欧宝体育

欢迎访问 欧宝体育,今天是

2013年30卷8期

显示方式:          |     

前植物生产层
施氮对黑麦草草坪生长及土壤硝态氮的影响
张斐斐, 白 龙, 王晓红, 刘 英
2013, 7(8): 1143-1148.
[摘要](1411) [PDF 665KB](291)
摘要:
随着(zhe)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)种(zhong)植面积的(de)(de)(de)不断增加(jia)(jia),施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)肥引(yin)起(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)环境问(wen)题备受(shou)关注。为(wei)(wei)明(ming)确氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)肥对多(duo)年(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Lolium perenne)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)及对土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤硝态(tai)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)残(can)留的(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响,本研究采(cai)用盆(pen)栽试(shi)验,设计不同(tong)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)水(shui)平(0、100、150、250、350 kghm-2a-1),测定草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)速(su)(su)度、地(di)上生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)(liang)、叶绿(lv)(lv)素(su)含(han)量(liang)(liang)及土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤中(zhong)硝态(tai)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)的(de)(de)(de)残(can)留量(liang)(liang)。试(shi)验结果表明(ming),0~250 kghm-2a-1施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)范(fan)围内,草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)速(su)(su)率、地(di)上生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)(liang)和(he)叶绿(lv)(lv)素(su)含(han)量(liang)(liang)均随施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)增加(jia)(jia)而增加(jia)(jia),施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)达350 kghm-2a-1时各(ge)指标均开(kai)始下(xia)降。根下(xia)层土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤硝态(tai)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)的(de)(de)(de)残(can)留量(liang)(liang)约占根系层的(de)(de)(de)一半,150 kghm-2a-1施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)水(shui)平下(xia)各(ge)土(tu)(tu)(tu)层中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)残(can)留量(liang)(liang)与对照无明(ming)显(xian)差异(yi),说明(ming)此施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)基本能够满足草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)需要的(de)(de)(de)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)。超(chao)过250 kghm-2a-1时,土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)残(can)留量(liang)(liang)逐渐增加(jia)(jia),达到350 kghm-2a-1时根下(xia)层的(de)(de)(de)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)残(can)留量(liang)(liang)达到最高值(zhi)9.01 mgkg-1。从(cong)兼(jian)顾草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)观赏价值(zhi)和(he)环境安(an)全的(de)(de)(de)角度考虑,东(dong)北地(di)区黑麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)的(de)(de)(de)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)为(wei)(wei)250 kghm-2a-1较为(wei)(wei)合适,若超(chao)过此量(liang)(liang),就会引(yin)起(qi)(qi)硝态(tai)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)淋失,增加(jia)(jia)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)污染的(de)(de)(de)危险性。
3种观赏草的持水性能
陈 莹, 彭正鑫, 洪 伟
2013, 7(8): 1156-1160.
[摘要](1051) [PDF 964KB](236)
摘要:
本研(yan)究(jiu)以福建地区比(bi)较常见的(de)(de)(de)(de)3种观(guan)(guan)赏(shang)(shang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)旱伞草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Cyperus alternifolius)、狼尾(wei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Pennisetum alopecuroides)和麦冬(Ophiopogon japonicus)为研(yan)究(jiu)对(dui)象,应用浸(jin)泡法分别测定3种观(guan)(guan)赏(shang)(shang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)根、茎、叶的(de)(de)(de)(de)持水(shui)量并进(jin)行分析。研(yan)究(jiu)表明,3种观(guan)(guan)赏(shang)(shang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)持水(shui)性(xing)能存(cun)在差异(yi),其中狼尾(wei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)持水(shui)性(xing)能最强。观(guan)(guan)赏(shang)(shang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)各部(bu)位持水(shui)性(xing)同样存(cun)在差异(yi),浸(jin)泡时(shi)间与持水(shui)率呈(cheng)极显(xian)(xian)著正(zheng)相关(guan)关(guan)系,与吸水(shui)速率呈(cheng)极显(xian)(xian)著负相关(guan)关(guan)系(P0.001)。3种观(guan)(guan)赏(shang)(shang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)均(jun)有良好的(de)(de)(de)(de)持水(shui)性(xing)能,对(dui)园林造景和生态保护具有积极的(de)(de)(de)(de)作用。
玉树典型嵩草草甸植物及土壤特性初探
孙长宏
2013, 7(8): 1161-1166.
[摘要](1147) [PDF 551KB](239)
摘要:
以青海玉树(shu)小嵩(song)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Kobresia pygmaea)、藏(zang)嵩(song)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(K.tibetica)健康草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)和(he)退化草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)为研究对(dui)象(xiang),测(ce)定并分(fen)析(xi)比较了草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)的(de)(de)(de)株高、盖度(du)(du)等(deng)植(zhi)被特(te)性和(he)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)有机质(zhi)、土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全氮、土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全磷等(deng)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)养分(fen)的(de)(de)(de)变化规律,同时分(fen)析(xi)了环(huan)境(jing)(jing)因(yin)子对(dui)生(sheng)物(wu)量的(de)(de)(de)贡(gong)献率(lv)。结果(guo)表明(ming),退化嵩(song)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)植(zhi)被盖度(du)(du)、植(zhi)被高度(du)(du)和(he)生(sheng)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)层厚度(du)(du)显(xian)著降(jiang)低(P0.05),鼠洞密度(du)(du)、裸(luo)地面积显(xian)著增加(jia)(P0.05);退化嵩(song)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)含(han)水(shui)量、土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)有机质(zhi)和(he)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全氮显(xian)著降(jiang)低(P0.05);土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)因(yin)子对(dui)生(sheng)物(wu)量的(de)(de)(de)贡(gong)献率(lv)最大(da),土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)因(yin)子与其它环(huan)境(jing)(jing)因(yin)子存在较高的(de)(de)(de)多重共线性。以上结果(guo)说明(ming),土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)因(yin)子质(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)改变是嵩(song)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)退化最显(xian)著的(de)(de)(de)特(te)征。
近50年内蒙古潜在植被地理格局时空特征分析
王大为, 赵 军, 尹 东, 韩 涛, 李丽丽
2013, 7(8): 1167-1174.
[摘要](1187) [PDF 761KB](304)
摘要:
原生植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)演替过(guo)程与环境(jing)间(jian)表(biao)现出复杂的(de)(de)耦合(he)关(guan)系(xi),通过(guo)模(mo)拟潜(qian)在(zai)(zai)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)空间(jian)分布(bu)(bu)格(ge)局变(bian)(bian)化来反映(ying)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)对环境(jing)因(yin)子长期适应(ying)和(he)(he)(he)选择(ze)的(de)(de)重要生态过(guo)程,是(shi)研究(jiu)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)地(di)(di)(di)理格(ge)局的(de)(de)基(ji)础。本研究(jiu)运用GIS及综合(he)顺序分类(lei)(lei)(lei)法,对内(nei)蒙(meng)(meng)古自(zi)治区(qu)及周边(bian)94个(ge)气(qi)象台站(zhan)近50 a气(qi)候(hou)数(shu)据(ju)分前后(hou)25 a两期的(de)(de)模(mo)拟,分析(xi)得到内(nei)蒙(meng)(meng)古自(zi)治区(qu)潜(qian)在(zai)(zai)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)地(di)(di)(di)理格(ge)局的(de)(de)时空动态特征及其变(bian)(bian)化。结(jie)果表(biao)明(ming),内(nei)蒙(meng)(meng)古自(zi)治区(qu)境(jing)内(nei)潜(qian)在(zai)(zai)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)共分为(wei)(wei)16类(lei)(lei)(lei),归为(wei)(wei)6个(ge)类(lei)(lei)(lei)组(zu),以荒漠和(he)(he)(he)草(cao)(cao)原为(wei)(wei)主;在(zai)(zai)高(gao)平原和(he)(he)(he)山(shan)前平原地(di)(di)(di)区(qu)的(de)(de)潜(qian)在(zai)(zai)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)呈干湿地(di)(di)(di)带(dai)性(xing)分布(bu)(bu),而在(zai)(zai)大兴安岭和(he)(he)(he)阴山(shan)山(shan)地(di)(di)(di)地(di)(di)(di)区(qu)呈垂直地(di)(di)(di)带(dai)性(xing)分布(bu)(bu)。近50 a间(jian),不(bu)但各(ge)潜(qian)在(zai)(zai)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)类(lei)(lei)(lei)型(xing)自(zi)身(shen)的(de)(de)面(mian)积(ji)发生变(bian)(bian)化,而且不(bu)同类(lei)(lei)(lei)型(xing)之间(jian)也(ye)有明(ming)显的(de)(de)演替。荒漠、半荒漠类(lei)(lei)(lei)和(he)(he)(he)山(shan)地(di)(di)(di)草(cao)(cao)原、典型(xing)草(cao)(cao)原类(lei)(lei)(lei)受立地(di)(di)(di)气(qi)候(hou)变(bian)(bian)干影响,面(mian)积(ji)呈增加(jia)趋势(shi)并向(xiang)东扩(kuo)张;草(cao)(cao)甸草(cao)(cao)原类(lei)(lei)(lei)和(he)(he)(he)森林(lin)草(cao)(cao)原、森林(lin)类(lei)(lei)(lei)受立地(di)(di)(di)气(qi)候(hou)变(bian)(bian)干和(he)(he)(he)气(qi)温升高(gao)的(de)(de)综合(he)影响,面(mian)积(ji)呈减(jian)少趋势(shi)并向(xiang)高(gao)纬度、高(gao)海拔(ba)地(di)(di)(di)区(qu)退缩。这种演替格(ge)局反映(ying)了植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)对生境(jing)和(he)(he)(he)气(qi)候(hou)变(bian)(bian)化的(de)(de)多元(yuan)适应(ying)性(xing)结(jie)构。
小兴安岭原始红松林的植被多样性
于 洋, 邹 莉, 孙婷婷, 唐庆明, 郭 静, 张国权, 谭 昀
2013, 7(8): 1175-1181.
[摘要](1135) [PDF 633KB](330)
摘要:
以小兴安岭凉水自然(ran)保护区为(wei)研(yan)究(jiu)对(dui)象(xiang),采用生态群(qun)落(luo)(luo)学调查方法(fa)研(yan)究(jiu)了红(hong)(hong)皮云杉(Picea koraiensis)红(hong)(hong)松林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)及落(luo)(luo)叶(ye)松(Larix gmelini)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)地表(biao)(biao)植(zhi)(zhi)被群(qun)落(luo)(luo)结(jie)构特(te)征及群(qun)落(luo)(luo)物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)多样(yang)性(xing)(xing)。结(jie)果表(biao)(biao)明,红(hong)(hong)松林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)共有维(wei)管束植(zhi)(zhi)物36种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),隶(li)属(shu)(shu)22科32属(shu)(shu),落(luo)(luo)叶(ye)松林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)共有维(wei)管束植(zhi)(zhi)物31种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),隶(li)属(shu)(shu)22科27属(shu)(shu),二(er)者均属(shu)(shu)稳定型植(zhi)(zhi)被群(qun)落(luo)(luo)。两种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)型的物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)丰富度指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(S)与物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)多样(yang)性(xing)(xing)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(SP)均表(biao)(biao)现为(wei)乔(qiao)木(mu)(mu)(mu)层(ceng)(ceng)<灌木(mu)(mu)(mu)层(ceng)(ceng)<草本(ben)层(ceng)(ceng),且(qie)红(hong)(hong)松林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)各(ge)层(ceng)(ceng)之间(jian)差异(yi)显(xian)著(zhu);物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)多样(yang)性(xing)(xing)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(SW)在落(luo)(luo)叶(ye)松林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)各(ge)层(ceng)(ceng)中(zhong)差异(yi)不(bu)明显(xian),但在红(hong)(hong)松林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)各(ge)层(ceng)(ceng)中(zhong)存在显(xian)著(zhu)差异(yi),以草本(ben)层(ceng)(ceng)最(zui)高(gao);物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)均匀度指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(Jsw)在红(hong)(hong)松林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)中(zhong)表(biao)(biao)现为(wei)乔(qiao)木(mu)(mu)(mu)层(ceng)(ceng)>灌木(mu)(mu)(mu)层(ceng)(ceng)>草本(ben)层(ceng)(ceng),在落(luo)(luo)叶(ye)松林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)中(zhong)以灌木(mu)(mu)(mu)层(ceng)(ceng)Jsw指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)最(zui)高(gao),且(qie)明显(xian)高(gao)于红(hong)(hong)松林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)中(zhong)各(ge)层(ceng)(ceng)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)。
狗牙根抗非生物胁迫的研究进展
产祝龙, 施海涛, 王艳平
2013, 7(8): 1182-1187.
[摘要](1335) [PDF 619KB](279)
摘要:
狗(gou)牙根(gen)(Cynodon dactylon)是(shi)暖季(ji)型草坪草中应(ying)用最广泛(fan)的草种之(zhi)一,具有(you)抗(kang)性(xing)强,生(sheng)长快、建坪迅速等(deng)优(you)点。狗(gou)牙根(gen)分布广泛(fan),对(dui)(dui)不同逆境的抗(kang)性(xing)具有(you)差异性(xing)。本文综述了(le)冷害、干旱、渍(zi)害、盐(yan)分等(deng)胁迫对(dui)(dui)狗(gou)牙根(gen)生(sheng)理生(sheng)化(hua)以及分子水平的影响,总结(jie)了(le)近10年来相关的研究进展,并对(dui)(dui)今后(hou)有(you)可能深入的研究内容提出了(le)意(yi)见(jian)和建议。
最新录用
再生水灌溉对冷季型草坪草生长的影响
刘金荣, 杨有俊, 郑明珠, 张旭, 刘译锴
2013, 7(8): 1149-1155.
[摘要](1207) [PDF 551KB](258)
摘要:
再(zai)生(sheng)水用(yong)于草(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)绿地灌(guan)溉(gai)(gai)对拓宽再(zai)生(sheng)水的(de)(de)应用(yong)范(fan)围、缓解城市用(yong)水危机(ji)具(ju)有重要(yao)意义。本研(yan)(yan)究采用(yong)自来水和再(zai)生(sheng)水两种(zhong)水源灌(guan)溉(gai)(gai)供试草(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping),分析(xi)其在再(zai)生(sheng)水灌(guan)溉(gai)(gai)条件下的(de)(de)生(sheng)长、生(sheng)理(li)指标(biao)的(de)(de)变化。供试草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)为冷季型草(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)多(duo)年(nian)生(sheng)黑麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Lolium perenne)品(pin)种(zhong)潘多(duo)拉(la)(Panterra)、首相(xiang)(Premier),高(gao)(gao)(gao)羊茅(mao)(Festuca arundinacea)品(pin)种(zhong)凌志(Barlexas)、易凯(Easy care),草(cao)(cao)(cao)地早熟禾(Poa pratensis)品(pin)种(zhong)百胜(Barvictor)、百斯特(Barrister),研(yan)(yan)究结果表明,再(zai)生(sheng)水灌(guan)溉(gai)(gai)使各草(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)再(zai)生(sheng)量提(ti)高(gao)(gao)(gao),叶绿素(su)含量也显著提(ti)高(gao)(gao)(gao),灌(guan)溉(gai)(gai)后(hou)期草(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)叶宽显著提(ti)高(gao)(gao)(gao),但对叶片细胞(bao)膜透(tou)性和根系活力没有显著影响。再(zai)生(sheng)水用(yong)于草(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)灌(guan)溉(gai)(gai)在兰州市具(ju)有良好的(de)(de)应用(yong)前景(jing)。
草人诗记
三十 额济纳纪行
任继周
2013, 7(8): 1188-1188.
[摘要](692) [PDF 233KB](995)
摘要:
植物生产层
梭罗草幼穗分化过程的观察
2013, 7(8): 1189-1193.
[摘要](1181) [PDF 778KB](230)
摘要:
2011年(nian)(nian)9月-2012年(nian)(nian)5月对(dui)梭(suo)罗(luo)草(cao)(Kengyilia thoroldiana)幼(you)穗(sui)(sui)分(fen)(fen)化(hua)过(guo)程(cheng)进行观察,结果(guo)表(biao)明(ming),梭(suo)罗(luo)草(cao)幼(you)穗(sui)(sui)分(fen)(fen)化(hua)是具有明(ming)显特征的(de)(de)(de)连续变化(hua)过(guo)程(cheng),按库别尔曼(man)划(hua)分(fen)(fen)原(yuan)则可划(hua)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)初生(sheng)期(qi)、伸长期(qi)、结节期(qi)、小(xiao)穗(sui)(sui)突起期(qi)、颖片突起期(qi)、小(xiao)花突起期(qi)、雌(ci)雄(xiong)蕊形成期(qi)和(he)抽(chou)穗(sui)(sui)始期(qi)8个时期(qi)。分(fen)(fen)化(hua)发(fa)育过(guo)程(cheng)中,复穗(sui)(sui)状花序(xu)中上(shang)部小(xiao)穗(sui)(sui)发(fa)育最快,后依次(ci)向(xiang)上(shang)、向(xiang)下(xia)进行,基部小(xiao)穗(sui)(sui)发(fa)育最慢;复穗(sui)(sui)状花序(xu)的(de)(de)(de)开(kai)花顺序(xu)是从中上(shang)部开(kai)始, 依次(ci)向(xiang)上(shang)、向(xiang)下(xia)进行;每个小(xiao)穗(sui)(sui)的(de)(de)(de)开(kai)花顺序(xu)是基部先(xian)开(kai)花,依次(ci)向(xiang)上(shang)进行。
地被菊雪公主的组织培养和快速繁殖
马 欣, 董凤丽, 刘 杰, 刘晨旭, 周蕴薇
2013, 7(8): 1194-1199.
[摘要](969) [PDF 778KB](272)
摘要:
以地被(bei)菊雪公主(Chrysanthemum grandiflorum cv.White Snow)带腋芽的(de)(de)茎(jing)(jing)段为(wei)(wei)外(wai)植体,通(tong)过消毒得到无菌材料。以MS为(wei)(wei)基(ji)本培(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)基(ji),通(tong)过增加(jia)不同(tong)浓度的(de)(de)激素进(jin)行组织培(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)快速繁殖技术的(de)(de)研究。结(jie)果表明(ming),诱(you)导叶(ye)片不定芽的(de)(de)最(zui)适培(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)基(ji)为(wei)(wei)MS+1.0 mgL-16BA+0.7 mgL-1NAA,诱(you)导率(lv)达100%,分化率(lv)达63.3%;茎(jing)(jing)段增殖的(de)(de)最(zui)适培(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)基(ji)为(wei)(wei)MS+0.3 mgL-16BA+0.2 mgL-1NAA,平均(jun)增殖系(xi)数为(wei)(wei)6.73;继(ji)代培(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)为(wei)(wei)MS培(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)基(ji);生根(gen)培(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)基(ji)为(wei)(wei)1/2MS+0.5 mgL-1NAA培(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)基(ji),生根(gen)率(lv)达100%,平均(jun)生根(gen)系(xi)数为(wei)(wei)15.80;移栽(zai)后生长良好,成活率(lv)达100%。
4种野豌豆种子萌发对水分胁迫的响应
李廷山, 王 娟, 胡小文
2013, 7(8): 1200-1207.
[摘要](1301) [PDF 1105KB](254)
摘要:
以3种(zhong)青藏高(gao)原野豌(wan)豆(dou)(dou)属植(zhi)物窄(zhai)叶(ye)野豌(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(Vicia angustifolia)、山(shan)(shan)野豌(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(V.amoena)、歪头(tou)菜(V.unijuga)与1种(zhong)当地栽培植(zhi)物箭(jian)(jian)筈(gua)豌(wan)豆(dou)(dou)兰箭(jian)(jian)3号(V.sativa)种(zhong)子(zi)为材料(liao),应用(yong)种(zhong)子(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)的(de)水(shui)势(shi)(shi)模(mo)型对(dui)(dui)上(shang)述4种(zhong)植(zhi)物种(zhong)子(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)对(dui)(dui)水(shui)分(fen)的(de)需求(qiu)特性(xing)进行(xing)了研(yan)究。结果表明,1)基础(chu)水(shui)势(shi)(shi)(b)随(sui)种(zhong)子(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)率(lv)(g)的(de)增加而(er)增加,表明种(zhong)群内种(zhong)子(zi)个体萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)基础(chu)水(shui)势(shi)(shi)存在(zai)(zai)变异(yi);2)除歪头(tou)菜外(wai),其余种(zhong)子(zi)的(de)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)速(su)率(lv)与水(shui)势(shi)(shi)的(de)回归(gui)直线的(de)斜率(lv)随(sui)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)率(lv)的(de)增加而(er)降低(di),暗示(shi)种(zhong)群内种(zhong)子(zi)个体萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)的(de)水(shui)势(shi)(shi)时(shi)间值(H)在(zai)(zai)有些种(zhong)上(shang)可能存在(zai)(zai)变异(yi);3)参试(shi)植(zhi)物种(zhong)中,兰箭(jian)(jian)3号种(zhong)子(zi)的(de)b值最低(di),表明其在(zai)(zai)相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)干旱(han)环境条(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)下易于(yu)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa),山(shan)(shan)野豌(wan)豆(dou)(dou)种(zhong)子(zi)的(de)b值最高(gao),但H较低(di),表明其萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)耐旱(han)性(xing)差,在(zai)(zai)水(shui)分(fen)充足(zu)的(de)条(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)下萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)迅速(su);4)水(shui)势(shi)(shi)模(mo)型可准(zhun)(zhun)确预测休(xiu)眠破除后4种(zhong)野豌(wan)豆(dou)(dou)属种(zhong)子(zi)在(zai)(zai)高(gao)水(shui)势(shi)(shi)条(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)下的(de)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)进程,但用(yong)于(yu)预测低(di)水(shui)势(shi)(shi)条(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)(jian)下种(zhong)子(zi)的(de)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)时(shi),准(zhun)(zhun)确性(xing)较差。
镜泊湖世界地质公园种子植物种的区系成分分析
王立凤, 曲秀春, 姜 明, 杨少成, 石兰英
2013, 7(8): 1208-1211.
[摘要](962) [PDF 438KB](226)
摘要:
为深入掌握(wo)镜(jing)(jing)泊湖(hu)世界地质公园(yuan)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子植(zhi)物的区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)特征,采(cai)用Kitagawa标准对该区(qu)(qu)(qu)815种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)野生种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子植(zhi)物进行(xing)了种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)成分(fen)(fen)(fen)分(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)。结果表明,镜(jing)(jing)泊湖(hu)区(qu)(qu)(qu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子植(zhi)物包含长(zhang)白植(zhi)物区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)、华北植(zhi)物区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)、大兴安岭植(zhi)物区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)和(he)蒙古植(zhi)物区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)成分(fen)(fen)(fen),以(yi)长(zhang)白植(zhi)物区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)为主。镜(jing)(jing)泊湖(hu)区(qu)(qu)(qu)既(ji)有(you)单区(qu)(qu)(qu)成分(fen)(fen)(fen),也有(you)共有(you)成分(fen)(fen)(fen),共有(you)成分(fen)(fen)(fen)占总(zong)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)数的73.50%,反映(ying)出该区(qu)(qu)(qu)地理联系(xi)(xi)广泛以(yi)及不同区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)相互渗透与发展的较复(fu)杂(za)的植(zhi)物区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)特征。
黔西北炼锌废渣基质上不同草种苗期生长状况
敖成红, 刘 方, 罗 洋
2013, 7(8): 1212-1216.
[摘要](1007) [PDF 651KB](279)
摘要:
以黔西(xi)北土法炼(lian)锌废渣基(ji)(ji)质为研究对(dui)象,通过盆栽试验,筛(shai)选出(chu)适宜在该基(ji)(ji)质上生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长的草(cao)(cao)本植物。结果(guo)表明,各草(cao)(cao)种出(chu)苗(miao)时(shi)间为白(bai)三(san)叶(ye)(ye)(Trifolium repens)、红三(san)叶(ye)(ye)(T.pratense)(3 d)一(yi)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)(Lolium multiflorum)、多(duo)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)(L.perenne)(4 d)紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿(Medicago sativa)(5 d)草(cao)(cao)地早熟(shu)禾(he)(Poa pratensis)(7 d)狗(gou)牙(ya)(ya)根(Cynodon dactylon)(15 d);多(duo)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)的出(chu)苗(miao)率(lv)最高(83.3%),其次(ci)是一(yi)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)、白(bai)三(san)叶(ye)(ye)、红三(san)叶(ye)(ye)(60%),紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿、草(cao)(cao)地早熟(shu)禾(he)和狗(gou)牙(ya)(ya)根的出(chu)苗(miao)率(lv)最低(30%左右);一(yi)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)、白(bai)三(san)叶(ye)(ye)、多(duo)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)的株(zhu)高和分蘖数均优(you)于红三(san)叶(ye)(ye)、紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿、草(cao)(cao)地早熟(shu)禾(he)和狗(gou)牙(ya)(ya)根,适合在土法炼(lian)锌废渣基(ji)(ji)质上生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长。
10个大黍品种在滇南的适应性及其评价
刘金海, 王鹤桦, 左应梅, 黄必志, 刘国道, 周 超
2013, 7(8): 1217-1223.
[摘要](1230) [PDF 440KB](202)
摘要:
于(yu)2006年(nian)对10个大(da)(da)黍(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(Panicum maximum)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)的生产(chan)(chan)性(xing)能和(he)品(pin)(pin)质(zhi)特性(xing)进行区(qu)域试验研究,旨在(zai)筛选出适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜于(yu)热(re)带(dai)、亚热(re)带(dai)地区(qu)种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)的高(gao)产(chan)(chan)、优质(zhi)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao),以期为热(re)区(qu)畜牧(mu)业的持续发展提供依据。结(jie)果(guo)表(biao)(biao)明,1)所(suo)(suo)引(yin)种(zhong)(zhong)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)的存活率、越冬率都在(zai)94%以上,说明所(suo)(suo)引(yin)种(zhong)(zhong)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)的适(shi)(shi)(shi)应性(xing)强;2)除TD58坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)、坦桑尼(ni)(ni)(ni)亚大(da)(da)黍(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)和(he)热(re)研8号坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)感(gan)染(ran)了叶锈病(bing)以外,其他牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)的抗(kang)病(bing)虫害能力均较强;3)种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)第1年(nian),坦桑尼(ni)(ni)(ni)亚大(da)(da)黍(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)干(gan)物质(zhi)产(chan)(chan)量最高(gao),为45.33 thm-2,与MG7 Aries大(da)(da)黍(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)、MG6 Atlas大(da)(da)黍(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)、蒙巴萨大(da)(da)黍(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)、热(re)研8号坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)、热(re)研9号坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)和(he)TD58坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)之间差异(yi)不显(xian)著;4)选择(ze)干(gan)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)量、粗蛋白(bai)、适(shi)(shi)(shi)口性(xing)和(he)抗(kang)逆性(xing)作为综合评价(jia)供试品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)优劣的指(zhi)标,用灰色关(guan)联法评价(jia)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao),结(jie)果(guo)表(biao)(biao)明,蒙巴萨大(da)(da)黍(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)、坦桑尼(ni)(ni)(ni)亚大(da)(da)黍(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)、热(re)研8号坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)、MG6 Atlas大(da)(da)黍(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)和(he)TD58坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)居前5位,它(ta)们属高(gao)产(chan)(chan)、质(zhi)优、适(shi)(shi)(shi)口性(xing)好、抗(kang)性(xing)强的高(gao)产(chan)(chan)优质(zhi)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)。
新疆不同居群罗布白麻叶片的营养元素含量特征
楚秉泉, 牛得草, 傅 华
2013, 7(8): 1224-1228.
[摘要](1209) [PDF 419KB](275)
摘要:
对新疆阿(a)勒(le)泰市土(tu)山罗(luo)布(bu)(bu)麻(ma)保护(hu)区的(de)5个(ge)不同居(ju)群的(de)罗(luo)布(bu)(bu)白麻(ma)(Poacynum hendersonii)叶(ye)片(pian)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)N、P、K、Na、Ca、Mg、Cu、Fe、Zn和(he)(he)Mn 10种营养(yang)元素(su)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)进(jin)行了(le)测定(ding)和(he)(he)比较。结果表明,青(qing)杆(gan)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)麻(ma)为(wei)NCa类型(xing)、特(te)(te)细叶(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)麻(ma)和(he)(he)红杆(gan)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)麻(ma)为(wei)NK类型(xing),N含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)在(zai)特(te)(te)细叶(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)麻(ma)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)于其(qi)他4个(ge)居(ju)群(P<0.05);中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)细叶(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)麻(ma)为(wei)KCa类型(xing)、白花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)麻(ma)为(wei)KN类型(xing),其(qi)K含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)于其(qi)他3个(ge)居(ju)群。5个(ge)居(ju)群罗(luo)布(bu)(bu)麻(ma)叶(ye)片(pian)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)4种微量(liang)(liang)元素(su)的(de)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang),除(chu)红杆(gan)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)麻(ma)居(ju)群中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)Mn含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)最高(gao)外(wai),其(qi)余4个(ge)居(ju)群均(jun)为(wei)FeMnZnCu;各(ge)居(ju)群Fe和(he)(he)Zn含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)无显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)差(cha)异(yi);各(ge)居(ju)群间Mn含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)差(cha)异(yi)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu);青(qing)杆(gan)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)麻(ma)、红杆(gan)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)麻(ma)和(he)(he)特(te)(te)细叶(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)麻(ma)Cu含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)于中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)细叶(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)麻(ma),白花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)麻(ma)与(yu)(yu)(yu)各(ge)居(ju)群间均(jun)无显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)差(cha)异(yi)。相关分析表明,罗(luo)布(bu)(bu)白麻(ma)居(ju)群中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)Mg与(yu)(yu)(yu)Mn,K与(yu)(yu)(yu)P,Ca与(yu)(yu)(yu)Mg,Fe与(yu)(yu)(yu)Zn含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)呈显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)正相关性;而Na与(yu)(yu)(yu)Ca,K与(yu)(yu)(yu)Cu和(he)(he)Mn,P与(yu)(yu)(yu)Cu和(he)(he)N含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)呈显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)负相关(P<0.05)。
3种种植模式下牧草生产性能的比较
曾 兵, 罗 登, 左福元, 王保全, 梁 欢, 伍 莲, 韩玉竹
2013, 7(8): 1229-1234.
[摘要](1159) [PDF 529KB](254)
摘要:
皇竹草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Pennisetum hydridum)、甜高(gao)粱(Sorghum bicolor)、扁穗牛(niu)鞭(bian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Hemarthia compessa)是重(zhong)庆(qing)市3种(zhong)(zhong)主推牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao),合(he)理地(di)搭配(pei)种(zhong)(zhong)植这3种(zhong)(zhong)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)能(neng)为(wei)重(zhong)庆(qing)地(di)区提供更好的(de)(de)四季青绿(lv)饲草(cao)(cao)(cao),并获(huo)得(de)生物量和(he)营养(yang)(yang)成份的(de)(de)高(gao)产(chan)。本研究(jiu)设定(ding)了3种(zhong)(zhong)不同的(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)植面(mian)积(ji)比例组(zu)合(he)模(mo)(mo)(mo)式(shi)(3∶1∶1、1∶2∶1和(he)1∶1∶1),通过测定(ding)3种(zhong)(zhong)种(zhong)(zhong)植模(mo)(mo)(mo)式(shi)下牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)组(zu)合(he)的(de)(de)干(gan)草(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)量及(ji)主要养(yang)(yang)分,最终筛(shai)选(xuan)出适合(he)重(zhong)庆(qing)地(di)区养(yang)(yang)牛(niu)的(de)(de)最佳(jia)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)植模(mo)(mo)(mo)式(shi)。结果表明,皇竹草(cao)(cao)(cao)、甜高(gao)粱、扁穗牛(niu)鞭(bian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)植面(mian)积(ji)为(wei)3∶1∶1时,牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)干(gan)物质、粗(cu)蛋白、粗(cu)脂肪、粗(cu)纤维、无氮(dan)浸出物、Ca和(he)P的(de)(de)总(zong)产(chan)量较高(gao),分别达到(dao)20 366.09、1 677.38、620.15、6 851.76、9 442.87、237.97和(he)128.86 kghm-2。本研究(jiu)筛(shai)选(xuan)的(de)(de)重(zhong)庆(qing)地(di)区最佳(jia)的(de)(de)养(yang)(yang)牛(niu)种(zhong)(zhong)草(cao)(cao)(cao)模(mo)(mo)(mo)式(shi)为(wei)皇竹草(cao)(cao)(cao)∶甜高(gao)粱∶扁穗牛(niu)鞭(bian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)植面(mian)积(ji)为(wei)3∶1∶1,此模(mo)(mo)(mo)式(shi)能(neng)获(huo)得(de)较高(gao)的(de)(de)干(gan)草(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)量和(he)养(yang)(yang)分含量。
建植第1年刈割对黑麦草+白三叶草地杂草空间格局的影响
罗天琼, 王普昶, 赵丽丽, 牟 琼, 王应芬, 黎 俊
2013, 7(8): 1235-1239.
[摘要](1346) [PDF 724KB](234)
摘要:
栽培草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)稳(wen)定性(xing)是近年来草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)建植与管理的(de)(de)核心(xin)问题之一,其中草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)抗杂草(cao)入侵是其稳(wen)定性(xing)的(de)(de)重(zhong)要表(biao)现(xian)形(xing)式。本(ben)研究应(ying)用地(di)(di)(di)统计(ji)学分(fen)析(xi)方法,分(fen)析(xi)了(le)刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)处理下(xia)(xia)多(duo)(duo)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)麦草(cao)(Lolium perenne)+白三(san)叶(ye)(Trifolium repens)混播草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)杂草(cao)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)空(kong)(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)分(fen)布(bu)(bu)(bu)的(de)(de)异质性(xing)。结果表(biao)明(ming),不(bu)(bu)(bu)同刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)强(qiang)度(du)下(xia)(xia),多(duo)(duo)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)麦草(cao)+白三(san)叶(ye)混播草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)入侵杂草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)上(shang)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)空(kong)(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)格(ge)局异质化程度(du)及其相(xiang)(xiang)关(guan)范(fan)围(wei)变化比较明(ming)显(xian)。变异函数(shu)的(de)(de)基台值(C0+C)在(zai)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)强(qiang)度(du)下(xia)(xia)的(de)(de)变化表(biao)明(ming),在(zai)重(zhong)度(du)刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)条(tiao)(tiao)件下(xia)(xia),杂草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)上(shang)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)空(kong)(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)分(fen)布(bu)(bu)(bu)异质性(xing)最高(12.530),对照条(tiao)(tiao)件下(xia)(xia)次之(4.751),轻度(du)刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)条(tiao)(tiao)件下(xia)(xia)较低(di)(4.557),中度(du)刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)条(tiao)(tiao)件下(xia)(xia)最低(di)(3.149)。变异函数(shu)的(de)(de)相(xiang)(xiang)关(guan)范(fan)围(wei)(A0)表(biao)明(ming),在(zai)重(zhong)度(du)刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)条(tiao)(tiao)件下(xia)(xia)空(kong)(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)相(xiang)(xiang)关(guan)范(fan)围(wei)最大(1 004.1 cm),中度(du)刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)条(tiao)(tiao)件下(xia)(xia)最小(122.1 cm),轻度(du)刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge) (161.9 cm)和对照(219.1 cm)条(tiao)(tiao)件下(xia)(xia)居中。空(kong)(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)变异比分(fen)析(xi)表(biao)明(ming),由空(kong)(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)自相(xiang)(xiang)关(guan)因素引起(qi)的(de)(de)空(kong)(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)异质性(xing)占主要部分(fen)(50.3%~93.5%)。空(kong)(kong)(kong)间(jian)(jian)分(fen)布(bu)(bu)(bu)格(ge)局图(tu)(Kriging map)分(fen)析(xi)进一步显(xian)示(shi),不(bu)(bu)(bu)同刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)强(qiang)度(du)下(xia)(xia)多(duo)(duo)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)麦草(cao)+白三(san)叶(ye)混播草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)杂草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)上(shang)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)格(ge)局变化显(xian)著。
紫云英的农艺性状变异
张 贤, 王建红, 曹 凯, 王松涛
2013, 7(8): 1240-1245.
[摘要](895) [PDF 386KB](219)
摘要:
以广(guang)泛应(ying)用的9个(ge)紫云英(Astragalus sinicus)品(pin)种(zhong)为试(shi)验材料(liao),测量(liang)(liang)(liang)其(qi)(qi)(qi)株高(gao)、干质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、粗(cu)蛋白(bai)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)等12个(ge)农艺性状,研究其(qi)(qi)(qi)农艺性状变(bian)异(yi)。结果表(biao)明,紫云英农艺性状存在较大变(bian)异(yi),其(qi)(qi)(qi)中变(bian)异(yi)幅度最大的是(shi)分(fen)枝数,其(qi)(qi)(qi)品(pin)种(zhong)内个(ge)体间(jian)差异(yi)最大,变(bian)异(yi)系数达0.310。聚类分(fen)析结果基本反(fan)映了(le)紫云英品(pin)种(zhong)的熟期,熟期相同的品(pin)种(zhong)之(zhi)间(jian)遗传距离较近。熟期相同的品(pin)种(zhong)农艺性状相似,早熟种(zhong)粤肥(fei)2号和信阳种(zhong)营养生长(zhang)较弱,营养成分(fen)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)亦较低,中熟种(zhong)闽紫6号和闽紫7号叶长(zhang)、叶宽(kuan)、株高(gao)、茎粗(cu)及单株干质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)等性状都明显优于其(qi)(qi)(qi)余品(pin)种(zhong)。
植物体内自由基清除剂抗坏血酸研究进展
闫慧芳, 夏方山, 王明亚, 毛培胜
2013, 7(8): 1246-1252.
[摘要](982) [PDF 482KB](559)
摘要:
抗(kang)坏血(xue)酸(Ascorbic Acid,AsA)作(zuo)为(wei)(wei)植物(wu)体内一种重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)自由基(ji)清除(chu)剂,在(zai)减少膜脂过氧化(hua)作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong)对(dui)细(xi)(xi)胞造成的(de)(de)损伤、增强植物(wu)抵抗(kang)逆(ni)境(jing)胁迫能力等过程中起(qi)着非常重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong)。通过分(fen)析比较AsA的(de)(de)生物(wu)合(he)成途(tu)径,总结AsA参与细(xi)(xi)胞分(fen)裂与伸长、作(zuo)为(wei)(wei)辅酶参与细(xi)(xi)胞壁的(de)(de)形(xing)成、光保护作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong)、作(zuo)为(wei)(wei)电子(zi)(zi)传递与信号转导的(de)(de)载体等生理功(gong)能,系统阐(chan)述AsA在(zai)植物(wu)逆(ni)境(jing)胁迫(主要(yao)(yao)包(bao)括温度胁迫、盐胁迫、生物(wu)胁迫等)中的(de)(de)保护机(ji)(ji)制及功(gong)能,强调AsA研究对(dui)于(yu)了(le)解自由基(ji)清除(chu)剂在(zai)植物(wu)抗(kang)逆(ni)性作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong)以及清除(chu)自由基(ji)机(ji)(ji)理方面具有重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong)。本研究提(ti)出在(zai)牧草种子(zi)(zi)劣变方面AsA研究的(de)(de)不足,并(bing)分(fen)析展(zhan)(zhan)望了(le)AsA研究发展(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)趋势。
动物生产层
基于mtDNA COⅠ基因的DNA条形码技术鉴定鞘翅目幼虫
刘翠霞, 林恭华, 苏建平, 陈生云, 张同作
2013, 7(8): 1253-1258.
[摘要](853) [PDF 472KB](230)
摘要:
传统的(de)(de)形态学(xue)分类(lei)很(hen)难鉴(jian)(jian)定(ding)昆(kun)虫(chong)的(de)(de)蛹和幼虫(chong)。鞘(qiao)翅目(mu)是昆(kun)虫(chong)纲中最大的(de)(de)类(lei)群,其种群鉴(jian)(jian)定(ding)工作复(fu)杂(za)而艰巨。为了(le)鉴(jian)(jian)定(ding)形态相似(si)的(de)(de)鞘(qiao)翅目(mu)昆(kun)虫(chong)的(de)(de)幼虫(chong),本研究利用 PCR扩增技术获取青海20个(ge)常(chang)见(jian)鞘(qiao)翅目(mu)幼虫(chong)mtDNA上COⅠ基因的(de)(de)566 bp序(xu)列,结(jie)合Blast搜索、遗传距离(li)计算和NJ系统发育树构建对其进行(xing)分类(lei)鉴(jian)(jian)定(ding),有(you)效鉴(jian)(jian)定(ding)出20只(zhi)供试鞘(qiao)翅目(mu)幼虫(chong)属于5科9属。研究结(jie)果表明,DNA条形码技术进行(xing)种类(lei)鉴(jian)(jian)定(ding)快捷、准确,mtDNA COⅠ基因能够用于鞘(qiao)翅目(mu)昆(kun)虫(chong)分类(lei)鉴(jian)(jian)定(ding)。
后生物生产层
苜蓿与竞争农作物投入产出的比较
石自忠, 王明利
2013, 7(8): 1259-1265.
[摘要](1009) [PDF 438KB](314)
摘要:
本(ben)研究(jiu)以对牧(mu)草种(zhong)植区内苜蓿(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)、小麦(Triticum aestivum)、玉(yu)米(Zea mays)和(he)马(ma)铃薯(Solanum tuberosum)生产(chan)(chan)住户的(de)实地(di)调研数据(ju)为(wei)基础,对苜蓿(xu)(xu)及竞(jing)争农作物(wu)的(de)投入产(chan)(chan)出(chu)进行(xing)分析(xi)(xi)。结果表明,种(zhong)植苜蓿(xu)(xu)有良(liang)好(hao)的(de)经济效(xiao)益,且其(qi)潜在效(xiao)益很大。本(ben)研究(jiu)还通(tong)过建(jian)立苜蓿(xu)(xu)、小麦和(he)玉(yu)米3种(zhong)作物(wu)的(de)产(chan)(chan)出(chu)模型,对其(qi)要素弹性进行(xing)分析(xi)(xi),得出(chu)影响(xiang)苜蓿(xu)(xu)及竞(jing)争农作物(wu)生产(chan)(chan)的(de)显(xian)著要素,并提出(chu)意见和(he)建(jian)议。
西藏地区藏北嵩草附着乳酸菌的理化特性
高 静, 郭旭生, 王国成
2013, 7(8): 1266-1271.
[摘要](1234) [PDF 430KB](315)
摘要:
本研(yan)究以藏(zang)北嵩草(Kobresia littledalei)上附(fu)着(zhe)的(de)乳(ru)酸菌(jun)(jun)为研(yan)究对(dui)象,分离得到肠(chang)(chang)膜明(ming)(ming)串珠菌(jun)(jun)肠(chang)(chang)膜亚种两株(zhu)(zhu),融(rong)合(he)魏(wei)(wei)斯(si)(si)氏(shi)菌(jun)(jun)11株(zhu)(zhu),食(shi)(shi)物魏(wei)(wei)斯(si)(si)氏(shi)菌(jun)(jun)6株(zhu)(zhu),然后对(dui)这3种试(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)菌(jun)(jun)进(jin)行不同温度及pH条件(jian)下的(de)生(sheng)长试(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)、耐盐(yan)试(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)及糖发酵试(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)等(deng)生(sheng)理生(sheng)化特性(xing)的(de)研(yan)究。结果表明(ming)(ming),与(yu)常规条件(jian)下分离得到的(de)相同菌(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)相比(bi)较,青藏(zang)高原极端环(huan)境中(zhong)(zhong)分离的(de)魏(wei)(wei)斯(si)(si)氏(shi)乳(ru)酸菌(jun)(jun)和明(ming)(ming)串珠菌(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)都(dou)能(neng)在(zai)(zai)4~40 ℃的(de)条件(jian)下生(sheng)长,部(bu)分融(rong)合(he)魏(wei)(wei)斯(si)(si)氏(shi)菌(jun)(jun)还可在(zai)(zai)50 ℃下微弱(ruo)生(sheng)长;耐酸碱试(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)表明(ming)(ming),魏(wei)(wei)斯(si)(si)氏(shi)乳(ru)酸菌(jun)(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)都(dou)能(neng)在(zai)(zai)pH值为3.0和9.5的(de)条件(jian)下生(sheng)长;在(zai)(zai)耐盐(yan)性(xing)方面(mian),部(bu)分魏(wei)(wei)斯(si)(si)氏(shi)菌(jun)(jun)可以在(zai)(zai)18%的(de)NaCl下生(sheng)长;在(zai)(zai)碳源利用(yong)(yong)方面(mian),本研(yan)究提取的(de)食(shi)(shi)物魏(wei)(wei)斯(si)(si)氏(shi)菌(jun)(jun)可利用(yong)(yong)半乳(ru)糖;融(rong)合(he)魏(wei)(wei)斯(si)(si)氏(shi)菌(jun)(jun)可利用(yong)(yong)阿(a)拉伯(bo)糖、蜜(mi)二(er)糖、甘露醇(chun)。因此,藏(zang)北嵩草中(zhong)(zhong)所(suo)分离的(de)乳(ru)酸菌(jun)(jun)比(bi)常规环(huan)境中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)乳(ru)酸菌(jun)(jun)有较强的(de)耐温性(xing)和耐酸碱性(xing),而(er)且能(neng)更广(guang)地利用(yong)(yong)碳源,从(cong)而(er)为其在(zai)(zai)饲料(liao)青贮(zhu)、酸奶发酵等(deng)方面(mian)的(de)应用(yong)(yong)奠定基础。
调制方式对苜蓿青干草干燥特性和营养品质的影响
周娟娟, 王欣荣, 吴建平, 冯忠心, 史 静, 陈本建
2013, 7(8): 1272-1277.
[摘要](1294) [PDF 0KB](91)
摘要:
本研(yan)究以(yi)种植第(di)2年(nian)处于(yu)初花(hua)期的紫花(hua)苜蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)为材(cai)料,设压(ya)扁(bian)(bian)(bian)+喷碳(tan)酸钾(2.5%)、压(ya)扁(bian)(bian)(bian)茎秆、自然晾晒和(he)(he)阴干(gan)4种青(qing)干(gan)草调(diao)制(zhi)方法(fa),以(yi)105 ℃烘干(gan)为对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)照(zhao),研(yan)究不(bu)同(tong)调(diao)制(zhi)方法(fa)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)苜蓿(xu)干(gan)燥特性和(he)(he)营(ying)养品质的影响(xiang),并对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)干(gan)草质量进行综合评价。结果表明,除对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)照(zhao)外,参(can)试调(diao)制(zhi)方式的苜蓿(xu)干(gan)燥速(su)(su)率均呈现先快后慢的趋势;对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)照(zhao)、压(ya)扁(bian)(bian)(bian)+喷碳(tan)酸钾(2.5%)都能加速(su)(su)干(gan)燥,减少干(gan)草营(ying)养物质损失;常(chang)规晾晒虽缩短了干(gan)燥时间(jian),但(dan)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)干(gan)草品质的保持效果不(bu)显著。采用灰色关联分析(xi)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)参(can)试方法(fa)的调(diao)制(zhi)效果进行综合评价表明,对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)照(zhao)的综合表现最好,其次是(shi)压(ya)扁(bian)(bian)(bian)+喷碳(tan)酸钾(2.5%),该晾晒方法(fa)快速(su)(su)、简便(bian)、实用,在生(sheng)产中值得推荐。
晾晒时间对初花期紫花苜蓿青贮发酵品质的影响
史卉玲, 刘 慧, 马春晖
2013, 7(8): 1278-1283.
[摘要](1161) [PDF 444KB](274)
摘要:
本试验旨在研究不同晾(liang)晒(shai)时间(jian)对(dui)3个(ge)(ge)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)初花(hua)(hua)期青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)发(fa)酵品(pin)(pin)质的(de)(de)影响。在刈割后经(jing)2、4和(he)6 h晾(liang)晒(shai)的(de)(de)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)原(yuan)料(liao)中加入青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)添加剂进行裹(guo)包青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)180 d,然(ran)后通过现场(chang)感官评定和(he)实验室分析评价紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)的(de)(de)发(fa)酵品(pin)(pin)质。结果(guo)表明,晾(liang)晒(shai)4~6 h可(ke)以提高3个(ge)(ge)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)的(de)(de)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)的(de)(de)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)发(fa)酵品(pin)(pin)质;晾(liang)晒(shai)6 h与2 h相比(bi)丁酸、氨(an)态氮含量(liang)显(xian)著(zhu)降低(di)(P0.01),可(ke)溶性(xing)糖的(de)(de)含量(liang)极(ji)显(xian)著(zhu)增加(P0.01);粗(cu)蛋(dan)白含量(liang)在晾(liang)晒(shai)4 h时能(neng)很好地保存(P0.01);加入添加剂可(ke)显(xian)著(zhu)降低(di)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)饲料(liao)中的(de)(de)中性(xing)洗涤(di)纤维和(he)酸性(xing)洗涤(di)纤维含量(liang)(P0.01)。3个(ge)(ge)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)的(de)(de)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)均在晾(liang)晒(shai)4~6 h时青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)效(xiao)果(guo)最好。
5种饲草的分级指数测定与评价
成立新, 杨瑞杰, 格根图, 孙 林, 付俊平, 贾玉山
2013, 7(8): 1284-1288.
[摘要](1060) [PDF 375KB](305)
摘要:
本研究通过测定(ding)草(cao)原2号杂(za)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago varia cv.caoyuan No.2)、沙打(da)旺(Astragalus adsurgens)、黑(hei)麦草(cao)(Lolium perenne)、高丹草(cao)(Sorghum vulgareS.sudanese)和(he)狼(lang)尾(wei)草(cao)(Pennisetum alopecuroides)5种饲草(cao)的(de)常规(gui)营养成分(fen)、体外消化率、总能值及自由采食量等(deng)指(zhi)标,以(yi)中性洗涤(di)(di)纤(xian)维(wei)(NDF)、酸(suan)性洗涤(di)(di)纤(xian)维(wei)(ADF)和(he)酸(suan)性洗涤(di)(di)木质(zhi)素(ADL)为不同纤(xian)维(wei)素指(zhi)标计(ji)算(suan)得出5种饲草(cao)的(de)分(fen)级指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)(Grading Index,GI)。经对(dui)比分(fen)析(xi)后认为,以(yi)ADL为纤(xian)维(wei)素指(zhi)标计(ji)算(suan)得出的(de)饲草(cao)分(fen)级指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)最符合(he)实际(ji)饲养中的(de)饲草(cao)价(jia)值。按(an)此(ci)指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)评(ping)价(jia)的(de)5种饲草(cao)品质(zhi)优劣(lie)顺序为苜(mu)蓿(xu)沙打(da)旺黑(hei)麦草(cao)高丹草(cao)狼(lang)尾(wei)草(cao)。
农户种草意愿及其影响因素的实证分析
曾 嵘, 余成群, 曲云鹤, 李少伟, 秦基伟
2013, 7(8): 1289-1294.
[摘要](938) [PDF 431KB](262)
摘要:
为寻求促进(jin)扩大栽(zai)培牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)植(zhi)面(mian)积(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)有效(xiao)途(tu)径,本(ben)研究对西(xi)藏(zang)拉萨、日喀则和山(shan)南地(di)区的(de)(de)(de)(de)797个农(nong)(nong)户(hu)(hu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)草(cao)(cao)意(yi)(yi)愿(yuan)(yuan)情况进(jin)行调查(cha),并采用Logistic回归分(fen)析(xi)对影(ying)响(xiang)该地(di)区农(nong)(nong)户(hu)(hu)种(zhong)草(cao)(cao)意(yi)(yi)愿(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)因素进(jin)行分(fen)析(xi)。结果表明,农(nong)(nong)户(hu)(hu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)受教育年限、家庭总收(shou)入、耕地(di)总面(mian)积(ji)(ji)、牲畜头数、牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)子来(lai)源受到(dao)政府(fu)或项目(mu)支(zhi)持及(ji)农(nong)(nong)户(hu)(hu)参加(jia)牲畜合作社对农(nong)(nong)户(hu)(hu)种(zhong)草(cao)(cao)意(yi)(yi)愿(yuan)(yuan)具有积(ji)(ji)极的(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响(xiang),而家庭劳(lao)动力(li)人数对种(zhong)草(cao)(cao)意(yi)(yi)愿(yuan)(yuan)具有负向(xiang)影(ying)响(xiang)。其中,户(hu)(hu)主年龄、家庭人口数和户(hu)(hu)主是(shi)否有村(cun)干部(bu)或科技特(te)派(pai)员(yuan)经历3个因素对种(zhong)草(cao)(cao)意(yi)(yi)愿(yuan)(yuan)无显著影(ying)响(xiang)。基于以上(shang)研究结果,本(ben)研究提出了加(jia)快普及(ji)种(zhong)草(cao)(cao)养畜相(xiang)关(guan)知识(shi)、研发适(shi)宜农(nong)(nong)区种(zhong)草(cao)(cao)相(xiang)关(guan)技术和加(jia)强牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)植(zhi)补贴额度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)对策。
菊芋的研究现状及开发潜力
乌日娜, 朱铁霞, 于永奇, 高 凯
2013, 7(8): 1295-1300.
[摘要](934) [PDF 480KB](392)
摘要:
菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)(Helianthus tuberosus)具(ju)有(you)广泛的(de)(de)推广和(he)利用价值,是(shi)当今重要的(de)(de)开发(fa)能源植物之一。作为一种新型能源植物,菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)具(ju)有(you)抗(kang)旱(han)、抗(kang)寒以及耐盐碱(jian)等(deng)优良(liang)特(te)(te)性(xing),能有(you)效解决能源植物在种植过程中与粮(liang)争地、与人争粮(liang)的(de)(de)矛盾。本(ben)研(yan)究(jiu)对菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)的(de)(de)生态学特(te)(te)征、经(jing)济用途、耐盐碱(jian)特(te)(te)性(xing)以及菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)菊(ju)(ju)糖和(he)菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)乙(yi)醇的(de)(de)研(yan)究(jiu)现状进(jin)(jin)行综述,并对菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)的(de)(de)研(yan)究(jiu)方向和(he)发(fa)展潜力进(jin)(jin)行探讨,以期为菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)研(yan)究(jiu)者提供参考。
欧宝体育