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2013年30卷3期

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前植物生产层
东灵山亚高山草甸优势种的点格局分析
向春玲, 张金屯
2013, 7(3): 317-321.
[摘要](1155) [PDF 760KB](343)
摘要:
点格局分析(xi)法是(shi)(shi)20世纪末发展起来的多(duo)尺度空(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)格局分析(xi)方法。通过研(yan)究东灵山亚高山草(cao)甸(dian)(dian)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)(qun)的点格局,发现草(cao)甸(dian)(dian)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)(qun)的空(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)分布格局和(he)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)关联性同旅(lv)游(you)干扰因(yin)(yin)素(su)(su)有(you)密切联系。在(zai)(zai)旅(lv)游(you)的强干扰下,东灵山亚高山草(cao)甸(dian)(dian)具(ju)有(you)集群(qun)(qun)和(he)各(ge)尺度上表(biao)现出(chu)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)负关联的特点。这种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)分布的特点,说(shuo)明(ming)在(zai)(zai)旅(lv)游(you)干扰严重的群(qun)(qun)落(luo)中,草(cao)甸(dian)(dian)各(ge)物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)几乎(hu)靠顽强的繁殖(zhi)能力发展起来,生(sheng)态位差(cha)异明(ming)显(xian),而(er)后才(cai)是(shi)(shi)物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)自身特性、种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)内(nei)和(he)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)竞争等因(yin)(yin)素(su)(su)作用(yong)的结(jie)果,因(yin)(yin)而(er)各(ge)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)(qun)首先(xian)表(biao)现出(chu)明(ming)显(xian)的群(qun)(qun)体效应,以(yi)充分利用(yong)环境资源。
新疆霍城假苇拂子茅种群构件的年龄结构
赵 玉, 刘 影, 努尔买买提
2013, 7(3): 322-327.
[摘要](1824) [PDF 419KB](269)
摘要:
通过生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)季末期单位面积取样的(de)(de)(de)(de)方(fang)法,对新(xin)疆霍城县沟谷(gu)中不同生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)境(jing)(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)假苇拂子茅(Calamagrostis pseudophragmits)种群构(gou)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)组(zu)成(cheng)及其年(nian)(nian)龄结(jie)构(gou)进行了研究。结(jie)果表(biao)明,3个生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)境(jing)(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)假苇拂子茅分蘖节的(de)(de)(de)(de)存活年(nian)(nian)限最(zui)(zui)长(zhang)为(wei)6 a,分蘖株(zhu)(zhu)在数量(liang)上(shang)均(jun)由5个龄级(ji)组(zu)成(cheng),属稳(wen)定型年(nian)(nian)龄结(jie)构(gou)。就单株(zhu)(zhu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)力的(de)(de)(de)(de)整(zheng)体(ti)水平(ping)(ping)而言(yan),3个生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)境(jing)(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)力水平(ping)(ping)表(biao)现为(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)境(jing)(jing)H2生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)境(jing)(jing)H3生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)境(jing)(jing)H1,且各生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)境(jing)(jing)间存在显(xian)著差(cha)异(yi)(P0.05),反(fan)映(ying)(ying)了单株(zhu)(zhu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)力在不同生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)境(jing)(jing)间具有一定的(de)(de)(de)(de)差(cha)异(yi)。根茎(jing)(jing)(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)存活年(nian)(nian)限最(zui)(zui)长(zhang)为(wei)5 a,根茎(jing)(jing)(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)力则以(yi)(yi)1 a或2 a龄级(ji)最(zui)(zui)高,各生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)境(jing)(jing)根茎(jing)(jing)(jing)长(zhang)与根茎(jing)(jing)(jing)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物量(liang)均(jun)以(yi)(yi)1 a或2 a龄级(ji)所占比例最(zui)(zui)高,且随龄级(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)增加而递减,反(fan)映(ying)(ying)出潮湿、疏松的(de)(de)(de)(de)沙质(zhi)土(tu)壤有利于(yu)假苇拂子茅根茎(jing)(jing)(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)和物质(zhi)储存。
高山草原放牧率与群落物种丰富度
王 化, 侯扶江, 袁 航, 万秀丽, 徐 磊, 陈先江, 常生华
2013, 7(3): 328-333.
[摘要](1562) [PDF 447KB](398)
摘要:
选择(ze)甘(gan)肃(su)(su)省(sheng)肃(su)(su)南(nan)裕固族自治县(xian)甘(gan)肃(su)(su)马鹿(Cervus elaphus kansuensis)养殖(zhi)场冬(dong)季牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场不同牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)压(ya)梯度(du)的(de)6个样(yang)地(di)(di)(di),采用(yong)巢式样(yang)方(fang)法调查草地(di)(di)(di)植物(wu)(wu)(wu)群(qun)落(luo)的(de)物(wu)(wu)(wu)种数(shu)(shu),研究了甘(gan)肃(su)(su)马鹿山地(di)(di)(di)草原(yuan)(yuan)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)率与草地(di)(di)(di)群(qun)落(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)种丰富度(du)的(de)关系(xi)(xi)。结果(guo)表明,放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)强度(du)梯度(du)上,冬(dong)季牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场物(wu)(wu)(wu)种数(shu)(shu)随取(qu)样(yang)面(mian)积(ji)(ji)的(de)增(zeng)大而逐渐增(zeng)加,放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)减轻导致物(wu)(wu)(wu)种增(zeng)幅(fu)上升(sheng),放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)对物(wu)(wu)(wu)种丰富度(du)的(de)贡献率提高(gao)。高(gao)山草原(yuan)(yuan)的(de)最(zui)小取(qu)样(yang)面(mian)积(ji)(ji)为0.71~1.54 m2,各(ge)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)率样(yang)地(di)(di)(di)物(wu)(wu)(wu)种数(shu)(shu)的(de)变化分别在0.16~0.32和0.32~0.64 m2范围内(nei)最(zui)剧烈。物(wu)(wu)(wu)种数(shu)(shu)随放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)增(zeng)强呈下降(jiang)趋势,在放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)率2.45 AUMhm-2出现拐点,拐点两(liang)侧(ce)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)对物(wu)(wu)(wu)种多(duo)样(yang)性具有不同的(de)作(zuo)用(yong)规律,2.45 AUMhm-2为高(gao)山草原(yuan)(yuan)适宜的(de)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)率。在牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场尺度(du)上,当(dang)面(mian)积(ji)(ji)超过2.56 m2,改善放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)管(guan)理对物(wu)(wu)(wu)种丰富度(du)的(de)增(zeng)加没有作(zuo)用(yong)。
高温高湿环境佛甲草栽培基质的研制
汤 聪, 郭 微, 蔡桂芬, 冼令英, 刘 念
2013, 7(3): 334-340.
[摘要](1443) [PDF 439KB](310)
摘要:
佛(fo)(fo)甲(jia)草(cao)(cao)(Sedum lineare)因(yin)繁殖能力强,具(ju)有较强的耐(nai)热、耐(nai)旱性(xing),且(qie)易于管理,目前在(zai)屋顶(ding)绿(lv)化中被广泛(fan)应用。然(ran)而工(gong)程(cheng)实践表明,佛(fo)(fo)甲(jia)草(cao)(cao)不耐(nai)水涝,尤其(qi)在(zai)高(gao)(gao)温(wen)(wen)高(gao)(gao)湿(shi)条件(jian)(jian)下容易因(yin)根茎腐烂(lan)而死亡(wang)。本(ben)研究从基(ji)(ji)质角度出发,选(xuan)用了进口泥(ni)炭(tan)(tan)、国产泥(ni)炭(tan)(tan)、国产草(cao)(cao)炭(tan)(tan)、园林废弃(qi)(qi)物(wu)(wu)、珍珠岩(yan)、椰丝等为基(ji)(ji)质材(cai)料(liao),通(tong)过(guo)(guo)分析佛(fo)(fo)甲(jia)草(cao)(cao)相关生长指标以及(ji)混合基(ji)(ji)质的理化性(xing)质等,筛选(xuan)出在(zai)高(gao)(gao)温(wen)(wen)高(gao)(gao)湿(shi)条件(jian)(jian)下最(zui)适合佛(fo)(fo)甲(jia)草(cao)(cao)生长的基(ji)(ji)质配(pei)方。结果表明,高(gao)(gao)温(wen)(wen)高(gao)(gao)湿(shi)条件(jian)(jian)下佛(fo)(fo)甲(jia)草(cao)(cao)最(zui)适合在(zai)园林废弃(qi)(qi)物(wu)(wu)中生长,且(qie)价格最(zui)低,可节(jie)约工(gong)程(cheng)成本(ben);进一步通(tong)过(guo)(guo)正交(jiao)试(shi)验得出园林废弃(qi)(qi)物(wu)(wu)∶珍珠岩(yan)∶椰丝=8∶1∶3和8∶3∶2时,佛(fo)(fo)甲(jia)草(cao)(cao)生长最(zui)好,为佛(fo)(fo)甲(jia)草(cao)(cao)高(gao)(gao)温(wen)(wen)高(gao)(gao)湿(shi)条件(jian)(jian)下生长的最(zui)佳基(ji)(ji)质配(pei)比。
7种杀菌剂对草坪草腐霉枯萎病菌的毒力测定与药效试验
李银萍, 袁庆华, 王 瑜
2013, 7(3): 341-345.
[摘要](1444) [PDF 515KB](423)
摘要:
采用生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)速度(du)法和(he)(he)(he)孢子囊(nang)形成(cheng)(cheng)法测(ce)定了7种(zhong)(zhong)杀菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)剂对(dui)草坪腐霉(mei)枯萎(wei)病菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)毒力(li)作用,并进行了7种(zhong)(zhong)杀菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)剂拌种(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)温室盆栽防(fang)治效(xiao)果(guo)研(yan)究。室内毒力(li)测(ce)定表明(ming),不(bu)同(tong)杀菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)剂对(dui)腐霉(mei)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)丝的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)和(he)(he)(he)游(you)动孢子囊(nang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形成(cheng)(cheng)有(you)显著的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)抑(yi)制(zhi)作用(P0.05)。对(dui)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)丝的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)有(you)明(ming)显抑(yi)制(zhi)效(xiao)果(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)杀菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)剂主要是(shi)霜(shuang)(shuang)脲(niao)锰(meng)(meng)锌(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)、代森(sen)锰(meng)(meng)锌(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)和(he)(he)(he)霜(shuang)(shuang)霉(mei)威盐酸盐,前(qian)两种(zhong)(zhong)杀菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)剂的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)半(ban)致死(si)浓度(du)(EC50)值(zhi)(zhi)均为(wei)1.28 mgL-1,后者的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)EC50值(zhi)(zhi)为(wei)3.26 mgL-1。对(dui)游(you)动孢子囊(nang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形成(cheng)(cheng)抑(yi)制(zhi)效(xiao)果(guo)明(ming)显的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)杀菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)剂是(shi)吡(bi)唑醚菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)酯、霜(shuang)(shuang)脲(niao)锰(meng)(meng)锌(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)和(he)(he)(he)代森(sen)锰(meng)(meng)锌(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin),其(qi)EC50值(zhi)(zhi)分别(bie)是(shi)0.09 、0.21和(he)(he)(he)0.46 mgL-1。用7种(zhong)(zhong)杀菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)剂分别(bie)拌种(zhong)(zhong)后,高羊茅(mao)(Festuca arundinacea)出苗率都有(you)不(bu)同(tong)程度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)提高,其(qi)中霜(shuang)(shuang)脲(niao)锰(meng)(meng)锌(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)和(he)(he)(he)代森(sen)锰(meng)(meng)锌(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)对(dui)腐霉(mei)枯萎(wei)病的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)防(fang)治效(xiao)果(guo)较好。根据杀菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)剂的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)室内毒力(li)测(ce)定和(he)(he)(he)盆栽防(fang)效(xiao)试验结果(guo),霜(shuang)(shuang)脲(niao)锰(meng)(meng)锌(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)和(he)(he)(he)代森(sen)锰(meng)(meng)锌(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)对(dui)腐霉(mei)枯萎(wei)病的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)防(fang)治效(xiao)果(guo)优于(yu)其(qi)它5种(zhong)(zhong)杀菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)剂。
丁香酚对小麦-蚕豆间作土壤微生物数量及多样性的影响
刘辉娟, 柴 强, 黄高宝, 周海燕, 朱 静
2013, 7(3): 346-351.
[摘要](1635) [PDF 402KB](315)
摘要:
通过盆栽试验(yan),探(tan)讨了(le)在(zai)田间(jian)(jian)持水量(liang)75%水平下,小(xiao)麦(Triticum aestivum)根系分泌物丁(ding)(ding)(ding)香酚(fen)(fen)对小(xiao)麦、蚕(can)(can)豆(dou)(Vicia sativa)单(dan)(dan)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)和(he)(he)间(jian)(jian)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)群(qun)体(ti)(ti)土壤(rang)微(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)物数(shu)量(liang)及其多(duo)样(yang)性(xing)的(de)(de)影响,以期为化(hua)(hua)感物质(zhi)间(jian)(jian)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)群(qun)体(ti)(ti)的(de)(de)调控(kong)提供理(li)论依据。结果表明,总(zong)体(ti)(ti)上,微(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)物的(de)(de)多(duo)样(yang)性(xing)降(jiang)低(di)(di),真菌(jun)和(he)(he)放线菌(jun)数(shu)量(liang)减(jian)少,而(er)细(xi)菌(jun)数(shu)量(liang)增加。与无丁(ding)(ding)(ding)香酚(fen)(fen)处(chu)理(li)对比,在(zai)3种种植模式中,丁(ding)(ding)(ding)香酚(fen)(fen)对土壤(rang)真菌(jun)和(he)(he)放线菌(jun)数(shu)量(liang)均表现为化(hua)(hua)感抑(yi)制作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)用,两种微(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)物数(shu)量(liang)的(de)(de)减(jian)小(xiao)幅(fu)度(du)分别为21.95%~98.42%和(he)(he)13.33%~92.82%;单(dan)(dan)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)小(xiao)麦较间(jian)(jian)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)处(chu)理(li)的(de)(de)细(xi)菌(jun)数(shu)量(liang)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua)了(le)-118.63%~90.73%,但单(dan)(dan)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)蚕(can)(can)豆(dou)细(xi)菌(jun)数(shu)量(liang)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua)了(le)-56.39%~76.76%;放线菌(jun)占(zhan)微(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)物的(de)(de)相对数(shu)量(liang)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua)了(le)-4.42%~4.32%,细(xi)菌(jun)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua)了(le)-4.36%~4.88%。小(xiao)麦间(jian)(jian)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)蚕(can)(can)豆(dou)降(jiang)低(di)(di)了(le)土壤(rang)微(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)物多(duo)样(yang)性(xing)指数(shu),较单(dan)(dan)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)小(xiao)麦、单(dan)(dan)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)蚕(can)(can)豆(dou)分别变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua)了(le)15%~26.98%和(he)(he)-45.45%~6.67%;经丁(ding)(ding)(ding)香酚(fen)(fen)处(chu)理(li),单(dan)(dan)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)中土壤(rang)微(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)物多(duo)样(yang)性(xing)指数(shu)降(jiang)低(di)(di),而(er)间(jian)(jian)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua)不大。
醉马草内生真菌共生体对土壤微生物和养分的影响
黄 玺, 李秀璋, 柴 青, 李春杰
2013, 7(3): 352-356.
[摘要](1441) [PDF 402KB](461)
摘要:
本研究以我国(guo)西北(bei)部天然草(cao)(cao)原广泛分(fen)布(bu)的烈性毒(du)草(cao)(cao)醉(zui)马(ma)(ma)草(cao)(cao)(Achnatherum inebrians)为(wei)(wei)对(dui)(dui)象,分(fen)析内生(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)共生(sheng)体(ti)对(dui)(dui)根(gen)系土(tu)壤中(zhong)(zhong)微生(sheng)物区系和(he)养(yang)(yang)分(fen)的影响。结果(guo)表明,采(cai)自桑(sang)科、甘加和(he)榆中(zhong)(zhong)3个地区的醉(zui)马(ma)(ma)草(cao)(cao)根(gen)际土(tu)壤中(zhong)(zhong)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)数量为(wei)(wei)其(qi)伴生(sheng)种根(gen)际土(tu)壤中(zhong)(zhong)对(dui)(dui)应菌(jun)(jun)的1.31~1.56倍、细菌(jun)(jun)数量为(wei)(wei)1.56~2.65倍。土(tu)壤营养(yang)(yang)成分(fen)测定结果(guo)表明,醉(zui)马(ma)(ma)草(cao)(cao)根(gen)际土(tu)壤中(zhong)(zhong)有机(ji)质、全氮、速效(xiao)磷(lin)(lin)和(he)速效(xiao)钾的含(han)量均显(xian)著(zhu)高于其(qi)伴生(sheng)种,而全磷(lin)(lin)和(he)全钾含(han)量差异不(bu)显(xian)著(zhu)。
甘草内生真菌分离及其抑菌活性初探
毕江涛, 王小霞, 陈卫民, 王 静, 贺达汉
2013, 7(3): 357-364.
[摘要](2062) [PDF 495KB](333)
摘要:
为(wei)(wei)了(le)解(jie)药(yao)用(yong)植物(wu)(wu)甘草(cao)(cao)(Glycyrrhiza uralensis)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)资(zi)源多(duo)样性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)及其抑(yi)(yi)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)特征,通过组织(zhi)块法对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)进行分(fen)离(li)(li),并(bing)选择(ze)小(xiao)麦全(quan)蚀病(bing)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(Gaeumannomyces graminis var.tritici)、枸杞黑果病(bing)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)、番(fan)茄(qie)灰霉病(bing)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(Botrytis cinerea)、黄(huang)(huang)瓜枯(ku)萎(wei)病(bing)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(Fusarium oxysporium f.sp.cucumeris)、黄(huang)(huang)瓜立枯(ku)病(bing)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(Rhizoctonia solani)5种(zhong)(zhong)植物(wu)(wu)病(bing)原真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)和枯(ku)草(cao)(cao)芽孢(bao)杆(gan)(gan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(Bacillus subtilis)、大(da)肠杆(gan)(gan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(Escherichia coli)、金(jin)(jin)黄(huang)(huang)色(se)葡(pu)(pu)(pu)(pu)萄球(qiu)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(Staphylococcus aureus)、铜绿假单胞菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)4种(zhong)(zhong)细菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)(wei)供(gong)试(shi)指示(shi)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun),采用(yong)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)峙法和改进的菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)块法测定抑(yi)(yi)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。试(shi)验结果显(xian)(xian)示(shi),从甘草(cao)(cao)根、茎(jing)、叶(ye)中分(fen)离(li)(li)出20株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun),其中根部(bu)最(zui)多(duo),占分(fen)离(li)(li)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)总数(shu)的65.0%,其次(ci)为(wei)(wei)茎(jing)部(bu),叶(ye)部(bu)最(zui)少;经形态(tai)学初步(bu)分(fen)类(lei)鉴定归于2目2科(ke)5属(shu)(shu),梭孢(bao)霉属(shu)(shu)为(wei)(wei)优势菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)属(shu)(shu),占分(fen)离(li)(li)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)总数(shu)的70.0%;在分(fen)离(li)(li)的内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)中有(you)(you)(you)15株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)1种(zhong)(zhong)或1种(zhong)(zhong)以上供(gong)试(shi)植物(wu)(wu)病(bing)原真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)有(you)(you)(you)不同程(cheng)度的抑(yi)(yi)制(zhi)作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong),为(wei)(wei)分(fen)离(li)(li)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)总数(shu)的75.0%,19株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)1种(zhong)(zhong)或1种(zhong)(zhong)以上供(gong)试(shi)细菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)有(you)(you)(you)不同程(cheng)度的抑(yi)(yi)制(zhi)作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong),为(wei)(wei)分(fen)离(li)(li)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)总数(shu)的95.0%;有(you)(you)(you)7株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)枯(ku)草(cao)(cao)芽孢(bao)杆(gan)(gan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)拮(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)抗(kang)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)差(cha)异显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05),有(you)(you)(you) 8株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)金(jin)(jin)黄(huang)(huang)色(se)葡(pu)(pu)(pu)(pu)萄球(qiu)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)拮(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)抗(kang)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)差(cha)异显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu),有(you)(you)(you)3株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)大(da)肠杆(gan)(gan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)拮(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)抗(kang)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)差(cha)异显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu),有(you)(you)(you)1株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)革(ge)兰氏(shi)阴性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)铜绿假单胞菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)拮(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)抗(kang)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)差(cha)异显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu),其中菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)RLEFR015对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)番(fan)茄(qie)灰霉病(bing)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)、金(jin)(jin)黄(huang)(huang)色(se)葡(pu)(pu)(pu)(pu)萄球(qiu)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)拮(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)抗(kang)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)差(cha)异显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu),菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)RLEFR010对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)大(da)肠杆(gan)(gan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)、金(jin)(jin)黄(huang)(huang)色(se)葡(pu)(pu)(pu)(pu)萄球(qiu)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)拮(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)抗(kang)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)差(cha)异显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu),菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)RLEFR002对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)枯(ku)草(cao)(cao)芽孢(bao)杆(gan)(gan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)、金(jin)(jin)黄(huang)(huang)色(se)葡(pu)(pu)(pu)(pu)萄球(qiu)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)供(gong)试(shi)细菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)拮(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)抗(kang)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)差(cha)异显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu);菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)RLEFR015、RLEFR002、RLEFR010均为(wei)(wei)梭孢(bao)霉属(shu)(shu),为(wei)(wei)高(gao)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)。甘草(cao)(cao)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)具有(you)(you)(you)多(duo)样性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)和抑(yi)(yi)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),多(duo)数(shu)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)供(gong)试(shi)病(bing)原真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)和病(bing)原细菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)具有(you)(you)(you)拮(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)抗(kang)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)革(ge)兰氏(shi)阳(yang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)金(jin)(jin)黄(huang)(huang)色(se)葡(pu)(pu)(pu)(pu)萄球(qiu)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)和革(ge)兰氏(shi)阳(yang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)枯(ku)草(cao)(cao)芽孢(bao)杆(gan)(gan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)拮(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)抗(kang)活(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)较(jiao)强(qiang),预示(shi)着甘草(cao)(cao)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)具有(you)(you)(you)重要(yao)的资(zi)源价(jia)值(zhi)。
AM真菌提高宿主植物耐受重金属胁迫的生理机制
林双双, 孙向伟, 王晓娟, 李媛媛, 罗巧玉, 孙 莉, 金 樑
2013, 7(3): 365-374.
[摘要](2122) [PDF 563KB](527)
摘要:
本文围(wei)绕(rao)重金属(shu)(shu)胁迫条件下(xia)丛枝(zhi)菌(jun)根(gen)(AM)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)的(de)生理(li)生态响应特征,从生理(li)和(he)分子水平(ping)上(shang)综述AM真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)对重金属(shu)(shu)离(li)子吸收和(he)控制的(de)机理(li): 1)AM真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)菌(jun)丝的(de)吸附作用减(jian)缓(huan)重金属(shu)(shu)向植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)地上(shang)部分的(de)迁(qian)移,从而(er)达(da)到(dao)保护(hu)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)免受重金属(shu)(shu)毒害的(de)目的(de);2)AM真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)的(de)菌(jun)丝体分泌物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)与重金属(shu)(shu)之间的(de)螯合作用;3)AM真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)促进宿主植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)对矿(kuang)质营养元素的(de)吸收;4)调(diao)节(jie)重金属(shu)(shu)在宿主植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)地上(shang)部分和(he)地下(xia)部分的(de)分布;5)AM真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)调(diao)节(jie)宿主植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)体内抗氧(yang)化酶的(de)活性和(he)内源激素的(de)水平(ping);6)AM真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)调(diao)节(jie)参与吸收和(he)转运(yun)重金属(shu)(shu)离(li)子的(de)基因的(de)表达(da)。综上(shang)所述,本文提出在广泛调(diao)查、筛(shai)选(xuan)超累积(ji)菌(jun)根(gen)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)基础上(shang),不断探索植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)-微生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)-菌(jun)根(gen)复(fu)合体的(de)修(xiu)复(fu)机制,并结合基因工(gong)程技术,以促进重金属(shu)(shu)污染土(tu)壤的(de)生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)修(xiu)复(fu)。
草人诗记
二十五滇南剪影
任继周
2013, 7(3): 375-375.
[摘要](800) [PDF 226KB](1026)
摘要:
植物生产层
利用SSR标记分析一年生黑麦草遗传多样性的取样策略
罗永聪, 马 啸, 张新全
2013, 7(3): 376-382.
[摘要](1460) [PDF 549KB](426)
摘要:
一年(nian)生(sheng)黑麦草(cao)(cao)(Lolium multiflorum)为异花授粉植物,其(qi)DNA多(duo)(duo)态性(xing)(xing)研(yan)究(jiu)的(de)(de)取(qu)(qu)(qu)样(yang)(yang)(yang)策略与遗传(chuan)(chuan)多(duo)(duo)样(yang)(yang)(yang)性(xing)(xing)分析的(de)(de)可靠性(xing)(xing)和效率(lv)(lv)直(zhi)接相关(guan)。从一年(nian)生(sheng)黑麦草(cao)(cao)国(guo)家(jia)审(shen)定品种(zhong)(zhong)长江2号和特高中,分别提(ti)取(qu)(qu)(qu)50个(ge)单株DNA,同时(shi)(shi)提(ti)取(qu)(qu)(qu)5、10、15、20、25和30个(ge)单株叶片混(hun)合(he)(he)样(yang)(yang)(yang)本(ben)(ben)的(de)(de)DNA,利用(yong)SSR标(biao)(biao)记进行(xing)遗传(chuan)(chuan)多(duo)(duo)态性(xing)(xing)分析。研(yan)究(jiu)结果表明,取(qu)(qu)(qu)样(yang)(yang)(yang)梯度(du)间(jian)多(duo)(duo)态性(xing)(xing)信息(xi)含(han)量(liang)(liang)指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)(PIC)差异不(bu)显(xian)著(zhu)(P0.05),但当混(hun)合(he)(he)单株样(yang)(yang)(yang)本(ben)(ben)为20株时(shi)(shi),PIC达到最高值;SSR平均等(deng)(deng)位(wei)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)数(shu)(shu)和单个(ge)SSR座位(wei)上等(deng)(deng)位(wei)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)种(zhong)(zhong)类随(sui)样(yang)(yang)(yang)品内单株混(hun)合(he)(he)数(shu)(shu)目增加而增加,当取(qu)(qu)(qu)样(yang)(yang)(yang)量(liang)(liang)在20株及(ji)以上时(shi)(shi),等(deng)(deng)位(wei)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)数(shu)(shu)和等(deng)(deng)位(wei)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)种(zhong)(zhong)类趋(qu)于(yu)稳定,电泳图(tu)谱(pu)表现基(ji)本(ben)(ben)一致;不(bu)考(kao)虑稀(xi)有(you)(you)等(deng)(deng)位(wei)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(基(ji)因(yin)(yin)频率(lv)(lv)10%)的(de)(de)漏检(jian),采用(yong)20株混(hun)合(he)(he)样(yang)(yang)(yang)本(ben)(ben)能(neng)够(gou)(gou)最大限度(du)保(bao)持检(jian)出较高频率(lv)(lv)(>10%)等(deng)(deng)位(wei)基(ji)因(yin)(yin),且(qie)重演(yan)性(xing)(xing)较好。鉴于(yu)此,利用(yong)SSR标(biao)(biao)记分析一年(nian)生(sheng)黑麦草(cao)(cao)遗传(chuan)(chuan)多(duo)(duo)样(yang)(yang)(yang)性(xing)(xing)时(shi)(shi)采用(yong)20个(ge)单株混(hun)合(he)(he)样(yang)(yang)(yang)提(ti)取(qu)(qu)(qu)的(de)(de)DNA样(yang)(yang)(yang)本(ben)(ben)能(neng)够(gou)(gou)有(you)(you)效反映(ying)群体间(jian)差异。
温度对8个野生早熟禾材料萌发特性的影响
贺佳圆, 王靖婷, 白小明, 董 沁, 吕优伟
2013, 7(3): 383-389.
[摘要](1719) [PDF 431KB](332)
摘要:
以(yi)8个(ge)野生早熟(shu)(shu)禾(Poa)种(zhong)质(zhi)种(zhong)子(zi)为(wei)萌(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)试验(yan)材料(liao),设6个(ge)恒温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)和(he)2个(ge)变温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)处(chu)理,探(tan)讨其萌(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)适宜温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)范围(wei),为(wei)野生早熟(shu)(shu)禾引种(zhong)驯化和(he)开发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)利(li)用提供依(yi)据。结果显示,10~35 ℃恒温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)范围(wei)内(nei),随温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)升高,野生早熟(shu)(shu)禾材料(liao)种(zhong)子(zi)的(de)(de)萌(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)速(su)度(du)、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)(ya)率、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)(ya)势(shi)、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)(ya)指(zhi)数(shu)、胚(pei)芽(ya)(ya)(ya)长(zhang)、胚(pei)根(gen)长(zhang)、苗鲜(xian)质(zhi)量(liang)均表现出先增大(da)后降低(di)的(de)(de)趋(qu)势(shi)。8个(ge)温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)处(chu)理下(xia),野生早熟(shu)(shu)禾种(zhong)子(zi)在20~30 ℃恒温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)萌(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)速(su)度(du)最快(kuai)(kuai),初始(shi)萌(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)时(shi)间4~5 d,10 ℃恒温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)萌(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)速(su)度(du)最慢,初始(shi)萌(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)时(shi)间11~14 d,比最快(kuai)(kuai)萌(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)速(su)度(du)延(yan)迟6~10 d。以(yi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)(ya)率、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)(ya)势(shi)和(he)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)(ya)指(zhi)数(shu)3个(ge)萌(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)指(zhi)标(biao)为(wei)主要依(yi)据,并参考胚(pei)芽(ya)(ya)(ya)和(he)胚(pei)根(gen)长(zhang)、苗鲜(xian)质(zhi)量(liang),认为(wei)波伐早熟(shu)(shu)禾(P.poophagorum)、草(cao)地早熟(shu)(shu)禾(甘南)(P.pratensis)和(he)小(xiao)药(yao)早熟(shu)(shu)禾(P.micrandra)种(zhong)子(zi)最适宜萌(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)为(wei)20 ℃恒温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen);草(cao)地早熟(shu)(shu)禾(兴隆(long)山)、草(cao)地早熟(shu)(shu)禾(肃南)、草(cao)地早熟(shu)(shu)禾(渭源)、草(cao)地早熟(shu)(shu)禾(天祝)和(he)硬质(zhi)早熟(shu)(shu)禾(P.sphondylodes)种(zhong)子(zi)最适宜萌(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)为(wei)25 ℃恒温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)。对大(da)多材料(liao)种(zhong)子(zi)而(er)言,较高的(de)(de)恒温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(25 ℃)有利(li)于(yu)胚(pei)芽(ya)(ya)(ya)生长(zhang),较低(di)的(de)(de)恒温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(20 ℃)或(huo)变温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)有利(li)于(yu)胚(pei)根(gen)生长(zhang),5 ℃/20 ℃和(he)10 ℃/25 ℃两(liang)个(ge)变温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)条件(jian)下(xia)的(de)(de)各项指(zhi)标(biao)低(di)于(yu)对应高温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)20和(he)25 ℃恒温(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)处(chu)理。
伊犁绢蒿年际结实量、土壤种子库及幼苗输入特征
鲁为华, 任爱天, 杨洁晶, 靳瑰丽
2013, 7(3): 390-396.
[摘要](1334) [PDF 479KB](275)
摘要:
连续3年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)对伊(yi)(yi)(yi)犁(li)(li)绢蒿(Seriphidium transiliense)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)结实(shi)量(liang)和(he)萌发(fa)行为(wei)进行了测定(ding),并对土(tu)壤(rang)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)库和(he)幼苗(miao)输入特征进行了分(fen)析。结果表(biao)明(ming),种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)结实(shi)量(liang)主要受(shou)围(wei)(wei)栏(lan)和(he)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)度气候条(tiao)件两因素(su)的影响(xiang),围(wei)(wei)栏(lan)内种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)产量(liang)明(ming)显(xian)(xian)高于(yu)围(wei)(wei)栏(lan)外(wai),年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)际间(jian)(jian)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)产量(liang)的变动更为(wei)剧烈(lie),表(biao)现为(wei)2007>2009>2008年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)。伊(yi)(yi)(yi)犁(li)(li)绢蒿单(dan)株种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)产量(liang)对围(wei)(wei)栏(lan)和(he)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)度气候条(tiao)件两因素(su)的响(xiang)应都极为(wei)敏感(gan),在(zai)围(wei)(wei)栏(lan)内外(wai)和(he)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)度间(jian)(jian)均(jun)表(biao)现为(wei)差异(yi)极显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P0.01),但(dan)结实(shi)模式未(wei)发(fa)生(sheng)明(ming)显(xian)(xian)变化。围(wei)(wei)栏(lan)内外(wai)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)萌发(fa)率存(cun)在(zai)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)差异(yi)(P0.05),但(dan)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)度间(jian)(jian)差异(yi)不显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P0.05);土(tu)壤(rang)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)库内可萌发(fa)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)数在(zai)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)度和(he)围(wei)(wei)栏(lan)内外(wai)均(jun)变化剧烈(lie),均(jun)存(cun)在(zai)极显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)差异(yi)(P0.01);围(wei)(wei)栏(lan)内春季新生(sheng)幼苗(miao)数量(liang)多于(yu)围(wei)(wei)栏(lan)外(wai),新生(sheng)幼苗(miao)数量(liang)在(zai)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)度间(jian)(jian)差异(yi)不显(xian)(xian)著(zhu);幼苗(miao)存(cun)活(huo)(huo)数量(liang)不论在(zai)围(wei)(wei)栏(lan)内外(wai)还是在(zai)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)度间(jian)(jian)都比(bi)较少,但(dan)围(wei)(wei)栏(lan)能够显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)提高幼苗(miao)存(cun)活(huo)(huo)率。伊(yi)(yi)(yi)犁(li)(li)绢蒿从结实(shi)、种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)库、幼苗(miao)发(fa)生(sheng)到存(cun)活(huo)(huo)各阶段(duan)的转化率均(jun)比(bi)较低,在(zai)整个(ge)生(sheng)活(huo)(huo)史过程中表(biao)现出明(ming)显(xian)(xian)的r对策(ce)。
4个核桃品种光合特性的日变化
宗建伟, 杨雨华, 杨风岭, 梁亚红, 刘杜玲, 朱海兰
2013, 7(3): 397-401.
[摘要](1206) [PDF 416KB](297)
摘要:
采用LI6400便携式(shi)光(guang)(guang)合(he)测定仪,分析鲁光(guang)(guang)、扎343、强特勒(le)、中林(lin)5号4个(ge)核(he)桃(Juglans regia)品种(zhong)光(guang)(guang)合(he)特性的(de)日变(bian)化,以期为(wei)核(he)桃的(de)优质高产和规范(fan)化生产提供理(li)论(lun)依(yi)据。结果表明,4个(ge)不同的(de)核(he)桃品种(zhong)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)合(he)速率(Pn)日变(bian)化均呈现双峰曲线,且在(zai)14:00均出现显(xian)著的(de)午休现象;强特勒(le)、中林(lin)5号较(jiao)鲁光(guang)(guang)和扎343更早地受到了光(guang)(guang)抑(yi)制。4个(ge)核(he)桃品种(zhong)Pn与(yu)光(guang)(guang)合(he)有效辐(fu)射(PAR)均存(cun)在(zai)显(xian)著正相(xiang)关,相(xiang)关系数由大到小依(yi)次为(wei)扎343强特勒(le)鲁光(guang)(guang)中林(lin)5号。
6份凉粉草种质的光合日动态
邓 坚, 李晓晖, 罗应怡, 张平刚, 甘凤琼, 李良波, 黄荣韶
2013, 7(3): 402-408.
[摘要](2486) [PDF 491KB](353)
摘要:
为(wei)了探(tan)讨凉(liang)(liang)(liang)粉(fen)(fen)草(cao)(cao)(Mesona chinensis)的(de)(de)(de)(de)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)特性,探(tan)索合(he)(he)(he)适(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)植模式(shi)(shi),采用(yong)LI6400XT便携式(shi)(shi)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)系统测定了6份(fen)(fen)不同(tong)(tong)产地的(de)(de)(de)(de)凉(liang)(liang)(liang)粉(fen)(fen)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)日(ri)变化(hua)和(he)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)响应(ying)(ying)曲线(xian),同(tong)(tong)时利用(yong)分光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)度(du)法(fa)测定了叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)叶(ye)(ye)绿(lv)素含(han)量。结果表明,三甲(jia)仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)和(he)下坝仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)午休(xiu)现(xian)象是气孔因素和(he)非气孔因素共同(tong)(tong)作用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)结果,灵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)山(shan)(shan)大叶(ye)(ye)、灵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)山(shan)(shan)小叶(ye)(ye)、派(pai)潭(tan)仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)和(he)越(yue)南(nan)仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)为(wei)气孔因素的(de)(de)(de)(de)作用(yong);6种(zhong)(zhong)凉(liang)(liang)(liang)粉(fen)(fen)草(cao)(cao)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)补偿(chang)(chang)点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)高低顺(shun)(shun)序(xu)依(yi)次(ci)为(wei)灵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)山(shan)(shan)小叶(ye)(ye)三甲(jia)仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)下坝仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)派(pai)潭(tan)仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)灵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)山(shan)(shan)大叶(ye)(ye)越(yue)南(nan)仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao),光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)饱和(he)点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)高低顺(shun)(shun)序(xu)为(wei)灵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)山(shan)(shan)小叶(ye)(ye)下坝仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)越(yue)南(nan)仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)派(pai)潭(tan)仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)灵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)山(shan)(shan)大叶(ye)(ye)三甲(jia)仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)。方差分析表明,灵(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)山(shan)(shan)小叶(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)补偿(chang)(chang)点(dian)和(he)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)饱和(he)点(dian)均(jun)显著高于(P0.05)其他(ta)5种(zhong)(zhong)凉(liang)(liang)(liang)粉(fen)(fen)草(cao)(cao),适(shi)合(he)(he)(he)在(zai)(zai)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)照较强的(de)(de)(de)(de)环(huan)境中生长,越(yue)南(nan)仙(xian)(xian)草(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)补偿(chang)(chang)点(dian)最(zui)(zui)低(P0.01),较为(wei)耐阴,可(ke)能适(shi)应(ying)(ying)林下栽培模式(shi)(shi);6份(fen)(fen)凉(liang)(liang)(liang)粉(fen)(fen)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)叶(ye)(ye)绿(lv)素含(han)量与最(zui)(zui)大净光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)速率显著正相关(guan)(P0.05),而日(ri)变化(hua)净光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)速率均(jun)值是各种(zhong)(zhong)环(huan)境因素和(he)内在(zai)(zai)因素共同(tong)(tong)作用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)结果。本研究可(ke)为(wei)探(tan)索凉(liang)(liang)(liang)粉(fen)(fen)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)植模式(shi)(shi)、合(he)(he)(he)理规范(fan)化(hua)种(zhong)(zhong)植和(he)优(you)良品(pin)系筛选(xuan)等(deng)方面提供(gong)理论依(yi)据。
硝态氮对去叶多花黑麦草再生性的影响及其调控机制
王 佳, 王晓凌
2013, 7(3): 409-417.
[摘要](1367) [PDF 540KB](313)
摘要:
本试验研究了多(duo)次(ci)去叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)后根(gen)(gen)系(xi)吸(xi)收硝(xiao)态(tai)氮(NO-3)对(dui)多(duo)花(hua)黑(hei)麦(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Lolium multiflorum)持续再(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)的影响(xiang)。结果表(biao)明(ming),无(wu)外源(yuan)NO-3供(gong)应时,多(duo)次(ci)去叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)明(ming)显降(jiang)低了黑(hei)麦(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)根(gen)(gen)系(xi)伤流量(liang)、新(xin)生(sheng)(sheng)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)NO-3含量(liang)、新(xin)生(sheng)(sheng)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)细胞分(fen)裂(lie)(lie)素含量(liang)以及新(xin)生(sheng)(sheng)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量(liang);无(wu)论是第1次(ci)还是第3次(ci)去叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)后供(gong)应外源(yuan)NO-3,根(gen)(gen)系(xi)对(dui)硝(xiao)态(tai)氮的吸(xi)收易引(yin)起黑(hei)麦(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)根(gen)(gen)系(xi)伤流量(liang)、根(gen)(gen)系(xi)NO-3含量(liang)、伤流液NO-3积累量(liang)、新(xin)生(sheng)(sheng)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)NO-3含量(liang)、新(xin)生(sheng)(sheng)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)细胞分(fen)裂(lie)(lie)素含量(liang)及其生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)的增加。黑(hei)麦(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)新(xin)生(sheng)(sheng)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)中高的细胞分(fen)裂(lie)(lie)素含量(liang)易促进叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)的持续再(zai)生(sheng)(sheng),但这种促进作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)并不依赖(lai)于根(gen)(gen)系(xi)向叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)运(yun)输(shu)细胞分(fen)裂(lie)(lie)素的多(duo)少,而是由根(gen)(gen)系(xi)向新(xin)生(sheng)(sheng)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)运(yun)输(shu)的NO-3对(dui)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)细胞分(fen)裂(lie)(lie)素合(he)成的诱(you)导作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)决定的。
不同温度下雌雄葎草营养生长期的生长特性
段 婧, 刘金平
2013, 7(3): 418-422.
[摘要](1230) [PDF 392KB](304)
摘要:
通(tong)过测定15、20、25 ℃培(pei)养(yang)(yang)条(tiao)件下,雌雄(xiong)葎(lv)草(Humulus scandens)单株(zhu)(zhu)营养(yang)(yang)生(sheng)长(zhang)期(qi)持(chi)续(xu)时(shi)间,根(gen)、茎、叶等(deng)构件数量(liang)性(xing)状(zhuang)及(ji)(ji)鲜质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)、干质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)和生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)分配等(deng)指标,分析温度(du)对(dui)营养(yang)(yang)生(sheng)长(zhang)期(qi)雌雄(xiong)葎(lv)草生(sheng)长(zhang)特性(xing)的影(ying)响(xiang)。结果表明,温度(du)对(dui)葎(lv)草营养(yang)(yang)生(sheng)长(zhang)持(chi)续(xu)期(qi)有极显著影(ying)响(xiang)(P<0.01),雌株(zhu)(zhu)比(bi)雄(xiong)株(zhu)(zhu)更(geng)易(yi)受影(ying)响(xiang);温度(du)极显著影(ying)响(xiang)根(gen)、茎、叶等(deng)构件数量(liang)性(xing)状(zhuang)及(ji)(ji)其鲜质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)与(yu)干质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang);温度(du)极显著影(ying)响(xiang)营养(yang)(yang)生(sheng)长(zhang)期(qi)雌、雄(xiong)葎(lv)草单株(zhu)(zhu)的生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)总量(liang)及(ji)(ji)构成,雄(xiong)株(zhu)(zhu)通(tong)过减少叶生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)、雌株(zhu)(zhu)通(tong)过增加根(gen)系生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)来(lai)为生(sheng)殖生(sheng)长(zhang)提(ti)供(gong)物(wu)质(zhi)(zhi)基础。
盐碱胁迫冬油菜的主导因素分析
许耀照, 孙万仓, 曾秀存, 李彩霞, 周喜旺
2013, 7(3): 423-429.
[摘要](1066) [PDF 432KB](384)
摘要:
用(yong)4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)分(fen)为A因(yin)(yin)素(NaCl、Na2SO4、Na2CO3和(he)(he)(he)NaHCO3的(de)依次盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)分(fen)组成摩(mo)尔比为A1(1∶9∶9∶1)、A2(1∶1∶1∶1)、A3(9∶1∶1∶9)和(he)(he)(he)A4(1∶1∶9∶9)与5种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)浓度(du)为B因(yin)(yin)素(盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)浓度(du)B1、B2、B3、B4和(he)(he)(he)B5 分(fen)别为10、20、30、40和(he)(he)(he)50 mmolL-1)的(de)双因(yin)(yin)素试(shi)验,模拟20种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)不同(tong)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)度(du)和(he)(he)(he)pH的(de)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)碱(jian)条件(jian)处(chu)理冬(dong)油菜陇油6号(Brassica campestris cv.Longyou No.6)的(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子和(he)(he)(he)幼苗(miao)7 d后,测定其种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子发芽率、幼苗(miao)叶片(pian)细(xi)胞膜透性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、丙(bing)二(er)醛、脯氨(an)酸(suan)、可溶性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)蛋(dan)白含(han)(han)量和(he)(he)(he)根系(xi)活力等指标(biao)。结果表明(ming),随着处(chu)理盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)浓度(du)的(de)增(zeng)加(jia),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子发芽率、幼苗(miao)根系(xi)活力和(he)(he)(he)可溶性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)蛋(dan)白含(han)(han)量降低,叶片(pian)细(xi)胞膜透性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)和(he)(he)(he)脯氨(an)酸(suan)的(de)含(han)(han)量增(zeng)加(jia);降低和(he)(he)(he)增(zeng)加(jia)程度(du)由A1~A4大体增(zeng)强,不同(tong)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)组成处(chu)理间差异(yi)显(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05)。用(yong)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)度(du)(Na+)、pH值、CO32-和(he)(he)(he)Cl-代表盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)碱(jian)混合条件(jian)所有胁(xie)迫(po)(po)因(yin)(yin)素,胁(xie)迫(po)(po)因(yin)(yin)素与胁(xie)变指标(biao)间均具有高度(du)线性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)相关性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。pH值、盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)度(du)(Na+)和(he)(he)(he)CO32-是(shi)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)碱(jian)混合条件(jian)对冬(dong)油菜胁(xie)迫(po)(po)的(de)主导(dao)因(yin)(yin)素,而Cl-的(de)胁(xie)迫(po)(po)作用(yong)也不可忽(hu)略。
不同建植期混播草地群落特征的年际动态
李 海, 朱春玲, 安沙舟, 马江飞, 邓海峰
2013, 7(3): 430-435.
[摘要](1268) [PDF 509KB](348)
摘要:
针对(dui)(dui)(dui)新疆昭苏山前平地(di)(di)草(cao)(cao)甸草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)严重(zhong)退化(hua)的问题,采用耕(geng)翻混(hun)播(bo)种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)6种(zhong)(zhong)豆科(ke)和禾本科(ke)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)的方式,研究不(bu)同种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)年(nian)限混(hun)播(bo)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)的物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)消长(zhang)、群(qun)落特征和产量(liang)(liang)变(bian)化(hua)。结(jie)果表明,混(hun)播(bo)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)植(zhi)物(wu)组成、群(qun)落结(jie)构与对(dui)(dui)(dui)照(zhao)(天(tian)然(ran)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di))相比均(jun)发生(sheng)了明显(xian)变(bian)化(hua),栽(zai)培牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)占据绝对(dui)(dui)(dui)优势,牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)上生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)(liang)均(jun)显(xian)著(zhu)高(gao)于对(dui)(dui)(dui)照(zhao)(P0.05);除2008年(nian)外,最高(gao)生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)(liang)均(jun)在(zai)7月(yue)中旬,比天(tian)然(ran)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)提前15 d以上,最高(gao)地(di)(di)上生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)(liang)平均(jun)为2 500 gm-2,是(shi)天(tian)然(ran)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)的2.54倍。随着种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)年(nian)限的延(yan)长(zhang),草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)原(yuan)有(you)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)先后(hou)出(chu)现,致使群(qun)落物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)丰(feng)富(fu)度、多样性、均(jun)匀度总(zong)体(ti)呈(cheng)增(zeng)(zeng)加趋(qu)(qu)势;栽(zai)培牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)重(zhong)要值总(zong)体(ti)呈(cheng)下(xia)降趋(qu)(qu)势,其中禾本科(ke)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)呈(cheng)增(zeng)(zeng)加而豆科(ke)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)呈(cheng)下(xia)降趋(qu)(qu)势,草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)生(sheng)产力虽呈(cheng)下(xia)降趋(qu)(qu)势但仍保持较高(gao)生(sheng)产力。
关中地区果草系统产草量与对杂草的控制
寇建村, 杨文权, 韩明玉, 杨小娟, 顾沐宇
2013, 7(3): 436-446.
[摘要](1336) [PDF 551KB](301)
摘要:
于苹(ping)(ping)果园建(jian)植(zhi)第(di)1年(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)春(chun)季,在(zai)(zai)(zai)果树行间分别(bie)种(zhong)植(zhi)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong),以(yi)不(bu)(bu)(bu)种(zhong)草(cao)(cao)(cao)为对(dui)照,研究不(bu)(bu)(bu)同草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)情(qing)况和(he)(he)其对(dui)杂(za)(za)(za)草(cao)(cao)(cao)群落(luo)(luo)的(de)(de)影响。结果表明,在(zai)(zai)(zai)关(guan)(guan)中(zhong)地(di)区(qu)苹(ping)(ping)果园牧草(cao)(cao)(cao)春(chun)播后(hou),白三(san)叶(Trifolium repens)、红三(san)叶(T.pratense)、多年(nian)(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑麦草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Lolium perenne)、紫羊(yang)茅(Festuca rubra)、高羊(yang)茅(F.arundinacea)出(chu)苗和(he)(he)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)较快,短期(qi)内能(neng)形成致(zhi)密的(de)(de)草(cao)(cao)(cao)层,杂(za)(za)(za)草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)类(lei)、密度和(he)(he)盖度小(xiao),抑制杂(za)(za)(za)草(cao)(cao)(cao)效(xiao)果好;草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)早熟禾(Poa pratensis)、匍匐剪(jian)股颖(Agrostis stolonifera)、百(bai)脉根(Lotus cornioulatus)、马(ma)(ma)蹄金(Dichondra repens)、狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)出(chu)苗和(he)(he)保苗难度较大,到秋季才能(neng)完全覆(fu)盖地(di)面,种(zhong)植(zhi)后(hou)前半年(nian)(nian)抑制杂(za)(za)(za)草(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)作用(yong)较差,而(er)在(zai)(zai)(zai)形成致(zhi)密草(cao)(cao)(cao)层后(hou),各(ge)草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)均(jun)能(neng)很好地(di)抑制杂(za)(za)(za)草(cao)(cao)(cao)群落(luo)(luo)发(fa)展(zhan)。第(di)2年(nian)(nian),除马(ma)(ma)蹄金、狗牙根外,其余草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)均(jun)能(neng)在(zai)(zai)(zai)3月(yue)返(fan)青(qing),11月(yue)后(hou)枯黄,绿期(qi)长(zhang)。马(ma)(ma)蹄金匍匐茎水(shui)平(ping)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)速度适(shi)(shi)(shi)中(zhong),垂直(zhi)高度常年(nian)(nian)保持(chi)在(zai)(zai)(zai)10~15 cm,既能(neng)很好地(di)覆(fu)盖地(di)面,又无需(xu)(xu)修(xiu)剪(jian),维护费用(yong)最低;白三(san)叶、红三(san)叶、百(bai)脉根生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)速度适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜,在(zai)(zai)(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)季可以(yi)根据需(xu)(xu)要决定(ding)修(xiu)剪(jian)或不(bu)(bu)(bu)修(xiu)剪(jian);多年(nian)(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑麦草(cao)(cao)(cao)、高羊(yang)茅生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)速度较快,生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量较大,种(zhong)植(zhi)当年(nian)(nian)需(xu)(xu)要修(xiu)剪(jian)1次(ci)(ci),第(di)2年(nian)(nian)可根据需(xu)(xu)要确(que)定(ding)修(xiu)剪(jian)次(ci)(ci)数;匍匐剪(jian)股颖和(he)(he)紫羊(yang)茅生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)速度相(xiang)对(dui)较慢,可适(shi)(shi)(shi)当减少修(xiu)剪(jian)次(ci)(ci)数;狗牙根返(fan)青(qing)晚(wan)、枯黄早,水(shui)平(ping)扩(kuo)展(zhan)速度和(he)(he)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)速度太快,不(bu)(bu)(bu)适(shi)(shi)(shi)合苹(ping)(ping)果园种(zhong)植(zhi)。说明各(ge)草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)在(zai)(zai)(zai)果园中(zhong)的(de)(de)适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜性不(bu)(bu)(bu)一,其不(bu)(bu)(bu)同的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)特性是种(zhong)草(cao)(cao)(cao)果园管理的(de)(de)重(zhong)要基础,草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)盖度和(he)(he)其抑制杂(za)(za)(za)草(cao)(cao)(cao)群落(luo)(luo)发(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)效(xiao)果密切相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)。
光照强度对垂盆草建植期生长和生理特性的影响
张 蕾, 江海东
2013, 7(3): 447-451.
[摘要](1334) [PDF 431KB](313)
摘要:
通过(guo)人工遮(zhe)阴(yin)处理,研究了(le)不(bu)同(tong)光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)强(qiang)(qiang)度(分别为全(quan)光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)的(de)(de)100%、77%、47%和23%)对垂(chui)(chui)盆(pen)草(cao)(cao)(Sedum sarmentosum)建(jian)植期(qi)生(sheng)长(zhang)和生(sheng)理特性(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)影响(xiang)。结果表明(ming),在试验(yan)所设(she)的(de)(de)光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)范围内,垂(chui)(chui)盆(pen)草(cao)(cao)均可正常生(sheng)长(zhang),并表现出较(jiao)强(qiang)(qiang)的(de)(de)形(xing)态可塑(su)性(xing)(xing),随着光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)减弱(ruo),萌芽增(zeng)多(duo),枝条变(bian)(bian)(bian)长(zhang),节间(jian)距(ju)变(bian)(bian)(bian)大,直径变(bian)(bian)(bian)小,叶片层数增(zeng)多(duo)。与(yu)全(quan)光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)相比,遮(zhe)阴(yin)促进(jin)了(le)植株(zhu)干物质的(de)(de)积(ji)累,并通过(guo)生(sheng)物量(liang)分配格局的(de)(de)改(gai)变(bian)(bian)(bian),将更多(duo)的(de)(de)能(neng)量(liang)用于支持器官茎的(de)(de)生(sheng)长(zhang)。这一(yi)系(xi)列的(de)(de)改(gai)变(bian)(bian)(bian)均有(you)(you)利(li)于植株(zhu)获(huo)得更多(duo)的(de)(de)光(guang)能(neng)来适应弱(ruo)光(guang)环境。此(ci)外,遮(zhe)阴(yin)使(shi)植株(zhu)含(han)水量(liang)和可溶(rong)性(xing)(xing)蛋白含(han)量(liang)上升,可溶(rong)性(xing)(xing)糖含(han)量(liang)下降(jiang),光(guang)合色素含(han)量(liang)仅在23%的(de)(de)光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)下显著增(zeng)多(duo),但此(ci)时根系(xi)发育受到(dao)严重影响(xiang),植株(zhu)生(sheng)物量(liang)与(yu)47%光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)相比有(you)(you)所下降(jiang)。综上所述,通过(guo)适度遮(zhe)阴(yin)可加(jia)快垂(chui)(chui)盆(pen)草(cao)(cao)成坪速(su)度,但建(jian)议光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)强(qiang)(qiang)度不(bu)低于23%。
干旱对内蒙古草地牧草返青期的影响
李兴华, 陈素华, 韩 芳
2013, 7(3): 452-456.
[摘要](1086) [PDF 393KB](307)
摘要:
利用4月份降(jiang)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)与(yu)(yu)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)返青(qing)期(qi)的(de)(de)关系(xi)(xi)分析干(gan)旱(han)对(dui)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)返青(qing)期(qi)的(de)(de)影响。研(yan)究表明,内(nei)蒙(meng)古草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)返青(qing)期(qi)与(yu)(yu)4月份降(jiang)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)呈(cheng)显著负相关;在荒漠(mo)草(cao)(cao)(cao)原,当4月份降(jiang)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)减(jian)少(shao)30%~50%时,牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)返青(qing)期(qi)将推迟(chi)5~15 d;在典型草(cao)(cao)(cao)原和(he)草(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)原,当4月份降(jiang)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)减(jian)少(shao)50%以上时,牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)返青(qing)期(qi)才受(shou)降(jiang)水(shui)偏少(shao)的(de)(de)影响,推迟(chi)10 d左右。建立了干(gan)旱(han)等(deng)级与(yu)(yu)补(bu)饲、人畜(chu)饮水(shui)成本损(sun)失的(de)(de)对(dui)应关系(xi)(xi),实现(xian)了干(gan)旱(han)对(dui)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)返青(qing)期(qi)直接(jie)经济(ji)损(sun)失的(de)(de)定量(liang)(liang)评(ping)估(gu),评(ping)估(gu)模型符(fu)合草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)生长规律和(he)畜(chu)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)业(ye)生产(chan)特征,实例评(ping)估(gu)符(fu)合畜(chu)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)业(ye)实际损(sun)失程度,因此,能够在干(gan)旱(han)对(dui)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)畜(chu)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)业(ye)影响评(ping)估(gu)服(fu)务中(zhong)推广应用。
动物生产层
乌蒙山区黑山羊越冬情况分析
丁 芳, 刘加文
2013, 7(3): 457-460.
[摘要](1016) [PDF 404KB](273)
摘要:
发(fa)展草(cao)(cao)地(di)畜(chu)(chu)牧业一直是贵州(zhou)发(fa)展经济和改善生(sheng)态环境的(de)重要(yao)措施,本研究通(tong)过实地(di)调(diao)查(cha)和试验的(de)方法对(dui)贵州(zhou)省赫(he)章县(xian)(xian)黑(hei)(hei)山(shan)(shan)羊(yang)的(de)越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)问题进行调(diao)查(cha)。结果(guo)表(biao)明(ming),赫(he)章县(xian)(xian)黑(hei)(hei)山(shan)(shan)羊(yang)的(de)越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)死(si)(si)亡(wang)率高(gao),总体(ti)(ti)死(si)(si)亡(wang)率为(wei)14.9%,其(qi)中(zhong)羊(yang)羔(gao)死(si)(si)亡(wang)率最高(gao)达31.0%,体(ti)(ti)况较好(hao)的(de)育肥(fei)羊(yang)最低(3.8%)。越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)期间,黑(hei)(hei)山(shan)(shan)羊(yang)体(ti)(ti)质量(liang)平均(jun)减(jian)轻(qing)11.4%,1月(yue)减(jian)少最多,流(liu)产(chan)率达到28.6%。试验结果(guo)显(xian)示,布鲁氏(shi)杆菌(jun)、弓形虫、衣(yi)原体(ti)(ti)抗体(ti)(ti)阳性率均(jun)为(wei)0,说明(ming)赫(he)章县(xian)(xian)黑(hei)(hei)山(shan)(shan)羊(yang)的(de)流(liu)产(chan)并不(bu)是由布鲁氏(shi)杆菌(jun)、衣(yi)原体(ti)(ti)、弓形虫等疫病引起的(de)。因此,可通(tong)过加(jia)强(qiang)圈舍建设、提(ti)高(gao)家畜(chu)(chu)营养(yang)(yang)水平、强(qiang)化(hua)饲(si)养(yang)(yang)管理等措施来(lai)减(jian)少越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)死(si)(si)亡(wang)率,降(jiang)低流(liu)产(chan)率,避免冬(dong)季的(de)无效饲(si)养(yang)(yang),从(cong)而解(jie)决贵州(zhou)省赫(he)章县(xian)(xian)黑(hei)(hei)山(shan)(shan)羊(yang)养(yang)(yang)殖的(de)越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)问题,不(bu)断(duan)提(ti)高(gao)草(cao)(cao)地(di)畜(chu)(chu)牧业生(sheng)产(chan)效益。
适于草坪斜纹夜蛾防治的绿色农药室内筛选
曹明章, 朱卫锋, 李存焕
2013, 7(3): 461-464.
[摘要](1268) [PDF 391KB](428)
摘要:
为(wei)了筛(shai)选适于草(cao)坪害虫斜(xie)(xie)纹(wen)(wen)夜(ye)(ye)蛾(e)(Prodenia litura)防(fang)治的绿(lv)色(se)(se)农(nong)药(yao),采用浸叶法测定比较了5个(ge)不同化学(xue)类(lei)(lei)别共20种(zhong)(zhong)绿(lv)色(se)(se)杀(sha)虫剂对(dui)(dui)斜(xie)(xie)纹(wen)(wen)夜(ye)(ye)蛾(e)3龄幼(you)虫的室内(nei)活性(xing)。结果(guo)表明(ming),7种(zhong)(zhong)常用农(nong)用拟除虫菊(ju)酯(zhi)类(lei)(lei)杀(sha)虫剂的杀(sha)虫效果(guo)不及(ji)常规有(you)机磷农(nong)药(yao)毒死蜱,而(er)2种(zhong)(zhong)新型拟除虫菊(ju)酯(zhi)四氟(fu)醚(mi)菊(ju)酯(zhi)和(he)(he)四氟(fu)苯菊(ju)酯(zhi)的杀(sha)虫效果(guo)相当或优于毒死蜱;苯甲酰(xian)脲(niao)类(lei)(lei)药(yao)剂虱螨脲(niao)、氟(fu)啶脲(niao)和(he)(he)氟(fu)铃脲(niao),双酰(xian)肼(jing)类(lei)(lei)虫酰(xian)肼(jing),杂(za)环类(lei)(lei)茚虫威(wei)和(he)(he)虫螨腈,以及(ji)生物源类(lei)(lei)杀(sha)虫剂甲氨基(ji)阿维菌素苯甲酸盐7种(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)剂对(dui)(dui)斜(xie)(xie)纹(wen)(wen)夜(ye)(ye)蛾(e)的活性(xing)高,均符(fu)合绿(lv)色(se)(se)无公害农(nong)药(yao)的基(ji)本要求,是值得进(jin)一步试(shi)验(yan)开发(fa)用于草(cao)坪斜(xie)(xie)纹(wen)(wen)夜(ye)(ye)蛾(e)等夜(ye)(ye)蛾(e)类(lei)(lei)害虫防(fang)治的候选药(yao)剂。
后生物生产层
青藏高原草地使用权纠纷的成因、危害及其解决途径
后宏伟, 郭正刚
2013, 7(3): 465-470.
[摘要](1001) [PDF 488KB](311)
摘要:
草(cao)地(di)(di)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)权(quan)纠(jiu)(jiu)纷(fen)是严重(zhong)威胁着我国(guo)藏区社会稳(wen)定(ding)和(he)(he)持续发展的(de)重(zhong)要因(yin)素之一。本(ben)研(yan)究从(cong)经(jing)济利益驱动、边(bian)界(jie)存议、团(tuan)体本(ben)位(wei)思想和(he)(he)纠(jiu)(jiu)纷(fen)解决(jue)机制(zhi)等方面分析(xi)了藏区草(cao)地(di)(di)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)权(quan)纠(jiu)(jiu)纷(fen)形成的(de)原因(yin),然后(hou)阐(chan)述(shu)了草(cao)地(di)(di)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)权(quan)纠(jiu)(jiu)纷(fen)对牧民生命财产安全(quan)、社会稳(wen)定(ding)、政(zheng)府执(zhi)政(zheng)能(neng)力和(he)(he)公信力的(de)危害,以(yi)及其(qi)促使(shi)(shi)藏族习惯(guan)法(fa)回潮的(de)不利后(hou)果,最(zui)后(hou)提出了以(yi)完善法(fa)律法(fa)规为基础(chu),重(zhong)勘争议区边(bian)界(jie),加强普法(fa)力度和(he)(he)缉枪(qiang)制(zhi)爆等解决(jue)草(cao)地(di)(di)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)权(quan)纠(jiu)(jiu)纷(fen)的(de)长(zhang)效途径,以(yi)期实现藏区社会稳(wen)定(ding)和(he)(he)全(quan)面发展。
我国苜蓿产业过去10年发展成就与未来10年发展重点
孙启忠, 玉 柱, 马春晖, 徐春城
2013, 7(3): 471-477.
[摘要](1182) [PDF 476KB](368)
摘要:
纵观我国苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)60多(duo)年(nian)的发(fa)展(zhan)历程(cheng),可(ke)分(fen)为5个阶(jie)段。近十(shi)几年(nian),随着苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)的社会地(di)位(wei)(wei)和作(zuo)用不(bu)断(duan)提高(gao)与增(zeng)(zeng)强,苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)科(ke)(ke)技(ji)驱动力(li)(li)亦不(bu)断(duan)提升,产业(ye)(ye)结构不(bu)断(duan)明晰(xi),种(zhong)植面(mian)积不(bu)断(duan)扩大,生(sheng)产加(jia)工企业(ye)(ye)不(bu)断(duan)涌(yong)现;同时,苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)供需矛盾也在持续加(jia)剧,科(ke)(ke)技(ji)创新不(bu)足的压(ya)力(li)(li)与日(ri)俱增(zeng)(zeng),资源约束的压(ya)力(li)(li)越来(lai)越大,生(sheng)态(tai)安全的压(ya)力(li)(li)明显增(zeng)(zeng)强,苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)界面(mian)耦合(he)的压(ya)力(li)(li)日(ri)趋明显;今后应着力(li)(li)提升苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)持续发(fa)展(zhan)的战略地(di)位(wei)(wei),强化(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)科(ke)(ke)技(ji)创新、新品种(zhong)培(pei)育(yu)和种(zhong)子产业(ye)(ye)发(fa)展(zhan),推进苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)产业(ye)(ye)现代化(hua)(hua)发(fa)展(zhan)进程(cheng),提升苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)-奶牛一体化(hua)(hua)发(fa)展(zhan)水平,大力(li)(li)发(fa)展(zhan)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)生(sheng)物技(ji)术及(ji)其生(sheng)物经济。
宁夏发展沙产业的社会、经济与生态效益
谢增武, 王 坤, 曹世雄
2013, 7(3): 478-483.
[摘要](1425) [PDF 459KB](283)
摘要:
宁(ning)(ning)夏(xia)(xia)是我国荒(huang)漠(mo)(mo)(mo)化(hua)最严(yan)重和社(she)会经(jing)济发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)相对落后的地区之一。为了实现(xian)荒(huang)漠(mo)(mo)(mo)化(hua)防治(zhi)(zhi)与(yu)社(she)会经(jing)济发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)双赢的目标,自(zi)20世纪90年代,宁(ning)(ning)夏(xia)(xia)政府(fu)(fu)按(an)照(zhao)政府(fu)(fu)引导(dao)、项目带(dai)动(dong)、企(qi)业(ye)介入、全(quan)社(she)会参与(yu)的思路,大力提(ti)倡治(zhi)(zhi)沙产业(ye)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan),通过推广温室大棚、中草(cao)药(yao)、压砂西(xi)瓜、基地农户一体(ti)化(hua)以及沙漠(mo)(mo)(mo)旅游等措施(shi),使宁(ning)(ning)夏(xia)(xia)成(cheng)为少数(shu)几个实现(xian)沙漠(mo)(mo)(mo)化(hua)逆转的地区。宁(ning)(ning)夏(xia)(xia)治(zhi)(zhi)沙产业(ye)实践(jian)结果表明(ming),生态修(xiu)复(fu)与(yu)经(jing)济发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的有效结合以及适当(dang)的生态补偿政策,可以实现(xian)自(zi)然环境与(yu)社(she)会经(jing)济的良性互动(dong),从而摆(bai)脱贫困(kun)陷(xian)阱(jing)困(kun)扰(rao)。宁(ning)(ning)夏(xia)(xia)治(zhi)(zhi)沙产业(ye)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)为我国乃(nai)至(zhi)全(quan)球贫困(kun)地区的荒(huang)漠(mo)(mo)(mo)化(hua)防治(zhi)(zhi)提(ti)供了重要经(jing)验(yan)。
欧宝体育