欧宝体育

欢迎访问 欧宝体育,今天是

2012年29卷7期

显示方式:          |     

前植物生产层
林芝地区不同草地土壤微生物区系分析
2012, 6(7): 1019-1022.
[摘要](1034) [PDF 389KB](525)
摘要:
通过对(dui)林(lin)芝地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)区3种(zhong)不同类型草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(高寒草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)、沼(zhao)泽草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)和栽培(pei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di))土壤(rang)(rang)微(wei)生(sheng)物(wu)进行(xing)研究,利(li)(li)用稀释平板法(fa)对(dui)3种(zhong)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)土壤(rang)(rang)中的细(xi)(xi)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)、真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)和放(fang)线菌(jun)(jun)(jun)进行(xing)分离。结果显示,该地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)区不同草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)中的微(wei)生(sheng)物(wu)均(jun)以细(xi)(xi)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)占(zhan)(zhan)优势(shi),占(zhan)(zhan)微(wei)生(sheng)物(wu)总(zong)数(shu)的91.2%以上(shang),放(fang)线菌(jun)(jun)(jun)数(shu)量(liang)最少,仅占(zhan)(zhan)3.79%。不同类型草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)微(wei)生(sheng)物(wu)总(zong)数(shu)有(you)明显差(cha)异(yi),栽培(pei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)沼(zhao)泽草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)高寒草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di);同一类型草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)不同土层(ceng)(ceng)深度垂直动态明显,0~10 cm土层(ceng)(ceng)数(shu)量(liang)较(jiao)多,且与(yu)10~20 cm土层(ceng)(ceng)微(wei)生(sheng)物(wu)数(shu)量(liang)有(you)显著差(cha)异(yi)。不同草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)土壤(rang)(rang)含水量(liang)差(cha)异(yi)较(jiao)大,低湿条件有(you)利(li)(li)于放(fang)线菌(jun)(jun)(jun)的生(sheng)长,但(dan)不利(li)(li)于真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)的生(sheng)长。
不同土壤管理措施下南疆果园土壤微生物及酶活性特征
2012, 6(7): 1023-1027.
[摘要](1059) [PDF 400KB](490)
摘要:
以(yi)(yi)新(xin)疆南部苹果(Malus domestica)园(yuan)为(wei)对(dui)象,研究分(fen)(fen)析(xi)了不同管理(li)方(fang)式(shi)对(dui)果园(yuan)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)微(wei)(wei)生物和(he)酶活(huo)性(xing)变(bian)化(hua)的(de)(de)影(ying)响。结果表明(ming)(ming),不同管理(li)方(fang)式(shi)下南疆果园(yuan)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)中(zhong)微(wei)(wei)生物总数(shu)量(liang)(liang)表现为(wei),覆(fu)草>生草>免(mian)(mian)耕(geng)>清耕(geng)。覆(fu)草区和(he)生草区微(wei)(wei)生物总数(shu)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)(fen)别(bie)比免(mian)(mian)耕(geng)区增(zeng)(zeng)加32.90%和(he)11.63%,比清耕(geng)增(zeng)(zeng)加38.09%和(he)15.99%,果园(yuan)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)中(zhong)细菌(jun)数(shu)量(liang)(liang)占绝对(dui)优势(shi)(shi),其次是(shi)放线(xian)菌(jun),真菌(jun)含量(liang)(liang)最少。微(wei)(wei)生物数(shu)量(liang)(liang)垂(chui)直分(fen)(fen)布(bu)规律(lv)特(te)征明(ming)(ming)显,各处理(li)细菌(jun)、放线(xian)菌(jun)、真菌(jun)数(shu)量(liang)(liang)均(jun)以(yi)(yi)0~20 cm土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)最高,且随着(zhe)土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)深度的(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)加呈(cheng)(cheng)减少趋势(shi)(shi)。不同管理(li)方(fang)式(shi)下土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)过氧(yang)化(hua)氢酶、蔗糖(tang)酶、脲酶3种酶活(huo)性(xing)特(te)征表现为(wei),覆(fu)草>生草>免(mian)(mian)耕(geng)>清耕(geng),且3种酶活(huo)性(xing)均(jun)随着(zhe)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)深度的(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)加呈(cheng)(cheng)下降趋势(shi)(shi),与微(wei)(wei)生物数(shu)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)(fen)布(bu)规律(lv)一致。
东祁连山不同退化程度高寒草甸土壤养分特征研究
2012, 6(7): 1028-1032.
[摘要](1177) [PDF 407KB](568)
摘要:
研究了(le)东祁连(lian)山(shan)不同退(tui)化程度的高(gao)寒草甸草地(di)(di)(di)土壤养分特征(zheng),结果(guo)表(biao)明(ming),随着退(tui)化加(jia)剧,高(gao)寒草甸草地(di)(di)(di)的土壤pH值逐渐增加(jia);全(quan)(quan)(quan)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)、全(quan)(quan)(quan)磷、速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)锰(meng)和(he)(he)(he)速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)铁(tie)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)逐渐减少;有(you)(you)机质、速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)锌(xin)、速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)和(he)(he)(he)速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)磷含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)先降低后增加(jia),有(you)(you)机质含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)以(yi)重(zhong)度退(tui)化草地(di)(di)(di)最低,速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)锌(xin)、速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)和(he)(he)(he)速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)磷含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)以(yi)中度退(tui)化草地(di)(di)(di)最低;全(quan)(quan)(quan)钾和(he)(he)(he)速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)铜含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)并未因草地(di)(di)(di)退(tui)化而改变,且极(ji)度退(tui)化草地(di)(di)(di)土壤有(you)(you)机质和(he)(he)(he)全(quan)(quan)(quan)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)在20~30 cm土层(ceng)反而高(gao)于表(biao)层(ceng)。总体上(shang),随土层(ceng)加(jia)深土壤中有(you)(you)机质、全(quan)(quan)(quan)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)、全(quan)(quan)(quan)磷、速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)、速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)钾、速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)磷和(he)(he)(he)速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)锌(xin)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)下降,速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)铁(tie)、速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)铜和(he)(he)(he)速(su)(su)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)锰(meng)则增加(jia)。
内蒙古草地干旱损失评估方法研究
2012, 6(7): 1033-1038.
[摘要](1004) [PDF 440KB](685)
摘要:
利(li)用内蒙古草地(di)(di)监测站牧(mu)草和降水资料,对干(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)(han)造成草地(di)(di)牧(mu)草和畜(chu)产(chan)(chan)品减产(chan)(chan)以及抗(kang)旱(han)(han)(han)投入的经费等直(zhi)接经济损(sun)失(shi)进行了(le)评估(gu)。结果(guo)表明,内蒙古草地(di)(di)牧(mu)草产(chan)(chan)量与(yu)(yu)(yu)降水相关(guan)密切,8月末牧(mu)草产(chan)(chan)量与(yu)(yu)(yu)5-8月降水量相关(guan)系数为0.728;建立了(le)不(bu)同草地(di)(di)类(lei)型不(bu)同月份牧(mu)草产(chan)(chan)量与(yu)(yu)(yu)降水量的最(zui)优(you)模拟方(fang)程;利(li)用降水量距平百分(fen)率划分(fen)干(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)(han)等级,建立了(le)干(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)(han)等级与(yu)(yu)(yu)牧(mu)草和牲(sheng)畜(chu)损(sun)失(shi)的对应关(guan)系,实(shi)现了(le)干(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)(han)对草地(di)(di)直(zhi)接经济损(sun)失(shi)的定量评估(gu),评估(gu)模型符合草地(di)(di)牧(mu)草生长规律(lv)和畜(chu)牧(mu)业(ye)生产(chan)(chan)特征(zheng),实(shi)例评估(gu)符合畜(chu)牧(mu)业(ye)实(shi)际损(sun)失(shi)程度,因(yin)此能(neng)够在干(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)(han)对草地(di)(di)畜(chu)牧(mu)业(ye)评估(gu)服务中推广应用。
基于TM影像的玛多县湿地变化监测方法
2012, 6(7): 1039-1043.
[摘要](1134) [PDF 695KB](519)
摘要:
以(yi)玛(ma)多县(xian)为典(dian)型研究区(qu)(qu),利(li)用(yong)2010年Landsat TM数(shu)据(ju)比较(jiao)分析了(le)谱间关系法、归一(yi)化(hua)水体指数(shu)(NDWI)、修(xiu)正归一(yi)化(hua)水体指数(shu)(MNDWI)及非(fei)监督分类4种(zhong)(zhong)分类方(fang)(fang)法提(ti)(ti)取湿(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)信(xin)(xin)(xin)息(xi)的(de)准确(que)度(du)。结果(guo)表明,在较(jiao)大(da)显(xian)著湿(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)区(qu)(qu)域(yu)(yu),4种(zhong)(zhong)方(fang)(fang)法信(xin)(xin)(xin)息(xi)提(ti)(ti)取的(de)准确(que)度(du)都比较(jiao)高(gao)(gao);在海拔(ba)4 500 m以(yi)上且地(di)(di)(di)(di)形复杂地(di)(di)(di)(di)区(qu)(qu),MNDWI方(fang)(fang)法的(de)精度(du)明显(xian)高(gao)(gao)于(yu)其(qi)他3种(zhong)(zhong)方(fang)(fang)法,达到(dao)86%;在中部地(di)(di)(di)(di)势较(jiao)低区(qu)(qu)域(yu)(yu),MNDWI方(fang)(fang)法不(bu)如(ru)NDWI方(fang)(fang)法的(de)准确(que)度(du)高(gao)(gao),但优于(yu)谱间关系法及非(fei)监督分类方(fang)(fang)法。总体来说,MNDWI方(fang)(fang)法能(neng)很(hen)好地(di)(di)(di)(di)将(jiang)云(yun)和地(di)(di)(di)(di)形对湿(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)信(xin)(xin)(xin)息(xi)提(ti)(ti)取的(de)影响降到(dao)最(zui)低,筛选最(zui)佳湿(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)信(xin)(xin)(xin)息(xi)提(ti)(ti)取方(fang)(fang)法有助于(yu)保护青藏高(gao)(gao)原湿(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)资源。
基于GIS在苜蓿叶面积测定中的应用
2012, 6(7): 1044-1048.
[摘要](856) [PDF 484KB](468)
摘要:
简便、快速(su)、准(zhun)确(que)的(de)苜(mu)蓿(Medicago sativa)叶(ye)(ye)面(mian)(mian)积(ji)(ji)测量方法,对牧草作物冠层(ceng)结构的(de)对比研究具有(you)重要意义。采用(yong)SCX4623FH扫(sao)描仪获取苜(mu)蓿叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)300 dpi灰度(du)图像,经(jing)R2V软(ruan)件矢(shi)量化,在地理信息系统(GIS)中利用(yong)VBA宏语(yu)言提取其面(mian)(mian)积(ji)(ji)和(he)(he)(he)周长等(deng)信息。结果表明(ming),GIS提取信息与参(can)照物实(shi)际(ji)信息相比,测定(ding)(ding)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)周长、面(mian)(mian)积(ji)(ji)的(de)平均(jun)相对误(wu)差(cha)为0.177%和(he)(he)(he)1.68%,远(yuan)小于(yu)叶(ye)(ye)面(mian)(mian)积(ji)(ji)仪器的(de)测量误(wu)差(cha)(5%~15%),说明(ming)GIS空间分析技(ji)术(shu)(shu)应用(yong)于(yu)苜(mu)蓿叶(ye)(ye)面(mian)(mian)积(ji)(ji)测定(ding)(ding)是切实(shi)可行的(de)。与其他叶(ye)(ye)面(mian)(mian)积(ji)(ji)测定(ding)(ding)方法相比,GIS空间分析技(ji)术(shu)(shu)测定(ding)(ding)叶(ye)(ye)面(mian)(mian)积(ji)(ji)具有(you)精(jing)确(que)、简捷、数据批(pi)量化等(deng)优点(dian),适(shi)于(yu)在科(ke)研领域和(he)(he)(he)生产上推广使(shi)用(yong)。
疯草内生真菌研究现状与存在问题
2012, 6(7): 1049-1057.
[摘要](1210) [PDF 463KB](701)
摘要:
疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)是世(shi)界(jie)范围内(nei)危害草(cao)(cao)原畜牧业可(ke)持续发展最严重的(de)毒草(cao)(cao)。引起家畜疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)毒的(de)主要成(cheng)分(fen)是吲哚里西啶(ding)生(sheng)物(wu)碱苦马(ma)豆(dou)素,苦马(ma)豆(dou)素除具(ju)有毒性(xing)(xing)外,还具(ju)有显著的(de)抗(kang)菌(jun)、抗(kang)病毒、抗(kang)肿瘤、增(zeng)强免疫等药理活性(xing)(xing),有关(guan)(guan)苦马(ma)豆(dou)素产(chan)生(sheng)机制、毒理和(he)药理活性(xing)(xing)研(yan)究(jiu)已成(cheng)为人(ren)们研(yan)究(jiu)的(de)热点。为了揭示疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)毒性(xing)(xing)物(wu)质产(chan)生(sheng)机制、疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)与疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)抗(kang)逆性(xing)(xing),特别是疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)毒性(xing)(xing)物(wu)质与疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)互作关(guan)(guan)系等诸多(duo)问题,国(guo)内(nei)外科技工作者从20世(shi)纪末(mo)就开始致力于(yu)疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)生(sheng)物(wu)多(duo)样性(xing)(xing)、疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)与苦马(ma)豆(dou)素产(chan)生(sheng)关(guan)(guan)系以及与疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)抗(kang)逆性(xing)(xing)形(xing)成(cheng)机制研(yan)究(jiu),已从多(duo)种疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)分(fen)离到可(ke)产(chan)苦马(ma)豆(dou)素的(de)内(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun),并(bing)发现疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)与疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)之间存在密切(qie)关(guan)(guan)系。本文对近年来国(guo)内(nei)外疯(feng)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)研(yan)究(jiu)的(de)主要内(nei)容及研(yan)究(jiu)现状进(jin)行综(zong)述,并(bing)对该研(yan)究(jiu)领域中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)存在的(de)若干问题进(jin)行了探讨。
草坪草抗性研究进展
2012, 6(7): 1058-1064.
[摘要](1299) [PDF 486KB](792)
摘要:
草(cao)坪(ping)(ping)是人类生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态系统的(de)(de)重要(yao)组成(cheng)部分之一(yi)。近(jin)年来,随着我国人民生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活水平的(de)(de)提(ti)(ti)(ti)高和(he)观念(nian)的(de)(de)改变(bian),草(cao)坪(ping)(ping)业发展(zhan)迅(xun)速,草(cao)坪(ping)(ping)得到广(guang)泛应用。本文从种(zhong)子发芽、根(gen)系构型、光合特征和(he)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)理生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)化参数等角度综述了草(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)在抗(kang)(kang)(kang)旱性(xing)(xing)(xing)、抗(kang)(kang)(kang)涝性(xing)(xing)(xing)、抗(kang)(kang)(kang)热性(xing)(xing)(xing)、抗(kang)(kang)(kang)寒性(xing)(xing)(xing)、抗(kang)(kang)(kang)盐性(xing)(xing)(xing)等方面的(de)(de)研(yan)究(jiu)现状,草(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)的(de)(de)上(shang)述抗(kang)(kang)(kang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)强弱因草(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)的(de)(de)品种(zhong)和(he)试验条件的(de)(de)不(bu)同而有(you)明显的(de)(de)差(cha)异。同时(shi),还综述了通过施用肥料、添加微生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)和(he)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长调节物(wu)(wu)质来提(ti)(ti)(ti)高草(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)的(de)(de)抗(kang)(kang)(kang)性(xing)(xing)(xing),为(wei)进一(yi)步开(kai)展(zhan)抗(kang)(kang)(kang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)研(yan)究(jiu)提(ti)(ti)(ti)供一(yi)些思路,为(wei)提(ti)(ti)(ti)高植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)抗(kang)(kang)(kang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)提(ti)(ti)(ti)供有(you)效途径。
草人诗记
十七昔访红河尾
2012, 6(7): 1065-1065.
[摘要](764) [PDF 188KB](1331)
摘要:
植物生产层
外源激素对紫穗狼尾草愈伤组织诱导及分化的影响
2012, 6(7): 1066-1071.
[摘要](1159) [PDF 495KB](509)
摘要:
以(yi)(yi)紫(zi)穗狼尾(wei)草(Pennisetum alopecuroides)幼芽基(ji)(ji)部为(wei)外植体(ti),研究了外源激素(su)对其愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)组织诱导及(ji)分(fen)化的影响,筛选适(shi)宜的激素(su)种(zhong)类及(ji)浓度(du)配比(bi),为(wei)狼尾(wei)草无性系抗性育种(zhong)奠定基(ji)(ji)础。结果表明(ming),2,4D对愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)组织诱导的作(zuo)用(yong)最显(xian)著,生长素(su)NAA和(he)KT的作(zuo)用(yong)相近,均以(yi)(yi)0.5~1.0 mgL-1为(wei)宜;NAA对愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)组织分(fen)化的作(zuo)用(yong)较明(ming)显(xian),以(yi)(yi)0.5~1.0 mgL-1与3.0 mgL-16BA配合效果最佳,KT的作(zuo)用(yong)不明(ming)显(xian)。最佳诱导培养基(ji)(ji)为(wei)MS+2,4D 3.0 mgL-1+NAA 1.0 mgL-1 +KT 1.0 mgL-1;最佳分(fen)化培养基(ji)(ji)为(wei)MS+NAA 0.5 mgL-1 +6BA 3.0 mgL-1。
外植体及氮源对甘草愈伤组织诱导的影响
2012, 6(7): 1072-1076.
[摘要](1056) [PDF 420KB](470)
摘要:
研究了不同(tong)外植体及氮(dan)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)浓(nong)(nong)度(du)对(dui)甘草(cao)(Glycurrihiza uralensis)愈伤(shang)(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)诱(you)(you)(you)导的影(ying)(ying)响。在(zai)相同(tong)激素(su)配比条件下(xia),采用组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)培养方法比较根、茎、子叶、下(xia)胚(pei)轴对(dui)愈伤(shang)(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)诱(you)(you)(you)导和生长的影(ying)(ying)响。结果(guo)表明(ming),在(zai)不同(tong)外植体中,下(xia)胚(pei)轴愈伤(shang)(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)平(ping)均(jun)(jun)诱(you)(you)(you)导率最(zui)高(gao),且出愈时间(jian)最(zui)早,褐(he)化率最(zui)低,是形成(cheng)愈伤(shang)(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)的最(zui)佳材料。在(zai)特定的激素(su)浓(nong)(nong)度(du)条件下(xia),不同(tong)浓(nong)(nong)度(du)的氮(dan)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)对(dui)下(xia)胚(pei)轴愈伤(shang)(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)的诱(you)(you)(you)导和生长有显著的影(ying)(ying)响,较低和较高(gao)浓(nong)(nong)度(du)的氮(dan)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)均(jun)(jun)不利于(yu)愈伤(shang)(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)的生长,适宜(yi)于(yu)愈伤(shang)(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)诱(you)(you)(you)导和生长的最(zui)佳氮(dan)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)浓(nong)(nong)度(du)为60 mmolL-1。不同(tong)外植体和氮(dan)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)浓(nong)(nong)度(du)是影(ying)(ying)响甘草(cao)愈伤(shang)(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)诱(you)(you)(you)导和生长的重要(yao)因素(su)。
百合属普瑞头的组织培养和快速繁殖
2012, 6(7): 1077-1083.
[摘要](989) [PDF 647KB](552)
摘要:
以亚洲百(bai)合普瑞头(Lilium asitic hybrids cv. Prato)鳞片(pian)为外植体,以MS为基本培养基,通(tong)过增加不同激素(su)种类(lei)和浓度进行了(le)组织培养快速繁殖技(ji)术的(de)研究。结果表明,诱导(dao)(dao)不定芽的(de)最(zui)(zui)适(shi)(shi)培养基为MS+0.5 mgL-1 6BA+0.1 mgL-1 NAA,诱导(dao)(dao)率最(zui)(zui)高达85.0%,平(ping)均每块分化的(de)芽数最(zui)(zui)多(3.6个(ge));再(zai)生小鳞茎鳞片(pian)诱导(dao)(dao)不定芽的(de)最(zui)(zui)适(shi)(shi)培养基为MS+1.0 mgL-1 6BA;生根的(de)最(zui)(zui)适(shi)(shi)宜培养基为1/2 MS+0.5 mgL-1 IBA,生根率为86.7%;移栽后生长良(liang)好(hao),成活率达到85.0%。
同德小花碱茅种子发育过程中几个生理指标的变化
2012, 6(7): 1084-1087.
[摘要](928) [PDF 395KB](569)
摘要:
采用6种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)活力(li)测定方(fang)法(fa),研(yan)究了同(tong)德小(xiao)花(hua)(hua)碱(jian)(jian)茅(Puccinellia tenuiflora cv.Tongde)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)发育(yu)过程(cheng)中(zhong)含(han)水(shui)(shui)量、种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)质量和(he)营养物质等生(sheng)理生(sheng)化的(de)变(bian)化。试验结果表(biao)明(ming),同(tong)德小(xiao)花(hua)(hua)碱(jian)(jian)茅种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)发育(yu)过程(cheng)中(zhong)含(han)水(shui)(shui)量散失(shi)速率(lv)呈先快后(hou)慢的(de)规律,在盛(sheng)(sheng)花(hua)(hua)期(qi)后(hou)26 d种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)达到生(sheng)理成(cheng)熟(shu),含(han)水(shui)(shui)量为27.85%,种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)中(zhong)可溶性糖的(de)含(han)量随种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)成(cheng)熟(shu)逐渐减少,而淀粉含(han)量变(bian)化则相反。同(tong)德小(xiao)花(hua)(hua)碱(jian)(jian)茅种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)发育(yu)过程(cheng)中(zhong)植物内源激素(su)生(sheng)长素(su)、赤霉(mei)素(su)和(he)脱落酸的(de)含(han)量高峰依次出现(xian)。本研(yan)究表(biao)明(ming),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)活力(li)随种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)成(cheng)熟(shu)不断增加,在盛(sheng)(sheng)花(hua)(hua)期(qi)后(hou)26 d达到最(zui)高水(shui)(shui)平。
不同盐胁迫对高羊茅种子萌发的影响
2012, 6(7): 1088-1093.
[摘要](1531) [PDF 389KB](816)
摘要:
用不同(tong)浓度(du)的NaCl,Na2CO3,Na2SO4 ,NaCl和Na2CO3 的混合(he)液(ye)以(yi)及(ji)NaCl、Na2CO3和Na2SO4的混合(he)液(ye)分(fen)别处理高(gao)(gao)(gao)羊(yang)茅(mao)(mao)(Festuca arundinacea)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi),研究不同(tong)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)分(fen)胁迫(po)对高(gao)(gao)(gao)羊(yang)茅(mao)(mao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)率、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)势、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)指数(shu)、活(huo)(huo)力指数(shu)以(yi)及(ji)幼苗(miao)根(gen)长和苗(miao)高(gao)(gao)(gao)的影响(xiang)。结果表明,低浓度(du)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)处理对高(gao)(gao)(gao)羊(yang)茅(mao)(mao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)的萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)影响(xiang)不大,高(gao)(gao)(gao)浓度(du)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)处理显(xian)著抑(yi)(yi)制了种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)的萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)。随(sui)着(zhe)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)浓度(du)的升高(gao)(gao)(gao),高(gao)(gao)(gao)羊(yang)茅(mao)(mao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)的发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)率、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)势、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)指数(shu)和活(huo)(huo)力指数(shu)均呈下降趋(qu)势,且对幼苗(miao)生长和幼根(gen)生长的抑(yi)(yi)制作(zuo)用加强。高(gao)(gao)(gao)羊(yang)茅(mao)(mao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)对不同(tong)类型盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)的耐受性各异,不同(tong)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)分(fen)对种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)的抑(yi)(yi)制程(cheng)度(du)为Na2SO4混合(he)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(NaCl+Na2CO3+Na2SO4)NaCl混合(he)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(NaCl+Na2CO3)Na2CO3。
内生真菌侵染对盐胁迫下黑麦草种子萌发的影响
2012, 6(7): 1094-1099.
[摘要](1426) [PDF 427KB](734)
摘要:
以低(di)(di)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)侵(qin)(qin)(qin)染(ran)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)和(he)(he)高(gao)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)侵(qin)(qin)(qin)染(ran)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)的(de)(de)(de)多年生(sheng)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(Lolium perenne)种(zhong)子为材料,研究(jiu)了在不同浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)盐胁(xie)迫(po)(po)下(xia)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)侵(qin)(qin)(qin)染(ran)对(dui)(dui)种(zhong)子萌发(fa)的(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响。结果表明,高(gao)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)侵(qin)(qin)(qin)染(ran)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)和(he)(he)低(di)(di)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)侵(qin)(qin)(qin)染(ran)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)种(zhong)子的(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)发(fa)芽(ya)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)、相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)活(huo)力指数、相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)根长(zhang)、相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)苗长(zhang)、相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)根苗比均随盐胁(xie)迫(po)(po)程度(du)的(de)(de)(de)增加(jia)而(er)显(xian)著(zhu)下(xia)降(jiang)。中(zhong)、低(di)(di)浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)盐胁(xie)迫(po)(po)下(xia)(170 mmolL-1 NaCl)二者(zhe)的(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)发(fa)芽(ya)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)、相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)活(huo)力指数、相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)根长(zhang)、相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)苗长(zhang)的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)异(yi)不显(xian)著(zhu)(P0.05);高(gao)浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)盐胁(xie)迫(po)(po)下(xia)(255 mmolL-1 NaCl),高(gao)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)侵(qin)(qin)(qin)染(ran)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)种(zhong)子的(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)发(fa)芽(ya)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)、相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)活(huo)力指数、相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)苗长(zhang)均显(xian)著(zhu)大于低(di)(di)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)侵(qin)(qin)(qin)染(ran)率(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)的(de)(de)(de)品种(zhong)(P0.05)。盐胁(xie)迫(po)(po)抑制(zhi)了多年生(sheng)黑(hei)麦(mai)草种(zhong)子的(de)(de)(de)萌发(fa),但在高(gao)浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)盐胁(xie)迫(po)(po)下(xia)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)对(dui)(dui)宿主具有增益作用。
开花位置和开花时间对华北驼绒藜结实率及种子千粒重的影响
2012, 6(7): 1100-1105.
[摘要](852) [PDF 370KB](577)
摘要:
本(ben)研究(jiu)对华北驼绒(rong)藜(li)(Ceratoides arborescens)生(sheng)长4年和生(sheng)长8年居群不同冠层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)、株(zhu)(zhu)丛(cong)上主枝(zhi)和一级(ji)侧(ce)枝(zhi),以及不同花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)期(qi)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)的(de)结(jie)(jie)实(shi)率(lv)和种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)千粒(li)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)进行了测定和分(fen)析。结(jie)(jie)果显示,1)株(zhu)(zhu)龄(ling)较小的(de)植株(zhu)(zhu)结(jie)(jie)实(shi)率(lv)较高(gao),所结(jie)(jie)种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)千粒(li)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)较大(da),可能与年龄(ling)小的(de)植株(zhu)(zhu)分(fen)枝(zhi)少,养(yang)分(fen)集(ji)中(zhong)有(you)关。2)结(jie)(jie)实(shi)与花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)在(zai)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)序上的(de)位(wei)置(zhi)有(you)关。无(wu)论在(zai)主枝(zhi)条(tiao)上还是在(zai)侧(ce)枝(zhi)上,先开花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)的(de)部位(wei)结(jie)(jie)实(shi)率(lv)高(gao),种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)千粒(li)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)也较大(da)。3)对整个(ge)居群来说,冠层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)的(de)中(zhong)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)结(jie)(jie)实(shi)率(lv)最高(gao),种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)千粒(li)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)最大(da),冠层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)下(xia)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)结(jie)(jie)实(shi)率(lv)和种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)千粒(li)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)最小。4)盛(sheng)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)期(qi)开的(de)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)结(jie)(jie)实(shi)率(lv)高(gao),种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)千粒(li)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)也大(da),末花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)期(qi)次之,始花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)期(qi)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)的(de)结(jie)(jie)实(shi)率(lv)最低(di),种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)千粒(li)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)也最小。
种子萌发期38份偃麦草种质耐盐性评价
2012, 6(7): 1105-1113.
[摘要](1154) [PDF 369KB](440)
摘要:
为评价偃(yan)麦(mai)草(Elytrigia repens)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)萌(meng)发(fa)期耐(nai)(nai)盐(yan)性(xing)强(qiang)弱,采用常规纸(zhi)上发(fa)芽法,以1.2%氯化钠(na)和(he)硫酸钠(na)(质量比为1∶1)模拟盐(yan)胁(xie)(xie)迫,对(dui)38份(fen)(fen)偃(yan)麦(mai)草的(de)(de)发(fa)芽率(lv)、发(fa)芽势、胚(pei)芽长、胚(pei)根长、活力指(zhi)数、萌(meng)发(fa)耐(nai)(nai)盐(yan)指(zhi)数、萌(meng)发(fa)胁(xie)(xie)迫指(zhi)数等进行(xing)测(ce)定。结果(guo)表明,盐(yan)胁(xie)(xie)迫降低了(le)(le)偃(yan)麦(mai)草种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)的(de)(de)发(fa)芽率(lv)、发(fa)芽势、发(fa)芽指(zhi)数、活力指(zhi)数,抑制了(le)(le)其胚(pei)芽和(he)胚(pei)根的(de)(de)生长,降低了(le)(le)偃(yan)麦(mai)草萌(meng)发(fa)性(xing)能;根据综合评价值,38份(fen)(fen)偃(yan)麦(mai)草材(cai)料的(de)(de)耐(nai)(nai)盐(yan)性(xing)由强(qiang)到(dao)弱依次为E03、E31、E16、E17、E42、E26、E04、E25、E12、E38、E15、E36、E13、E32、E09、E21、E07、E08、E01、E29、E10、E18、E24、E28、E30、E23、E11、E39、E02、E34、E19、E35、E06、E40、E33、E41、E37、E27。
26个草地早熟禾品种苗期抗旱性综合评价
2012, 6(7): 1114-1119.
[摘要](1310) [PDF 371KB](702)
摘要:
研(yan)究了苗期自然(ran)干(gan)旱(han)(han)胁迫对(dui)26个(ge)草地(di)早熟禾(Poa pratensis)品(pin)种生长的影响,并对(dui)其(qi)抗旱(han)(han)性进(jin)行了综合评价(jia)。结果表明,经过2周自然(ran)干(gan)旱(han)(han)处理后,不同品(pin)种株(zhu)高、地(di)上(shang)部(bu)鲜质(zhi)量、地(di)上(shang)部(bu)干(gan)质(zhi)量、地(di)下部(bu)干(gan)质(zhi)量下降,根(gen)冠比增(zeng)加(jia)。通过权重分配法,对(dui)26个(ge)品(pin)种进(jin)行抗旱(han)(han)性综合评价(jia),品(pin)种Midnight抗旱(han)(han)性最好,品(pin)种Brilliant抗旱(han)(han)性最差。
钼素对不同氮素形态营养液培养的盐角草生物量的影响
2012, 6(7): 1120-1126.
[摘要](997) [PDF 554KB](461)
摘要:
以盐(yan)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)草(cao)(Salicornia europaea)为(wei)材料进行水(shui)(shui)培(pei)实验,研究了不同浓度钼素(su)营(ying)养(yang)(yang)对(dui)(dui)硝(xiao)态(tai)氮(dan)(dan)(NO-3N)和铵态(tai)氮(dan)(dan)(NH+4N)营(ying)养(yang)(yang)液(ye)(ye)中(zhong)培(pei)养(yang)(yang)的(de)盐(yan)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)草(cao)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长的(de)影响。结果表明,两种(zhong)氮(dan)(dan)素(su)形态(tai)营(ying)养(yang)(yang)液(ye)(ye)培(pei)养(yang)(yang)下,随着钼素(su)水(shui)(shui)平的(de)提高(gao),盐(yan)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)草(cao)肉质茎(jing)中(zhong)硝(xiao)酸(suan)还原(yuan)酶(NR)和黄嘌呤脱氢(qing)酶(XDH)的(de)活(huo)性增(zeng)(zeng)强(qiang),叶绿素(su)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、酰脲类物质(Ureides)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)升高(gao),生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia);3 molL-1的(de)钼素(su)叶面喷(pen)施对(dui)(dui)盐(yan)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)草(cao)肉质茎(jing)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长优于营(ying)养(yang)(yang)液(ye)(ye)添加(jia)钼素(su)。不同氮(dan)(dan)素(su)营(ying)养(yang)(yang)液(ye)(ye)培(pei)养(yang)(yang)下,盐(yan)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)草(cao)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长有明显差(cha)异,NH+4N营(ying)养(yang)(yang)液(ye)(ye)培(pei)养(yang)(yang)较NO3-N营(ying)养(yang)(yang)液(ye)(ye)培(pei)养(yang)(yang)的(de)盐(yan)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)草(cao)叶绿素(su)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)高(gao),XDH活(huo)性高(gao),Ureides含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia),但NR活(huo)性下降(jiang),生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)减少。通(tong)过(guo)对(dui)(dui)海水(shui)(shui)灌溉NO3-N营(ying)养(yang)(yang)液(ye)(ye)培(pei)养(yang)(yang)的(de)盐(yan)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)草(cao)增(zeng)(zeng)施钼素(su),能(neng)提高(gao)NR和XDH活(huo)性,增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)盐(yan)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)草(cao)的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)。
基施硒肥对紫花苜蓿草产量及农艺性状的影响
2012, 6(7): 1127-1131.
[摘要](1126) [PDF 403KB](545)
摘要:
采用田(tian)间(jian)试验,研究在氮(dan)、磷(lin)、钾及(ji)微量(liang)元素充分供应情况下,基施不同量(liang)硒(xi)(xi)肥对紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿(Medicago sativa)不同生(sheng)育期(qi)(qi)(qi)草(cao)产(chan)量(liang)及(ji)农艺(yi)性(xing)状的(de)影(ying)响。结果表(biao)(biao)明,施硒(xi)(xi)可不同程度地(di)提高(gao)(gao)(gao)紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿不同生(sheng)育期(qi)(qi)(qi)草(cao)产(chan)量(liang)、干物(wu)质积(ji)累(lei)速(su)率、株高(gao)(gao)(gao)和叶茎比。基施0.45 kghm-2硒(xi)(xi)的(de)紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿在分枝(zhi)期(qi)(qi)(qi)、现(xian)蕾(lei)期(qi)(qi)(qi)和初(chu)花(hua)期(qi)(qi)(qi),其草(cao)产(chan)量(liang)、株高(gao)(gao)(gao)和叶茎比方面(mian)均(jun)表(biao)(biao)现(xian)最佳,草(cao)产(chan)量(liang)分别比未施硒(xi)(xi)提高(gao)(gao)(gao)32.67%、24.78%和37.93%,株高(gao)(gao)(gao)分别比未施硒(xi)(xi)提高(gao)(gao)(gao)10.01%、14.00%和10.51%。叶茎比分别比未施硒(xi)(xi)提高(gao)(gao)(gao)6.43%、8.00%和12.80%。而(er)干物(wu)质积(ji)累(lei)在分枝(zhi)期(qi)(qi)(qi)、现(xian)蕾(lei)期(qi)(qi)(qi)和初(chu)花(hua)期(qi)(qi)(qi)分别以0.45、1.05和0.75 kghm-2处(chu)理(li)积(ji)累(lei)速(su)率最高(gao)(gao)(gao)。未施硒(xi)(xi)处(chu)理(li)生(sheng)长高(gao)(gao)(gao)峰出现(xian)在现(xian)蕾(lei)期(qi)(qi)(qi),初(chu)花(hua)期(qi)(qi)(qi)有所下降,但施硒(xi)(xi)处(chu)理(li)均(jun)进入生(sheng)长高(gao)(gao)(gao)峰,积(ji)累(lei)速(su)率继续上升。
乌兰布和沙漠地区不同沙生灌木的耐盐性综合评价
2012, 6(7): 1132-1136.
[摘要](1122) [PDF 409KB](668)
摘要:
针(zhen)对乌兰布和沙(sha)(sha)漠地区生(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)唐古(gu)特白刺(ci)(Nitraria tangutorum)、西伯(bo)利亚(ya)白刺(ci)(N.sibirica)、柠(ning)条(tiao)(Caragana korshinskii)、长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)叶红(hong)砂(sha)(sha)(sha)(Reaumuria trigyna)、沙(sha)(sha)冬青(qing)(Ammopiptanthus mongolicus)、霸王(wang)(Zygophyllum xanthoxylon)、柽柳(Tamarix austromongolica)7种(zhong)沙(sha)(sha)生(sheng)灌(guan)木,通过盆栽试验的(de)(de)(de)(de)盐(yan)分(fen)梯(ti)度反(fan)复干(gan)旱法,在测(ce)定的(de)(de)(de)(de)一系列形态(tai)、生(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)指(zhi)标(biao)以及光(guang)合、水(shui)分(fen)生(sheng)理指(zhi)标(biao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)基础上(shang),经过主成分(fen)分(fen)析的(de)(de)(de)(de)降(jiang)维(wei)分(fen)析,采用(yong)隶(li)属函数(shu)对7种(zhong)沙(sha)(sha)生(sheng)灌(guan)木的(de)(de)(de)(de)耐盐(yan)性(xing)进行了聚(ju)类分(fen)析,在此基础上(shang)运(yun)用(yong)权(quan)重(zhong)法定量(liang)评(ping)价了它们的(de)(de)(de)(de)耐盐(yan)性(xing)。结果表明,地径、气孔导度、水(shui)分(fen)利用(yong)效(xiao)率、水(shui)势、枝(zhi)条(tiao)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)度、地上(shang)干(gan)质量(liang)、主根(gen)系长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)度、侧(ce)根(gen)系长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)度、侧(ce)根(gen)数(shu)、根(gen)径可作为(wei)沙(sha)(sha)生(sheng)灌(guan)木耐盐(yan)性(xing)评(ping)价鉴定的(de)(de)(de)(de)指(zhi)标(biao);7种(zhong)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)耐盐(yan)性(xing)分(fen)为(wei)强(qiang)、中(zhong)、弱(ruo)三类: 第(di)Ⅰ类(强(qiang))植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu),长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)叶红(hong)砂(sha)(sha)(sha)、柽柳;第(di)Ⅱ类(中(zhong))植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu),西伯(bo)利亚(ya)白刺(ci)、唐古(gu)特白刺(ci);第(di)Ⅲ类(弱(ruo))植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu),沙(sha)(sha)冬青(qing)、霸王(wang)、柠(ning)条(tiao)。同(tong)时(shi)7种(zhong)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)耐盐(yan)性(xing)由(you)强(qiang)到弱(ruo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)顺(shun)序为(wei)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)叶红(hong)砂(sha)(sha)(sha)、柽柳、西伯(bo)利亚(ya)白刺(ci)、唐古(gu)特白刺(ci)、沙(sha)(sha)冬青(qing)、霸王(wang)、柠(ning)条(tiao)。
不同紫花苜蓿品种在青藏高原高寒地区的适应性
2012, 6(7): 1137-1141.
[摘要](1192) [PDF 330KB](527)
摘要:
针(zhen)对(dui)高寒地区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)豆科牧(mu)草(cao)稀缺的(de)(de)现状,采用连(lian)续(xu)4年田间(jian)试验(yan),研(yan)究了5个(ge)紫花苜(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)在(zai)(zai)高寒地区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)的(de)(de)适应(ying)性(xing)(xing)。结果(guo)表明,参试的(de)(de)5个(ge)紫花苜(mu)蓿(xu)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)物(wu)候期没(mei)有显著差异,所(suo)有品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)均不(bu)能(neng)生产大量(liang)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi);以(yi)单株(zhu)分枝数(shu)、株(zhu)高和(he)生物(wu)量(liang)为评价指标,威龙、大富(fu)(fu)豪、阿尔冈金(jin)3个(ge)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)适应(ying)性(xing)(xing)明显优于苜(mu)蓿(xu)王和(he)牧(mu)歌(ge)410的(de)(de)适应(ying)性(xing)(xing);以(yi)营养价值(zhi)为评价指标,大富(fu)(fu)豪和(he)阿尔冈金(jin)的(de)(de)营养价值(zhi)明显优于苜(mu)蓿(xu)王、大富(fu)(fu)豪和(he)牧(mu)歌(ge)410;5个(ge)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)越冬(dong)率(lv)后期差异不(bu)大。虽然参试5个(ge)紫花苜(mu)蓿(xu)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)均不(bu)能(neng)大量(liang)生产种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi),但均能(neng)提供(gong)一定(ding)产量(liang)的(de)(de)营养体。综合考虑生产性(xing)(xing)能(neng)和(he)营养价值(zhi),阿尔冈金(jin)和(he)威龙在(zai)(zai)高寒地区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)具有较强(qiang)的(de)(de)适应(ying)性(xing)(xing),可(ke)以(yi)在(zai)(zai)高寒地区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植,实现优化高寒地区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)栽培草(cao)地质量(liang),扩大优质蛋白饲料来源。
紫花苜蓿绿肥对水稻产量和土壤肥力的影响
2012, 6(7): 1142-1147.
[摘要](1257) [PDF 422KB](1031)
摘要:
以紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)为绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)植物(wu),利(li)用(yong)南方(fang)冬闲田(tian)(tian)种植紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei),研究(jiu)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(茎叶粉碎还田(tian)(tian))和(he)氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)处(chu)(chu)理(li)对(dui)(dui)水(shui)稻(dao)(dao)(Oryza sativa)生长、土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)机(ji)质、土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)总(zong)氮(dan)(dan)、土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)速(su)(su)效磷(lin)和(he)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)速(su)(su)效钾(jia)含(han)量(liang)的(de)影响。结果表明,紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)和(he)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)+氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)处(chu)(chu)理(li)的(de)水(shui)稻(dao)(dao)产量(liang)分别比不施氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)处(chu)(chu)理(li)增加(jia)了(le)48.2%和(he)72.1%,同时(shi)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)+氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)处(chu)(chu)理(li)的(de)水(shui)稻(dao)(dao)产量(liang)比施氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)处(chu)(chu)理(li)增加(jia)了(le)8.6%。苜(mu)蓿(xu)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)处(chu)(chu)理(li)显著提(ti)高了(le)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)机(ji)质、总(zong)氮(dan)(dan)、速(su)(su)效磷(lin)和(he)速(su)(su)效钾(jia)的(de)含(han)量(liang),改(gai)善了(le)稻(dao)(dao)田(tian)(tian)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)的(de)理(li)化(hua)性(xing)状;同时(shi),苜(mu)蓿(xu)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)+氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)处(chu)(chu)理(li)对(dui)(dui)增加(jia)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)机(ji)质的(de)作用(yong)效果最为明显,并(bing)且有(you)效促进了(le)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)磷(lin)和(he)钾(jia)的(de)活性(xing),增加(jia)了(le)水(shui)稻(dao)(dao)对(dui)(dui)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)磷(lin)和(he)钾(jia)的(de)吸收,从而促进水(shui)稻(dao)(dao)增产。研究(jiu)反映出紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)作为绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)能够有(you)效改(gai)善稻(dao)(dao)田(tian)(tian)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)营养,提(ti)高氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)利(li)用(yong)效率,促进水(shui)稻(dao)(dao)增产,是我(wo)国南方(fang)利(li)用(yong)冬闲田(tian)(tian)种植绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)、改(gai)良(liang)农田(tian)(tian)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)的(de)又(you)一重要绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)植物(wu)资(zi)源。
腾格里沙漠南缘荒漠霸王群落演替特征
2012, 6(7): 1148-1152.
[摘要](927) [PDF 393KB](576)
摘要:
依据霸(ba)王(wang)(wang)(Zygophllum xanthoxylon)群(qun)(qun)落的外貌特征及霸(ba)王(wang)(wang)个体(ti)数量(liang)和(he)冠幅,将霸(ba)王(wang)(wang)演(yan)替(ti)分为(wei)先锋群(qun)(qun)落阶(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)段(duan)(duan)[猫(mao)头刺(ci)(Oxytropis aciphylla)+霸(ba)王(wang)(wang)]、郁闭群(qun)(qun)落阶(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)段(duan)(duan)[霸(ba)王(wang)(wang)+猫(mao)头刺(ci)+荒(huang)漠锦(jin)鸡儿(er)(Caragana roborovskyi)]和(he)衰(shuai)(shuai)退(tui)(tui)阶(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)段(duan)(duan)(猫(mao)头刺(ci)+荒(huang)漠锦(jin)鸡儿(er)+霸(ba)王(wang)(wang)),研究了腾(teng)格里(li)沙漠南缘霸(ba)王(wang)(wang)群(qun)(qun)落在(zai)不同演(yan)替(ti)阶(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)段(duan)(duan)的物(wu)种(zhong)组成、种(zhong)群(qun)(qun)分布格局及优(you)势物(wu)种(zhong)重要值变化特征。结果表明,霸(ba)王(wang)(wang)群(qun)(qun)落演(yan)替(ti)过(guo)程(cheng)中共有17种(zhong)植物(wu),分属7科(ke)14属;在(zai)3个演(yan)替(ti)阶(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)段(duan)(duan),物(wu)种(zhong)丰(feng)富度(du)变化不明显(xian),而物(wu)种(zhong)多样(yang)性(xing)指数呈(cheng)(cheng)先上升后下降趋势,生态(tai)优(you)势度(du)则相反(fan);在(zai)先锋群(qun)(qun)落阶(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)段(duan)(duan)霸(ba)王(wang)(wang)群(qun)(qun)落呈(cheng)(cheng)均匀分布,郁闭阶(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)段(duan)(duan)和(he)衰(shuai)(shuai)退(tui)(tui)阶(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)段(duan)(duan)呈(cheng)(cheng)集(ji)群(qun)(qun)分布;郁闭稳定阶(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)段(duan)(duan)霸(ba)王(wang)(wang)重要值最高,先锋群(qun)(qun)落阶(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)段(duan)(duan)和(he)衰(shuai)(shuai)退(tui)(tui)阶(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)段(duan)(duan)次(ci)之(zhi)。
玛曲高寒湿地植物群落特征及多样性分析
2012, 6(7): 1153-1157.
[摘要](1118) [PDF 399KB](611)
摘要:
采用样(yang)(yang)(yang)带(dai)(dai)法研究(jiu)了玛(ma)曲高寒(han)湿地的(de)植物群落(luo)特征及生物多样(yang)(yang)(yang)性,结果表(biao)明(ming),出现在样(yang)(yang)(yang)地内的(de)主要植物有24种(zhong),隶(li)属于14科22属,优势(shi)种(zhong)为(wei)(wei)高山嵩草(cao)(Kobresia pygmaea),次优势(shi)种(zhong)为(wei)(wei)珠牙蓼(Polygonum viviparnm)、鹅(e)绒委陵菜(cai)(Potentilla anserina)、矮藨(biao)草(cao)(Scirpus triquete)等。群落(luo)生活(huo)型组(zu)成中(zhong)地面(mian)芽植物占优势(shi),占总数(shu)的(de)83%;群落(luo)垂直结构明(ming)显,大(da)体分3层;通(tong)过对4条(tiao)样(yang)(yang)(yang)带(dai)(dai)上(shang)生物多样(yang)(yang)(yang)性指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)进行单因素方差分析(xi),其(qi)中(zhong)丰富度指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(R1、R2)、多样(yang)(yang)(yang)性指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(Simpson多样(yang)(yang)(yang)性指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)D、ShannonWiener多样(yang)(yang)(yang)性指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)H)、均(jun)匀度指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(E1、E2)分别为(wei)(wei)17.75、1.50、1.34、0.39、0.23和(he)0.09。
动物生产层
威宁球茎草芦饲喂黑山羊效果试验
2012, 6(7): 1158-1162.
[摘要](965) [PDF 397KB](542)
摘要:
利用(yong)(yong)(yong)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)生育期的威宁(ning)球(qiu)茎(jing)草芦(lu)(Phalaris tuberose cv.Weining),采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)方(fang)(fang)式(shi)饲喂(wei)黑(hei)山羊,进(jin)行适口(kou)性、采(cai)食率(lv)和经济(ji)效益等方(fang)(fang)面的测定。结果(guo)表明,以(yi)分蘖期至抽穗期(即(ji)株高50~120 cm)的适口(kou)性最(zui)(zui)好,开花(hua)期以(yi)后(hou)适口(kou)性较(jiao)差。在不(bu)同(tong)(tong)饥(ji)饿(e)程度、不(bu)同(tong)(tong)处(chu)理方(fang)(fang)式(shi)下(xia)(xia),黑(hei)山羊对威宁(ning)球(qiu)茎(jing)草芦(lu)鲜(xian)草的适口(kou)性和采(cai)食量不(bu)同(tong)(tong),即(ji)在饥(ji)饿(e)、半(ban)饱状(zhuang)态下(xia)(xia),采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)切碎方(fang)(fang)式(shi)饲喂(wei)效果(guo)较(jiao)好;在八九成(cheng)饱时,采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)切碎+0.5%盐水(shui)处(chu)理效果(guo)最(zui)(zui)好;补充(chong)精料占(zhan)青料8.8%时,经济(ji)效益最(zui)(zui)佳,比单喂(wei)威宁(ning)球(qiu)茎(jing)草芦(lu)鲜(xian)草多盈利26.5元只(zhi)-1。
后生物生产层
于MATLAB的灰色模型在民勤粮食产量预测中的应用
2012, 6(7): 1163-1169.
[摘要](1066) [PDF 485KB](533)
摘要:
根据(ju)(ju)民(min)勤(qin)(qin)县(xian)(xian)历史粮食产(chan)(chan)量(liang)数据(ju)(ju),采(cai)用GM(1,1)预(yu)测模型,用MATLAB软件(jian)实现(xian)了(le)(le)GM(1,1)预(yu)测算法并进行(xing)了(le)(le)精度检验(yan),预(yu)测了(le)(le)2011-2015年(nian)各年(nian)民(min)勤(qin)(qin)县(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)粮食产(chan)(chan)量(liang),以及2011-2019、2020-2028、2029-2037年(nian)这3个阶段的(de)(de)民(min)勤(qin)(qin)县(xian)(xian)粮食产(chan)(chan)量(liang)均值(zhi)。预(yu)测结(jie)果表明,未来几年(nian)民(min)勤(qin)(qin)粮食产(chan)(chan)量(liang)逐渐增(zeng)加,但(dan)增(zeng)幅不大,增(zeng)产(chan)(chan)潜力(li)低。而发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)草(cao)地(di)农(nong)(nong)业能藏粮于草(cao),保证粮食安全,又能治理民(min)勤(qin)(qin)生态环境恶化(hua),还能调(diao)整粮经(jing)饲比例。因此,加速草(cao)地(di)农(nong)(nong)业的(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)是(shi)促进民(min)勤(qin)(qin)可(ke)持续发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)必备(bei)条件(jian)。本研究的(de)(de)结(jie)果可(ke)为政府有关部门(men)宏观规划(hua)和决策提(ti)供理论依(yi)据(ju)(ju),促进民(min)勤(qin)(qin)可(ke)持续发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)。
青藏高原牧区典型家庭牧场选择方法研究以甘肃省玛曲县为例
2012, 6(7): 1170-1175.
[摘要](1226) [PDF 690KB](557)
摘要:
青(qing)藏高原(yuan)草(cao)原(yuan)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)区(qu)典型(xing)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)庭(ting)(ting)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)选择(ze)(ze)对牧(mu)(mu)(mu)区(qu)畜(chu)(chu)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)业科研成果推(tui)广具有重要(yao)意义。以(yi)甘肃省玛曲县(xian)20户家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)庭(ting)(ting)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)为(wei)(wei)基(ji)础,以(yi)户均草(cao)地面(mian)积、家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)畜(chu)(chu)数量、经(jing)济收入(ru)和(he)(he)(he)支(zhi)出(chu)4个因(yin)素作为(wei)(wei)典型(xing)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)户的(de)选择(ze)(ze)依(yi)据(ju)(ju),并(bing)分(fen)别对以(yi)生产资(zi)料(liao)为(wei)(wei)依(yi)据(ju)(ju)的(de)典型(xing)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)庭(ting)(ting)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)、以(yi)经(jing)营(ying)(ying)水(shui)平为(wei)(wei)依(yi)据(ju)(ju)的(de)典型(xing)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)庭(ting)(ting)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)和(he)(he)(he)以(yi)生产资(zi)料(liao)和(he)(he)(he)经(jing)营(ying)(ying)水(shui)平综合的(de)典型(xing)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)庭(ting)(ting)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)进(jin)行了(le)分(fen)析,选出(chu)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)户2、12、13和(he)(he)(he)19为(wei)(wei)研究区(qu)典型(xing)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)庭(ting)(ting)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang),其(qi)户均草(cao)地面(mian)积、家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)畜(chu)(chu)数量、经(jing)济收入(ru)和(he)(he)(he)支(zhi)出(chu)分(fen)别为(wei)(wei)195.0 hm2、452.5羊单位、5.08万元(yuan)(yuan)和(he)(he)(he)4.18万元(yuan)(yuan)。分(fen)析结(jie)果表(biao)明,这些(xie)家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)庭(ting)(ting)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)能(neng)代表(biao)调查(cha)区(qu)多数家(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)庭(ting)(ting)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)草(cao)畜(chu)(chu)生产经(jing)营(ying)(ying)状况和(he)(he)(he)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)民生活水(shui)平。
中国牧草种子国际贸易格局研究及启示
2012, 6(7): 1176-1181.
[摘要](854) [PDF 442KB](551)
摘要:
为抓(zhua)住机遇快速发展中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)子产(chan)业,本(ben)研究首先(xian)从国(guo)际贸(mao)易(yi)商(shang)品(pin)结构(gou)及地理分布等角度(du)分析(xi)了中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)子贸(mao)易(yi)现状,其(qi)次,探讨了中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)子贸(mao)易(yi)的(de)特点,在此基础(chu)上总结出中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)子贸(mao)易(yi)的(de)未来(lai)趋势及启(qi)示。结果显示,中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)子需求量将(jiang)会(hui)进(jin)(jin)(jin)一(yi)步增(zeng)加、牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)子进(jin)(jin)(jin)口量短期(qi)内将(jiang)会(hui)继续保持高位,但主要牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)终将(jiang)依(yi)赖(lai)国(guo)内市场解(jie)决供应;而当前(qian)紧(jin)迫的(de)任务则是(shi)推动进(jin)(jin)(jin)口草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)制度(du)规范化建设(she)、积极推进(jin)(jin)(jin)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)子专业化生产(chan)及实施(shi)科技兴草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)战略。
欧宝体育