进(jin)(jin)展,并对胡枝(zhi)子属植(zhi)(zhi)物的饲用(yong)(yong)、生(sheng)态及药用(yong)(yong)等(deng)应用(yong)(yong)价值进(jin)(jin)行综述,为胡枝(zhi)子属植(zhi)(zhi)物的种(zhong)质资(zi)源进(jin)(jin)一步研究(jiu)(jiu)提(ti)供参考依据。
动物生产层
甘肃环县两种沙打旺蛀秆害虫数量随季节、年份和草地年龄的变化动态
2012, 6(11): 1778-1784.
[摘要](1169) [PDF 711KB](590)
摘要:
沙(sha)(sha)(sha)(sha)打(da)(da)旺(wang)(wang)(wang)是(shi)我(wo)国北(bei)方(fang)主要的(de)(de)(de)(de)豆科(ke)牧草(cao)(cao)和(he)(he)水(shui)土保持植(zhi)(zhi)物,害(hai)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)是(shi)其(qi)(qi)生产的(de)(de)(de)(de)限(xian)制(zhi)因素之一(yi)(yi)(yi),其(qi)(qi)中(zhong)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)(sha)打(da)(da)旺(wang)(wang)(wang)小(xiao)食(shi)心(xin)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(Crapholita shadawana)(卷(juan)蛾(e)科(ke))和(he)(he)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)(sha)打(da)(da)旺(wang)(wang)(wang)黑潜(qian)(qian)蝇(Melanagromyza adsurgenis)(潜(qian)(qian)蝇科(ke))为(wei)(wei)重要的(de)(de)(de)(de)蛀秆害(hai)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)。本研(yan)究于(yu)(yu)2004年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)、2005年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)和(he)(he)2006年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)8月或(huo)9月以及(ji)在(zai)(zai)(zai)2005年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)5月(返青后(hou)(hou)期(qi)(qi))、6月(拔节期(qi)(qi))和(he)(he)8月(开花初期(qi)(qi))调查了甘(gan)肃环县4个年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)份(fen)(fen)(1998年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)、2000年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)、2002年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)和(he)(he)2003年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian))建(jian)(jian)植(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)(sha)打(da)(da)旺(wang)(wang)(wang)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)上(shang)此两虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)生规律,发(fa)(fa)现(xian)(xian)其(qi)(qi)发(fa)(fa)生与(yu)(yu)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)份(fen)(fen)、草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)龄(ling)(ling)和(he)(he)季(ji)节有关,两虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)分(fen)别(bie)为(wei)(wei)害(hai)3龄(ling)(ling)以上(shang)(含3龄(ling)(ling))和(he)(he)8龄(ling)(ling)以下(含8龄(ling)(ling))沙(sha)(sha)(sha)(sha)打(da)(da)旺(wang)(wang)(wang),植(zhi)(zhi)株被(bei)害(hai)率分(fen)别(bie)为(wei)(wei)20.0%~100.0%和(he)(he)52.0%~100.0%,其(qi)(qi)中(zhong)2005年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)发(fa)(fa)生最(zui)普遍,植(zhi)(zhi)株被(bei)害(hai)率均(jun)(jun)(jun)为(wei)(wei)100%。虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)口数(shu)量(liang)(liang)随年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)份(fen)(fen)变化,其(qi)(qi)中(zhong)在(zai)(zai)(zai)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)龄(ling)(ling)最(zui)大(da)(1998年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)建(jian)(jian)植(zhi)(zhi))和(he)(he)最(zui)小(xiao)(2003年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)建(jian)(jian)植(zhi)(zhi))的(de)(de)(de)(de)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)上(shang),沙(sha)(sha)(sha)(sha)打(da)(da)旺(wang)(wang)(wang)小(xiao)食(shi)心(xin)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)在(zai)(zai)(zai)2006年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)时的(de)(de)(de)(de)百枝(zhi)(zhi)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)量(liang)(liang)均(jun)(jun)(jun)显(xian)著(zhu)(P0.05)低于(yu)(yu)其(qi)(qi)他(ta)两年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian),而(er)(er)在(zai)(zai)(zai)其(qi)(qi)他(ta)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)龄(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)上(shang)则(ze)均(jun)(jun)(jun)显(xian)著(zhu)(P0.05)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)其(qi)(qi)他(ta)两年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian),3年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)中(zhong)最(zui)高(gao)达(da)65.8头百枝(zhi)(zhi)-1(即(ji)65.8%的(de)(de)(de)(de)枝(zhi)(zhi)条(tiao)(tiao)受害(hai),1998年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)建(jian)(jian)植(zhi)(zhi)2004年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)数(shu)据);沙(sha)(sha)(sha)(sha)打(da)(da)旺(wang)(wang)(wang)黑潜(qian)(qian)蝇在(zai)(zai)(zai)2006年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)时在(zai)(zai)(zai)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)龄(ling)(ling)最(zui)小(xiao)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)上(shang)显(xian)著(zhu)(P0.05)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)其(qi)(qi)他(ta)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)份(fen)(fen),在(zai)(zai)(zai)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)龄(ling)(ling)最(zui)大(da)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)上(shang)则(ze)显(xian)著(zhu)低于(yu)(yu)(P0.05)其(qi)(qi)他(ta)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)份(fen)(fen),3年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)中(zhong)最(zui)高(gao)达(da)38.8头百枝(zhi)(zhi)-1(即(ji)38.8%的(de)(de)(de)(de)枝(zhi)(zhi)条(tiao)(tiao)受害(hai),2000年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)建(jian)(jian)植(zhi)(zhi)2004年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)数(shu)据)。基于(yu)(yu)4个年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)度建(jian)(jian)植(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)在(zai)(zai)(zai)调查年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)份(fen)(fen)中(zhong)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)龄(ling)(ling)与(yu)(yu)百枝(zhi)(zhi)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)关系可知,总体上(shang),两虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)口数(shu)量(liang)(liang)均(jun)(jun)(jun)随着(zhe)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)龄(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)增加而(er)(er)增加(年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)度有波动),分(fen)别(bie)于(yu)(yu)7龄(ling)(ling)和(he)(he)8龄(ling)(ling)时达(da)到(dao)高(gao)峰,此后(hou)(hou)随着(zhe)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)(de)衰退而(er)(er)急剧下降。在(zai)(zai)(zai)同一(yi)(yi)(yi)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)份(fen)(fen)的(de)(de)(de)(de)不同生长(zhang)季(ji)节,两虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)均(jun)(jun)(jun)于(yu)(yu)6月开始(shi)为(wei)(wei)害(hai)(5月时未见发(fa)(fa)生),但(dan)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)(sha)打(da)(da)旺(wang)(wang)(wang)小(xiao)食(shi)心(xin)在(zai)(zai)(zai)6月时仅(jin)出现(xian)(xian)在(zai)(zai)(zai)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)龄(ling)(ling)最(zui)大(da)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di),在(zai)(zai)(zai)各龄(ling)(ling)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)上(shang)8月的(de)(de)(de)(de)百枝(zhi)(zhi)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)量(liang)(liang)显(xian)著(zhu)(P0.05)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)6月,而(er)(er)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)(sha)打(da)(da)旺(wang)(wang)(wang)黑潜(qian)(qian)蝇6月时百枝(zhi)(zhi)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)量(liang)(liang)已(yi)达(da)最(zui)大(da)值,除年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)龄(ling)(ling)最(zui)小(xiao)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)外(wai)均(jun)(jun)(jun)显(xian)著(zhu)(P0.05)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)8月。在(zai)(zai)(zai)同一(yi)(yi)(yi)枝(zhi)(zhi)中(zhong)未发(fa)(fa)现(xian)(xian)2种(zhong)害(hai)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong),也未发(fa)(fa)现(xian)(xian)2头或(huo)2头以上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)同一(yi)(yi)(yi)害(hai)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)。受害(hai)枝(zhi)(zhi)条(tiao)(tiao)外(wai)观(guan)与(yu)(yu)未危害(hai)枝(zhi)(zhi)条(tiao)(tiao)无明显(xian)差异,故剖茎观(guan)察虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)体、虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)洞和(he)(he)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)粪是(shi)判(pan)别(bie)枝(zhi)(zhi)条(tiao)(tiao)是(shi)否(fou)受害(hai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主要方(fang)法。甘(gan)肃省为(wei)(wei)此两虫(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)新分(fen)布省份(fen)(fen)。
甘肃省牛、羊肉产品竞争力分析及提升对策
2012, 6(11): 1785-1790.
[摘要](899) [PDF 426KB](567)
摘要:
应(ying)用比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)优(you)(you)势(shi)(shi)法(fa)(fa)、产(chan)业集(ji)(ji)中度指数法(fa)(fa)以(yi)及成(cheng)本收(shou)益分析(xi)法(fa)(fa),多角度测算了甘肃(su)(su)省特色畜(chu)产(chan)品(pin)牛(niu)、羊(yang)(yang)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)的(de)竞争力。结果(guo)表(biao)明,目(mu)前甘肃(su)(su)省牛(niu)、羊(yang)(yang)养殖(zhi)依然以(yi)小规模(mo)散养为主,牛(niu)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)生产(chan)并不具(ju)有(you)规模(mo)优(you)(you)势(shi)(shi),而羊(yang)(yang)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)生产(chan)的(de)规模(mo)优(you)(you)势(shi)(shi)微弱;从(cong)产(chan)量优(you)(you)势(shi)(shi)看,牛(niu)、羊(yang)(yang)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)生产(chan)均具(ju)有(you)较(jiao)(jiao)强的(de)比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)优(you)(you)势(shi)(shi);在规模(mo)优(you)(you)势(shi)(shi)和产(chan)量优(you)(you)势(shi)(shi)共同作(zuo)用下,甘肃(su)(su)省牛(niu)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)的(de)综(zong)合(he)比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)优(you)(you)势(shi)(shi)日益凸(tu)显,羊(yang)(yang)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)的(de)综(zong)合(he)比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)优(you)(you)势(shi)(shi)则稳步提(ti)升(sheng)。2008年牛(niu)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)生产(chan)区(qu)域(yu)集(ji)(ji)中度为57.932 6%,具(ju)有(you)较(jiao)(jiao)强的(de)市场控制力,而羊(yang)(yang)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)生产(chan)的(de)区(qu)域(yu)优(you)(you)势(shi)(shi)较(jiao)(jiao)弱,仅为48.918 7%;从(cong)区(qu)域(yu)分布上看,牛(niu)、羊(yang)(yang)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)生产(chan)的(de)优(you)(you)势(shi)(shi)区(qu)域(yu)呈(cheng)现出(chu)不断向河西走(zou)廊(lang)和少数民族(zu)地区(qu)集(ji)(ji)聚的(de)趋势(shi)(shi)。甘肃(su)(su)省牛(niu)、羊(yang)(yang)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)无论是销售(shou)价格还是生产(chan)成(cheng)本较(jiao)(jiao)全国平均水平和西部畜(chu)牧大(da)省均具(ju)有(you)较(jiao)(jiao)强的(de)竞争优(you)(you)势(shi)(shi)。最后,提(ti)出(chu)了进一步提(ti)升(sheng)牛(niu)、羊(yang)(yang)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)产(chan)品(pin)竞争力的(de)政策建(jian)议。
后生物生产层
高寒草地畜牧业产业化的障碍与实现路径以甘南州合作市为例
2012, 6(11): 1791-1797.
[摘要](1326) [PDF 711KB](583)
摘要:
草地(di)畜牧业(ye)(ye)是合(he)作市(shi)的(de)主导产(chan)(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye),受(shou)自(zi)然(ran)条(tiao)件和社会(hui)经济发(fa)育程度的(de)深刻影(ying)响,农牧业(ye)(ye)经济要(yao)素(su)(su)互补性差;畜牧业(ye)(ye)内部同(tong)构(gou)性较强(qiang),区域(yu)分(fen)工不(bu)(bu)明显;畜产(chan)(chan)(chan)品(pin)的(de)商(shang)品(pin)化(hua)(hua)(hua)过程粗(cu)放、低质、低效(xiao);畜产(chan)(chan)(chan)品(pin)加工企业(ye)(ye)门(men)类不(bu)(bu)全,规(gui)模不(bu)(bu)大,带动性差;普遍缺(que)少各种形式的(de)中介机(ji)构(gou)和协会(hui),农牧民自(zi)组织能(neng)力不(bu)(bu)足;缺(que)少交易市(shi)场,要(yao)素(su)(su)流动受(shou)阻,致使畜牧业(ye)(ye)产(chan)(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)化(hua)(hua)(hua)进程缓(huan)慢。因此,在保护草原生态环(huan)境的(de)前提(ti)下,加强(qiang)基地(di)建设(she),大力发(fa)展(zhan)龙头企业(ye)(ye),强(qiang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)农牧业(ye)(ye)服(fu)务体系,实现草地(di)畜牧业(ye)(ye)向现代畜牧业(ye)(ye)转型。
《欧宝体育》刊载论文的知识图谱分析
2012, 6(11): 1798-1801.
[摘要](1008) [PDF 351KB](573)
摘要:
利用CNKI中国学术文献(xian)网络出版(ban)总库检索平台,从年(nian)度(du)分(fen)布、机构共现(xian)、关(guan)键词(ci)共现(xian)等方面(mian)对(dui)《欧宝(bao)体育(yu)》创刊以来的(de)刊载论文进行知识图谱分(fen)析,发现(xian)研究热点主要(yao)集(ji)中在草地农业的(de)可持(chi)续发展和牧草适应性评价方面(mian),并且研究机构之间(jian)存在广泛的(de)合(he)作关(guan)系。
欧宝体育