欧宝体育

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2013年30卷8期

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前植物生产层
施氮对黑麦草草坪生长及土壤硝态氮的影响
张斐斐, 白 龙, 王晓红, 刘 英
2013, 7(8): 1143-1148.
[摘要](1428) [PDF 665KB](292)
摘要:
随着草(cao)(cao)坪(ping)种植(zhi)面积的(de)(de)(de)(de)不(bu)断增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia),施(shi)肥引起(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)环(huan)境问题备受关(guan)注。为明(ming)确氮(dan)(dan)肥对多年生(sheng)(sheng)黑麦草(cao)(cao)(Lolium perenne)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)及对土(tu)壤硝(xiao)(xiao)态(tai)氮(dan)(dan)残(can)留(liu)(liu)(liu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)影响,本(ben)研究采用(yong)盆栽试验,设计不(bu)同施(shi)氮(dan)(dan)水平(0、100、150、250、350 kghm-2a-1),测定草(cao)(cao)坪(ping)草(cao)(cao)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)速度、地上生(sheng)(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)(liang)、叶(ye)绿素含量(liang)(liang)(liang)及土(tu)壤中硝(xiao)(xiao)态(tai)氮(dan)(dan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)残(can)留(liu)(liu)(liu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)。试验结果表明(ming),0~250 kghm-2a-1施(shi)氮(dan)(dan)范围内(nei),草(cao)(cao)坪(ping)草(cao)(cao)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)速率、地上生(sheng)(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)(liang)和叶(ye)绿素含量(liang)(liang)(liang)均(jun)随施(shi)氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)而增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia),施(shi)氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)达(da)350 kghm-2a-1时各指(zhi)标均(jun)开(kai)始下降。根下层(ceng)土(tu)壤硝(xiao)(xiao)态(tai)氮(dan)(dan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)残(can)留(liu)(liu)(liu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)约占(zhan)根系层(ceng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)半,150 kghm-2a-1施(shi)氮(dan)(dan)水平下各土(tu)层(ceng)中的(de)(de)(de)(de)氮(dan)(dan)残(can)留(liu)(liu)(liu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)与对照(zhao)无明(ming)显差异(yi),说明(ming)此施(shi)氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)基本(ben)能够满足草(cao)(cao)坪(ping)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)需要的(de)(de)(de)(de)氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)。超过250 kghm-2a-1时,土(tu)壤中的(de)(de)(de)(de)氮(dan)(dan)残(can)留(liu)(liu)(liu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)逐渐增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia),达(da)到(dao)350 kghm-2a-1时根下层(ceng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)氮(dan)(dan)残(can)留(liu)(liu)(liu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)达(da)到(dao)最高值(zhi)9.01 mgkg-1。从(cong)兼顾(gu)草(cao)(cao)坪(ping)观赏价值(zhi)和环(huan)境安全的(de)(de)(de)(de)角度考(kao)虑,东(dong)北地区黑麦草(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)坪(ping)的(de)(de)(de)(de)施(shi)氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)为250 kghm-2a-1较为合适,若超过此量(liang)(liang)(liang),就会(hui)引起(qi)硝(xiao)(xiao)态(tai)氮(dan)(dan)淋失,增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)氮(dan)(dan)污(wu)染(ran)的(de)(de)(de)(de)危险性(xing)。
3种观赏草的持水性能
陈 莹, 彭正鑫, 洪 伟
2013, 7(8): 1156-1160.
[摘要](1071) [PDF 964KB](237)
摘要:
本研(yan)究以福建地区比(bi)较(jiao)常见的(de)(de)3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)观赏(shang)草旱伞草(Cyperus alternifolius)、狼尾草(Pennisetum alopecuroides)和(he)麦冬(Ophiopogon japonicus)为研(yan)究对象(xiang),应用浸(jin)泡(pao)法分别测定3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)观赏(shang)草根、茎、叶的(de)(de)持(chi)水(shui)(shui)量并进行分析。研(yan)究表明,3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)观赏(shang)草的(de)(de)持(chi)水(shui)(shui)性能(neng)存在差异,其(qi)中狼尾草的(de)(de)持(chi)水(shui)(shui)性能(neng)最强。观赏(shang)草的(de)(de)各部位持(chi)水(shui)(shui)性同样存在差异,浸(jin)泡(pao)时间与(yu)持(chi)水(shui)(shui)率呈极(ji)(ji)显著正相(xiang)关(guan)关(guan)系(xi),与(yu)吸水(shui)(shui)速(su)率呈极(ji)(ji)显著负相(xiang)关(guan)关(guan)系(xi)(P0.001)。3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)观赏(shang)草均有良(liang)好的(de)(de)持(chi)水(shui)(shui)性能(neng),对园(yuan)林造景和(he)生态保护(hu)具有积极(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)作用。
玉树典型嵩草草甸植物及土壤特性初探
孙长宏
2013, 7(8): 1161-1166.
[摘要](1159) [PDF 551KB](240)
摘要:
以(yi)青海(hai)玉(yu)树小嵩(song)(song)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Kobresia pygmaea)、藏嵩(song)(song)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(K.tibetica)健康草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)和(he)退(tui)(tui)化草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)为研究对(dui)象(xiang),测定并分(fen)析比(bi)较了(le)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)的(de)(de)(de)株高(gao)(gao)、盖度(du)等植(zhi)被特性(xing)和(he)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)有机质(zhi)、土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全氮(dan)、土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全磷(lin)等土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)养分(fen)的(de)(de)(de)变(bian)化规律,同时(shi)分(fen)析了(le)环境因(yin)子(zi)对(dui)生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)贡(gong)献(xian)(xian)率(lv)。结(jie)果(guo)表(biao)明,退(tui)(tui)化嵩(song)(song)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)植(zhi)被盖度(du)、植(zhi)被高(gao)(gao)度(du)和(he)生(sheng)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)层厚(hou)度(du)显著(zhu)(zhu)降(jiang)低(P0.05),鼠洞密度(du)、裸地(di)面积(ji)显著(zhu)(zhu)增加(P0.05);退(tui)(tui)化嵩(song)(song)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)含水量(liang)、土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)有机质(zhi)和(he)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全氮(dan)显著(zhu)(zhu)降(jiang)低(P0.05);土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)因(yin)子(zi)对(dui)生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)贡(gong)献(xian)(xian)率(lv)最(zui)大,土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)因(yin)子(zi)与其它环境因(yin)子(zi)存(cun)在较高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)(de)多(duo)重共线性(xing)。以(yi)上(shang)结(jie)果(guo)说明,土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)因(yin)子(zi)质(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)改变(bian)是(shi)嵩(song)(song)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)退(tui)(tui)化最(zui)显著(zhu)(zhu)的(de)(de)(de)特征。
近50年内蒙古潜在植被地理格局时空特征分析
王大为, 赵 军, 尹 东, 韩 涛, 李丽丽
2013, 7(8): 1167-1174.
[摘要](1198) [PDF 761KB](305)
摘要:
原(yuan)(yuan)生植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)演替过(guo)(guo)程与环境(jing)间表(biao)现出复杂的(de)(de)耦合(he)(he)关系,通(tong)过(guo)(guo)模拟(ni)潜在(zai)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)空间分布(bu)格(ge)(ge)(ge)局变(bian)(bian)化(hua)来反映(ying)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)对环境(jing)因(yin)子长期(qi)适应(ying)和(he)选择的(de)(de)重要(yao)生态过(guo)(guo)程,是(shi)研究(jiu)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)地(di)(di)(di)理(li)格(ge)(ge)(ge)局的(de)(de)基础(chu)。本研究(jiu)运用(yong)GIS及(ji)综合(he)(he)顺(shun)序分类(lei)法,对内(nei)蒙(meng)古(gu)自治区及(ji)周(zhou)边94个(ge)气(qi)象台(tai)站(zhan)近(jin)50 a气(qi)候(hou)数(shu)据分前后25 a两期(qi)的(de)(de)模拟(ni),分析得到内(nei)蒙(meng)古(gu)自治区潜在(zai)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)地(di)(di)(di)理(li)格(ge)(ge)(ge)局的(de)(de)时空动(dong)态特征(zheng)及(ji)其变(bian)(bian)化(hua)。结(jie)果表(biao)明(ming),内(nei)蒙(meng)古(gu)自治区境(jing)内(nei)潜在(zai)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)共分为16类(lei),归为6个(ge)类(lei)组,以(yi)荒(huang)漠和(he)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan)为主;在(zai)高(gao)(gao)平原(yuan)(yuan)和(he)山(shan)前平原(yuan)(yuan)地(di)(di)(di)区的(de)(de)潜在(zai)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)呈(cheng)干湿地(di)(di)(di)带性分布(bu),而在(zai)大兴(xing)安(an)岭和(he)阴山(shan)山(shan)地(di)(di)(di)地(di)(di)(di)区呈(cheng)垂直地(di)(di)(di)带性分布(bu)。近(jin)50 a间,不但(dan)各潜在(zai)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)类(lei)型(xing)(xing)自身(shen)的(de)(de)面(mian)积发生变(bian)(bian)化(hua),而且不同类(lei)型(xing)(xing)之(zhi)间也有明(ming)显(xian)的(de)(de)演替。荒(huang)漠、半(ban)荒(huang)漠类(lei)和(he)山(shan)地(di)(di)(di)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan)、典型(xing)(xing)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan)类(lei)受立地(di)(di)(di)气(qi)候(hou)变(bian)(bian)干影响,面(mian)积呈(cheng)增(zeng)加趋(qu)(qu)势(shi)并(bing)向东扩(kuo)张;草(cao)(cao)甸草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan)类(lei)和(he)森(sen)林(lin)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan)、森(sen)林(lin)类(lei)受立地(di)(di)(di)气(qi)候(hou)变(bian)(bian)干和(he)气(qi)温升高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)综合(he)(he)影响,面(mian)积呈(cheng)减少趋(qu)(qu)势(shi)并(bing)向高(gao)(gao)纬度、高(gao)(gao)海(hai)拔地(di)(di)(di)区退缩。这种演替格(ge)(ge)(ge)局反映(ying)了植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)对生境(jing)和(he)气(qi)候(hou)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)的(de)(de)多元适应(ying)性结(jie)构(gou)。
小兴安岭原始红松林的植被多样性
于 洋, 邹 莉, 孙婷婷, 唐庆明, 郭 静, 张国权, 谭 昀
2013, 7(8): 1175-1181.
[摘要](1150) [PDF 633KB](331)
摘要:
以小兴安岭凉水自然保护(hu)区为研究(jiu)对(dui)象,采用生态群(qun)落(luo)学调查方法(fa)研究(jiu)了红皮云杉(shan)(Picea koraiensis)红松(song)(song)(song)林(lin)(lin)及落(luo)叶(ye)松(song)(song)(song)(Larix gmelini)林(lin)(lin)地表(biao)植被群(qun)落(luo)结(jie)构特征及群(qun)落(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)种(zhong)多(duo)样(yang)性。结(jie)果表(biao)明(ming),红松(song)(song)(song)林(lin)(lin)共有(you)维管束植物(wu)(wu)(wu)36种(zhong),隶(li)属(shu)22科32属(shu),落(luo)叶(ye)松(song)(song)(song)林(lin)(lin)共有(you)维管束植物(wu)(wu)(wu)31种(zhong),隶(li)属(shu)22科27属(shu),二者均属(shu)稳定型植被群(qun)落(luo)。两(liang)种(zhong)林(lin)(lin)型的物(wu)(wu)(wu)种(zhong)丰富(fu)度指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(S)与物(wu)(wu)(wu)种(zhong)多(duo)样(yang)性指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(SP)均表(biao)现为乔(qiao)木(mu)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)<灌木(mu)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)<草本(ben)(ben)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng),且(qie)红松(song)(song)(song)林(lin)(lin)各(ge)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)之间差(cha)异显著;物(wu)(wu)(wu)种(zhong)多(duo)样(yang)性指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(SW)在(zai)落(luo)叶(ye)松(song)(song)(song)林(lin)(lin)各(ge)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)差(cha)异不(bu)明(ming)显,但在(zai)红松(song)(song)(song)林(lin)(lin)各(ge)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)存在(zai)显著差(cha)异,以草本(ben)(ben)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)最(zui)高(gao)(gao);物(wu)(wu)(wu)种(zhong)均匀度指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(Jsw)在(zai)红松(song)(song)(song)林(lin)(lin)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)表(biao)现为乔(qiao)木(mu)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)>灌木(mu)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)>草本(ben)(ben)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng),在(zai)落(luo)叶(ye)松(song)(song)(song)林(lin)(lin)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)以灌木(mu)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)Jsw指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)最(zui)高(gao)(gao),且(qie)明(ming)显高(gao)(gao)于红松(song)(song)(song)林(lin)(lin)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)各(ge)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)。
狗牙根抗非生物胁迫的研究进展
产祝龙, 施海涛, 王艳平
2013, 7(8): 1182-1187.
[摘要](1341) [PDF 619KB](280)
摘要:
狗(gou)牙(ya)根(gen)(gen)(Cynodon dactylon)是暖(nuan)季型草坪草中应用(yong)最广泛(fan)的草种(zhong)之一,具有抗性(xing)强,生(sheng)长(zhang)快、建(jian)坪迅(xun)速等(deng)优点。狗(gou)牙(ya)根(gen)(gen)分(fen)(fen)布广泛(fan),对(dui)不同逆(ni)境的抗性(xing)具有差异性(xing)。本文综述了冷害、干(gan)旱、渍害、盐分(fen)(fen)等(deng)胁迫(po)对(dui)狗(gou)牙(ya)根(gen)(gen)生(sheng)理生(sheng)化以及(ji)分(fen)(fen)子水平的影(ying)响,总结(jie)了近10年来相(xiang)关的研究(jiu)进展,并对(dui)今(jin)后(hou)有可能深入的研究(jiu)内容提(ti)出了意见和建(jian)议。
最新录用
再生水灌溉对冷季型草坪草生长的影响
刘金荣, 杨有俊, 郑明珠, 张旭, 刘译锴
2013, 7(8): 1149-1155.
[摘要](1213) [PDF 551KB](259)
摘要:
再(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)水(shui)(shui)用于草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping)绿地灌(guan)(guan)(guan)溉(gai)对拓宽(kuan)(kuan)再(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)水(shui)(shui)的(de)应用范围、缓解城市(shi)(shi)用水(shui)(shui)危机具有重要意义。本研究(jiu)采用自来水(shui)(shui)和(he)再(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)水(shui)(shui)两种(zhong)水(shui)(shui)源灌(guan)(guan)(guan)溉(gai)供(gong)试草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping),分析其(qi)在再(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)水(shui)(shui)灌(guan)(guan)(guan)溉(gai)条件下的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)长、生(sheng)(sheng)理(li)指标的(de)变(bian)化。供(gong)试草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)为(wei)冷(leng)季型(xing)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)多年生(sheng)(sheng)黑麦草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Lolium perenne)品种(zhong)潘多拉(Panterra)、首相(Premier),高(gao)(gao)羊茅(mao)(Festuca arundinacea)品种(zhong)凌志(zhi)(Barlexas)、易凯(Easy care),草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地早熟(shu)禾(Poa pratensis)品种(zhong)百胜(sheng)(Barvictor)、百斯特(Barrister),研究(jiu)结果表明,再(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)水(shui)(shui)灌(guan)(guan)(guan)溉(gai)使各草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)再(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)量提高(gao)(gao),叶绿素含量也(ye)显(xian)著提高(gao)(gao),灌(guan)(guan)(guan)溉(gai)后期(qi)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)叶宽(kuan)(kuan)显(xian)著提高(gao)(gao),但对叶片细胞(bao)膜透(tou)性和(he)根系活(huo)力没有显(xian)著影响。再(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)水(shui)(shui)用于草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping)灌(guan)(guan)(guan)溉(gai)在兰州市(shi)(shi)具有良好的(de)应用前(qian)景。
草人诗记
三十 额济纳纪行
任继周
2013, 7(8): 1188-1188.
[摘要](700) [PDF 233KB](996)
摘要:
植物生产层
梭罗草幼穗分化过程的观察
2013, 7(8): 1189-1193.
[摘要](1189) [PDF 778KB](231)
摘要:
2011年9月-2012年5月对(dui)梭罗(luo)草(Kengyilia thoroldiana)幼穗(sui)(sui)分化(hua)(hua)过程(cheng)进行(xing)观察,结(jie)果表明,梭罗(luo)草幼穗(sui)(sui)分化(hua)(hua)是具有(you)明显特(te)征的连(lian)续(xu)变化(hua)(hua)过程(cheng),按库别(bie)尔曼(man)划分原则可划分为初(chu)生期(qi)(qi)、伸长期(qi)(qi)、结(jie)节期(qi)(qi)、小穗(sui)(sui)突起(qi)期(qi)(qi)、颖(ying)片(pian)突起(qi)期(qi)(qi)、小花突起(qi)期(qi)(qi)、雌雄(xiong)蕊形(xing)成期(qi)(qi)和抽穗(sui)(sui)始期(qi)(qi)8个时期(qi)(qi)。分化(hua)(hua)发育(yu)过程(cheng)中,复穗(sui)(sui)状(zhuang)花序(xu)中上(shang)部(bu)(bu)小穗(sui)(sui)发育(yu)最快,后依次(ci)向(xiang)上(shang)、向(xiang)下进行(xing),基部(bu)(bu)小穗(sui)(sui)发育(yu)最慢(man);复穗(sui)(sui)状(zhuang)花序(xu)的开(kai)花顺序(xu)是从中上(shang)部(bu)(bu)开(kai)始, 依次(ci)向(xiang)上(shang)、向(xiang)下进行(xing);每个小穗(sui)(sui)的开(kai)花顺序(xu)是基部(bu)(bu)先(xian)开(kai)花,依次(ci)向(xiang)上(shang)进行(xing)。
地被菊雪公主的组织培养和快速繁殖
马 欣, 董凤丽, 刘 杰, 刘晨旭, 周蕴薇
2013, 7(8): 1194-1199.
[摘要](977) [PDF 778KB](273)
摘要:
以地(di)被(bei)菊雪(xue)公(gong)主(Chrysanthemum grandiflorum cv.White Snow)带腋(ye)芽的茎段为(wei)(wei)外植体,通(tong)过消(xiao)毒得到无菌材料。以MS为(wei)(wei)基(ji)本培(pei)(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)基(ji),通(tong)过增加不(bu)同浓度的激(ji)素进行(xing)组织(zhi)培(pei)(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)快速(su)繁殖技术的研究。结果表(biao)明,诱(you)导叶片(pian)不(bu)定芽的最适培(pei)(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)基(ji)为(wei)(wei)MS+1.0 mgL-16BA+0.7 mgL-1NAA,诱(you)导率(lv)达(da)100%,分化率(lv)达(da)63.3%;茎段增殖的最适培(pei)(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)基(ji)为(wei)(wei)MS+0.3 mgL-16BA+0.2 mgL-1NAA,平均增殖系(xi)数(shu)(shu)为(wei)(wei)6.73;继代培(pei)(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)为(wei)(wei)MS培(pei)(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)基(ji);生根培(pei)(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)基(ji)为(wei)(wei)1/2MS+0.5 mgL-1NAA培(pei)(pei)(pei)养(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)基(ji),生根率(lv)达(da)100%,平均生根系(xi)数(shu)(shu)为(wei)(wei)15.80;移栽后生长良好(hao),成活率(lv)达(da)100%。
4种野豌豆种子萌发对水分胁迫的响应
李廷山, 王 娟, 胡小文
2013, 7(8): 1200-1207.
[摘要](1310) [PDF 1105KB](255)
摘要:
以(yi)3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)青藏高(gao)原野(ye)(ye)豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)属植(zhi)(zhi)物窄叶野(ye)(ye)豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)(Vicia angustifolia)、山野(ye)(ye)豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)(V.amoena)、歪(wai)头(tou)菜(cai)(cai)(V.unijuga)与1种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)当地栽培植(zhi)(zhi)物箭筈豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)兰箭3号(hao)(V.sativa)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)为材(cai)料,应用种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)萌发(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)水(shui)势模(mo)型对(dui)(dui)上述4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)萌发(fa)(fa)对(dui)(dui)水(shui)分的(de)(de)需求特性进(jin)行了研究。结果(guo)表明,1)基础(chu)水(shui)势(b)随(sui)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)萌发(fa)(fa)率(lv)(g)的(de)(de)增加而(er)增加,表明种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)内种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)个体(ti)萌发(fa)(fa)基础(chu)水(shui)势存(cun)在(zai)(zai)变异;2)除歪(wai)头(tou)菜(cai)(cai)外(wai),其余种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)萌发(fa)(fa)速(su)(su)率(lv)与水(shui)势的(de)(de)回归直线的(de)(de)斜率(lv)随(sui)萌发(fa)(fa)率(lv)的(de)(de)增加而(er)降低(di)(di),暗示种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)内种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)个体(ti)萌发(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)水(shui)势时(shi)间(jian)值(zhi)(H)在(zai)(zai)有些种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)上可能存(cun)在(zai)(zai)变异;3)参试(shi)植(zhi)(zhi)物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)中,兰箭3号(hao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)b值(zhi)最低(di)(di),表明其在(zai)(zai)相对(dui)(dui)干旱环境条(tiao)件(jian)下(xia)易于萌发(fa)(fa),山野(ye)(ye)豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)b值(zhi)最高(gao),但H较低(di)(di),表明其萌发(fa)(fa)耐旱性差,在(zai)(zai)水(shui)分充(chong)足(zu)的(de)(de)条(tiao)件(jian)下(xia)萌发(fa)(fa)迅速(su)(su);4)水(shui)势模(mo)型可准确(que)预测休眠(mian)破除后4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)野(ye)(ye)豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)属种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)在(zai)(zai)高(gao)水(shui)势条(tiao)件(jian)下(xia)的(de)(de)萌发(fa)(fa)进(jin)程,但用于预测低(di)(di)水(shui)势条(tiao)件(jian)下(xia)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)萌发(fa)(fa)时(shi),准确(que)性较差。
镜泊湖世界地质公园种子植物种的区系成分分析
王立凤, 曲秀春, 姜 明, 杨少成, 石兰英
2013, 7(8): 1208-1211.
[摘要](970) [PDF 438KB](227)
摘要:
为(wei)(wei)深入掌(zhang)握镜泊(bo)(bo)湖(hu)世界(jie)地(di)质(zhi)公园种(zhong)子植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)的(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)特征,采(cai)用Kitagawa标准对该区(qu)(qu)(qu)815种(zhong)野生种(zhong)子植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)进(jin)行(xing)了种(zhong)的(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)成(cheng)分(fen)分(fen)析。结果(guo)表明(ming),镜泊(bo)(bo)湖(hu)区(qu)(qu)(qu)种(zhong)子植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)包含长(zhang)白植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)、华北植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)、大兴(xing)安(an)岭植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)和蒙古植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)4种(zhong)区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)成(cheng)分(fen),以长(zhang)白植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)为(wei)(wei)主(zhu)。镜泊(bo)(bo)湖(hu)区(qu)(qu)(qu)既有(you)单区(qu)(qu)(qu)成(cheng)分(fen),也有(you)共有(you)成(cheng)分(fen),共有(you)成(cheng)分(fen)占(zhan)总种(zhong)数的(de)(de)73.50%,反映(ying)出该区(qu)(qu)(qu)地(di)理联系(xi)(xi)广泛以及不同区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)相互渗透(tou)与发(fa)展的(de)(de)较复杂的(de)(de)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)区(qu)(qu)(qu)系(xi)(xi)特征。
黔西北炼锌废渣基质上不同草种苗期生长状况
敖成红, 刘 方, 罗 洋
2013, 7(8): 1212-1216.
[摘要](1017) [PDF 651KB](280)
摘要:
以黔西(xi)北(bei)土法炼锌废渣(zha)基质(zhi)为(wei)(wei)研究对象,通过(guo)盆(pen)栽试验,筛选出(chu)(chu)适(shi)宜在该基质(zhi)上(shang)生(sheng)(sheng)长的(de)草本植物。结果表明,各草种出(chu)(chu)苗时间为(wei)(wei)白(bai)三叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(Trifolium repens)、红(hong)(hong)三叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(T.pratense)(3 d)一(yi)年(nian)(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)(hei)麦草(Lolium multiflorum)、多年(nian)(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)(hei)麦草(L.perenne)(4 d)紫花苜(mu)蓿(Medicago sativa)(5 d)草地(di)早熟禾(Poa pratensis)(7 d)狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)(15 d);多年(nian)(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)(hei)麦草的(de)出(chu)(chu)苗率最(zui)高(83.3%),其(qi)次是一(yi)年(nian)(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)(hei)麦草、白(bai)三叶(ye)(ye)(ye)、红(hong)(hong)三叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(60%),紫花苜(mu)蓿、草地(di)早熟禾和(he)狗牙根的(de)出(chu)(chu)苗率最(zui)低(30%左右);一(yi)年(nian)(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)(hei)麦草、白(bai)三叶(ye)(ye)(ye)、多年(nian)(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)(hei)麦草的(de)株高和(he)分(fen)蘖(nie)数均优于红(hong)(hong)三叶(ye)(ye)(ye)、紫花苜(mu)蓿、草地(di)早熟禾和(he)狗牙根,适(shi)合在土法炼锌废渣(zha)基质(zhi)上(shang)生(sheng)(sheng)长。
10个大黍品种在滇南的适应性及其评价
刘金海, 王鹤桦, 左应梅, 黄必志, 刘国道, 周 超
2013, 7(8): 1217-1223.
[摘要](1242) [PDF 440KB](203)
摘要:
于2006年对10个大(da)(da)黍(shu)(Panicum maximum)品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)生产性(xing)能(neng)和品(pin)质(zhi)(zhi)特性(xing)进行区(qu)域试验研(yan)究,旨在筛选出适(shi)宜于热(re)带、亚(ya)热(re)带地区(qu)种(zhong)植(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)高产、优(you)(you)质(zhi)(zhi)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao),以期(qi)为热(re)区(qu)畜牧(mu)(mu)(mu)业(ye)的(de)(de)(de)持(chi)续(xu)发展提供(gong)依(yi)据(ju)。结果表明(ming),1)所引(yin)种(zhong)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)(de)存活率、越(yue)冬率都(dou)在94%以上,说明(ming)所引(yin)种(zhong)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)(de)适(shi)应性(xing)强(qiang);2)除TD58坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)、坦桑(sang)尼(ni)(ni)(ni)亚(ya)大(da)(da)黍(shu)和热(re)研(yan)8号(hao)坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)感染了叶锈(xiu)病以外,其他牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)(de)抗(kang)(kang)病虫(chong)害能(neng)力(li)均(jun)较强(qiang);3)种(zhong)植(zhi)第1年,坦桑(sang)尼(ni)(ni)(ni)亚(ya)大(da)(da)黍(shu)干(gan)物质(zhi)(zhi)产量最高,为45.33 thm-2,与(yu)MG7 Aries大(da)(da)黍(shu)、MG6 Atlas大(da)(da)黍(shu)、蒙(meng)巴(ba)萨大(da)(da)黍(shu)、热(re)研(yan)8号(hao)坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)、热(re)研(yan)9号(hao)坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)和TD58坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)之(zhi)间差异不显著(zhu);4)选择(ze)干(gan)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产量、粗蛋白、适(shi)口(kou)性(xing)和抗(kang)(kang)逆性(xing)作(zuo)为综合评(ping)(ping)价供(gong)试品(pin)种(zhong)优(you)(you)劣的(de)(de)(de)指标(biao),用灰色关(guan)联法(fa)评(ping)(ping)价牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao),结果表明(ming),蒙(meng)巴(ba)萨大(da)(da)黍(shu)、坦桑(sang)尼(ni)(ni)(ni)亚(ya)大(da)(da)黍(shu)、热(re)研(yan)8号(hao)坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)、MG6 Atlas大(da)(da)黍(shu)和TD58坚尼(ni)(ni)(ni)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)居前5位,它们属高产、质(zhi)(zhi)优(you)(you)、适(shi)口(kou)性(xing)好、抗(kang)(kang)性(xing)强(qiang)的(de)(de)(de)高产优(you)(you)质(zhi)(zhi)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)品(pin)种(zhong)。
新疆不同居群罗布白麻叶片的营养元素含量特征
楚秉泉, 牛得草, 傅 华
2013, 7(8): 1224-1228.
[摘要](1216) [PDF 419KB](276)
摘要:
对(dui)新疆(jiang)阿勒泰(tai)市土山罗(luo)布麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)保(bao)护(hu)区的(de)5个(ge)不同居(ju)(ju)群(qun)(qun)的(de)罗(luo)布白(bai)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)(Poacynum hendersonii)叶(ye)(ye)片中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)N、P、K、Na、Ca、Mg、Cu、Fe、Zn和Mn 10种(zhong)营养(yang)元素含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)进行了测定(ding)和比较。结果表明,青杆中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)为(wei)NCa类(lei)(lei)型、特(te)细叶(ye)(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)和红(hong)(hong)杆中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)为(wei)NK类(lei)(lei)型,N含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)在(zai)特(te)细叶(ye)(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)其(qi)他4个(ge)居(ju)(ju)群(qun)(qun)(P<0.05);中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)细叶(ye)(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)为(wei)KCa类(lei)(lei)型、白(bai)花(hua)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)为(wei)KN类(lei)(lei)型,其(qi)K含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)其(qi)他3个(ge)居(ju)(ju)群(qun)(qun)。5个(ge)居(ju)(ju)群(qun)(qun)罗(luo)布麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)叶(ye)(ye)片中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)4种(zhong)微量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)元素的(de)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang),除红(hong)(hong)杆中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)居(ju)(ju)群(qun)(qun)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)Mn含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)最高(gao)(gao)(gao)外,其(qi)余4个(ge)居(ju)(ju)群(qun)(qun)均(jun)为(wei)FeMnZnCu;各(ge)居(ju)(ju)群(qun)(qun)Fe和Zn含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)无显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)差(cha)异;各(ge)居(ju)(ju)群(qun)(qun)间Mn含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)差(cha)异显(xian)(xian)著(zhu);青杆中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)、红(hong)(hong)杆中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)和特(te)细叶(ye)(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)Cu含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)细叶(ye)(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma),白(bai)花(hua)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)花(hua)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)与(yu)各(ge)居(ju)(ju)群(qun)(qun)间均(jun)无显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)差(cha)异。相(xiang)关(guan)分析(xi)表明,罗(luo)布白(bai)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)居(ju)(ju)群(qun)(qun)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)Mg与(yu)Mn,K与(yu)P,Ca与(yu)Mg,Fe与(yu)Zn含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)呈显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)正(zheng)相(xiang)关(guan)性;而Na与(yu)Ca,K与(yu)Cu和Mn,P与(yu)Cu和N含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)呈显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)负相(xiang)关(guan)(P<0.05)。
3种种植模式下牧草生产性能的比较
曾 兵, 罗 登, 左福元, 王保全, 梁 欢, 伍 莲, 韩玉竹
2013, 7(8): 1229-1234.
[摘要](1177) [PDF 529KB](255)
摘要:
皇(huang)竹草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Pennisetum hydridum)、甜(tian)高(gao)粱(Sorghum bicolor)、扁穗(sui)(sui)牛鞭(bian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Hemarthia compessa)是重庆(qing)市(shi)3种(zhong)(zhong)主(zhu)推(tui)牧(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao),合(he)理地(di)搭配(pei)种(zhong)(zhong)植这3种(zhong)(zhong)牧(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)能为(wei)(wei)重庆(qing)地(di)区(qu)提供更好的(de)(de)(de)四季青(qing)绿饲草(cao)(cao)(cao),并获(huo)得生物(wu)量和营养(yang)(yang)成(cheng)份的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)产(chan)。本研究设定了3种(zhong)(zhong)不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)植面积比例组合(he)模式(shi)(shi)(shi)(3∶1∶1、1∶2∶1和1∶1∶1),通过测(ce)定3种(zhong)(zhong)种(zhong)(zhong)植模式(shi)(shi)(shi)下牧(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)组合(he)的(de)(de)(de)干(gan)草(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)量及主(zhu)要养(yang)(yang)分,最(zui)终筛选出适合(he)重庆(qing)地(di)区(qu)养(yang)(yang)牛的(de)(de)(de)最(zui)佳牧(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)植模式(shi)(shi)(shi)。结果表明,皇(huang)竹草(cao)(cao)(cao)、甜(tian)高(gao)粱、扁穗(sui)(sui)牛鞭(bian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)植面积为(wei)(wei)3∶1∶1时,牧(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)干(gan)物(wu)质、粗蛋白、粗脂肪、粗纤维、无氮(dan)浸出物(wu)、Ca和P的(de)(de)(de)总产(chan)量较高(gao),分别达到(dao)20 366.09、1 677.38、620.15、6 851.76、9 442.87、237.97和128.86 kghm-2。本研究筛选的(de)(de)(de)重庆(qing)地(di)区(qu)最(zui)佳的(de)(de)(de)养(yang)(yang)牛种(zhong)(zhong)草(cao)(cao)(cao)模式(shi)(shi)(shi)为(wei)(wei)皇(huang)竹草(cao)(cao)(cao)∶甜(tian)高(gao)粱∶扁穗(sui)(sui)牛鞭(bian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)植面积为(wei)(wei)3∶1∶1,此模式(shi)(shi)(shi)能获(huo)得较高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)干(gan)草(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)量和养(yang)(yang)分含量。
建植第1年刈割对黑麦草+白三叶草地杂草空间格局的影响
罗天琼, 王普昶, 赵丽丽, 牟 琼, 王应芬, 黎 俊
2013, 7(8): 1235-1239.
[摘要](1355) [PDF 724KB](235)
摘要:
栽培草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地稳(wen)(wen)定性是(shi)近年来草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地建植(zhi)与管(guan)理的(de)核心问题之(zhi)一(yi)(yi),其(qi)中草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地抗杂草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)入(ru)(ru)侵是(shi)其(qi)稳(wen)(wen)定性的(de)重(zhong)要表(biao)(biao)现形式(shi)。本研究应(ying)用地统计(ji)学分(fen)析(xi)(xi)(xi)方法,分(fen)析(xi)(xi)(xi)了(le)刈(yi)割(ge)处理下(xia)(xia)(xia)多(duo)年生(sheng)黑麦草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Lolium perenne)+白(bai)三叶(ye)(Trifolium repens)混播草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地杂草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)分(fen)布(bu)的(de)异(yi)(yi)(yi)质(zhi)性。结(jie)果表(biao)(biao)明,不同(tong)(tong)刈(yi)割(ge)强度(du)(du)下(xia)(xia)(xia),多(duo)年生(sheng)黑麦草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)+白(bai)三叶(ye)混播草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地入(ru)(ru)侵杂草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地上生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)格局(ju)(ju)异(yi)(yi)(yi)质(zhi)化(hua)程度(du)(du)及其(qi)相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)范(fan)(fan)(fan)围(wei)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)比较明显(xian)。变(bian)(bian)异(yi)(yi)(yi)函数的(de)基(ji)台值(zhi)(C0+C)在不同(tong)(tong)刈(yi)割(ge)强度(du)(du)下(xia)(xia)(xia)的(de)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)表(biao)(biao)明,在重(zhong)度(du)(du)刈(yi)割(ge)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia),杂草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地上生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)分(fen)布(bu)异(yi)(yi)(yi)质(zhi)性最高(12.530),对(dui)照条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)次之(zhi)(4.751),轻度(du)(du)刈(yi)割(ge)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)较低(4.557),中度(du)(du)刈(yi)割(ge)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)最低(3.149)。变(bian)(bian)异(yi)(yi)(yi)函数的(de)相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)范(fan)(fan)(fan)围(wei)(A0)表(biao)(biao)明,在重(zhong)度(du)(du)刈(yi)割(ge)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)范(fan)(fan)(fan)围(wei)最大(1 004.1 cm),中度(du)(du)刈(yi)割(ge)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)最小(122.1 cm),轻度(du)(du)刈(yi)割(ge) (161.9 cm)和对(dui)照(219.1 cm)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)下(xia)(xia)(xia)居中。空(kong)(kong)间(jian)变(bian)(bian)异(yi)(yi)(yi)比分(fen)析(xi)(xi)(xi)表(biao)(biao)明,由空(kong)(kong)间(jian)自相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)因素引(yin)起的(de)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)异(yi)(yi)(yi)质(zhi)性占(zhan)主要部分(fen)(50.3%~93.5%)。空(kong)(kong)间(jian)分(fen)布(bu)格局(ju)(ju)图(Kriging map)分(fen)析(xi)(xi)(xi)进一(yi)(yi)步(bu)显(xian)示,不同(tong)(tong)刈(yi)割(ge)强度(du)(du)下(xia)(xia)(xia)多(duo)年生(sheng)黑麦草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)+白(bai)三叶(ye)混播草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地杂草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地上生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)格局(ju)(ju)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)显(xian)著(zhu)。
紫云英的农艺性状变异
张 贤, 王建红, 曹 凯, 王松涛
2013, 7(8): 1240-1245.
[摘要](904) [PDF 386KB](220)
摘要:
以广泛应用(yong)的9个(ge)紫云英(Astragalus sinicus)品种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)为(wei)试验(yan)材料,测量(liang)其株高(gao)、干质量(liang)、粗蛋白含量(liang)等(deng)12个(ge)农艺(yi)(yi)性状,研究其农艺(yi)(yi)性状变(bian)异。结果表明(ming),紫云英农艺(yi)(yi)性状存(cun)在较(jiao)大变(bian)异,其中变(bian)异幅度最(zui)大的是分(fen)枝(zhi)数,其品种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)内个(ge)体间差异最(zui)大,变(bian)异系数达0.310。聚类分(fen)析结果基本反(fan)映了紫云英品种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的熟(shu)期(qi),熟(shu)期(qi)相(xiang)同的品种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)之间遗传(chuan)距离(li)较(jiao)近(jin)。熟(shu)期(qi)相(xiang)同的品种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)农艺(yi)(yi)性状相(xiang)似,早熟(shu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)粤肥2号和信阳种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)营(ying)(ying)养(yang)生长(zhang)较(jiao)弱,营(ying)(ying)养(yang)成分(fen)含量(liang)亦较(jiao)低,中熟(shu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)闽紫6号和闽紫7号叶长(zhang)、叶宽、株高(gao)、茎粗及单株干质量(liang)等(deng)性状都明(ming)显优于(yu)其余品种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)。
植物体内自由基清除剂抗坏血酸研究进展
闫慧芳, 夏方山, 王明亚, 毛培胜
2013, 7(8): 1246-1252.
[摘要](1010) [PDF 482KB](560)
摘要:
抗(kang)坏(huai)血(xue)酸(Ascorbic Acid,AsA)作为(wei)植(zhi)物(wu)体内一种重要的(de)(de)(de)自由(you)(you)基(ji)清(qing)除(chu)剂,在(zai)减少膜(mo)脂过氧(yang)化作用对细(xi)胞造成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)损(sun)伤、增强(qiang)植(zhi)物(wu)抵抗(kang)逆境(jing)胁(xie)迫能力等(deng)(deng)过程中(zhong)起(qi)着非常重要的(de)(de)(de)作用。通过分(fen)(fen)析(xi)比较AsA的(de)(de)(de)生物(wu)合成(cheng)途径,总结AsA参与细(xi)胞分(fen)(fen)裂与伸长、作为(wei)辅(fu)酶参与细(xi)胞壁的(de)(de)(de)形成(cheng)、光保护作用、作为(wei)电子(zi)传(chuan)递与信号转导的(de)(de)(de)载体等(deng)(deng)生理功能,系统阐(chan)述AsA在(zai)植(zhi)物(wu)逆境(jing)胁(xie)迫(主要包括温度胁(xie)迫、盐(yan)胁(xie)迫、生物(wu)胁(xie)迫等(deng)(deng))中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)保护机制及功能,强(qiang)调AsA研究对于了解自由(you)(you)基(ji)清(qing)除(chu)剂在(zai)植(zhi)物(wu)抗(kang)逆性作用以及清(qing)除(chu)自由(you)(you)基(ji)机理方(fang)面具有重要作用。本研究提出在(zai)牧(mu)草种子(zi)劣变方(fang)面AsA研究的(de)(de)(de)不足,并分(fen)(fen)析(xi)展望了AsA研究发展的(de)(de)(de)趋势(shi)。
动物生产层
基于mtDNA COⅠ基因的DNA条形码技术鉴定鞘翅目幼虫
刘翠霞, 林恭华, 苏建平, 陈生云, 张同作
2013, 7(8): 1253-1258.
[摘要](863) [PDF 472KB](232)
摘要:
传统的(de)形(xing)(xing)态(tai)学(xue)分(fen)类很(hen)难鉴(jian)(jian)(jian)定(ding)(ding)(ding)昆(kun)虫的(de)蛹和(he)幼(you)虫。鞘翅目(mu)是昆(kun)虫纲中最(zui)大的(de)类群(qun),其(qi)种(zhong)群(qun)鉴(jian)(jian)(jian)定(ding)(ding)(ding)工(gong)作(zuo)复(fu)杂而艰巨。为了鉴(jian)(jian)(jian)定(ding)(ding)(ding)形(xing)(xing)态(tai)相似的(de)鞘翅目(mu)昆(kun)虫的(de)幼(you)虫,本研究利用 PCR扩增技术(shu)获取(qu)青海20个常见鞘翅目(mu)幼(you)虫mtDNA上COⅠ基(ji)因(yin)(yin)的(de)566 bp序(xu)列,结(jie)合Blast搜索、遗传距离计算(suan)和(he)NJ系统发育树构(gou)建对(dui)其(qi)进行(xing)(xing)分(fen)类鉴(jian)(jian)(jian)定(ding)(ding)(ding),有(you)效鉴(jian)(jian)(jian)定(ding)(ding)(ding)出20只供试鞘翅目(mu)幼(you)虫属(shu)于5科9属(shu)。研究结(jie)果(guo)表明(ming),DNA条形(xing)(xing)码技术(shu)进行(xing)(xing)种(zhong)类鉴(jian)(jian)(jian)定(ding)(ding)(ding)快捷(jie)、准确,mtDNA COⅠ基(ji)因(yin)(yin)能(neng)够(gou)用于鞘翅目(mu)昆(kun)虫分(fen)类鉴(jian)(jian)(jian)定(ding)(ding)(ding)。
后生物生产层
苜蓿与竞争农作物投入产出的比较
石自忠, 王明利
2013, 7(8): 1259-1265.
[摘要](1019) [PDF 438KB](315)
摘要:
本研(yan)究(jiu)以对牧草种植区(qu)内苜(mu)蓿(Medicago sativa)、小麦(Triticum aestivum)、玉米(Zea mays)和马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)住户(hu)的(de)实(shi)地调研(yan)数(shu)据为(wei)基础,对苜(mu)蓿及竞争农(nong)(nong)作物(wu)的(de)投入产(chan)出(chu)(chu)进(jin)行分析。结果表(biao)明(ming),种植苜(mu)蓿有良(liang)好的(de)经济(ji)效(xiao)益(yi),且其(qi)(qi)潜在(zai)效(xiao)益(yi)很大。本研(yan)究(jiu)还通过建立(li)苜(mu)蓿、小麦和玉米3种作物(wu)的(de)产(chan)出(chu)(chu)模(mo)型,对其(qi)(qi)要素弹性进(jin)行分析,得出(chu)(chu)影响苜(mu)蓿及竞争农(nong)(nong)作物(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)的(de)显(xian)著要素,并提出(chu)(chu)意见和建议。
西藏地区藏北嵩草附着乳酸菌的理化特性
高 静, 郭旭生, 王国成
2013, 7(8): 1266-1271.
[摘要](1245) [PDF 430KB](316)
摘要:
本(ben)研(yan)(yan)究以藏(zang)北(bei)嵩草(Kobresia littledalei)上(shang)附着的(de)(de)(de)乳(ru)(ru)酸(suan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)为研(yan)(yan)究对象,分(fen)离得(de)到肠膜(mo)明串珠菌(jun)(jun)(jun)肠膜(mo)亚种(zhong)两株,融(rong)合魏(wei)斯(si)氏菌(jun)(jun)(jun)11株,食物魏(wei)斯(si)氏菌(jun)(jun)(jun)6株,然后(hou)对这3种(zhong)试验(yan)(yan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)进(jin)行不(bu)同温度及(ji)pH条件(jian)下的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)试验(yan)(yan)、耐(nai)盐试验(yan)(yan)及(ji)糖发(fa)酵试验(yan)(yan)等生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)理(li)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)化特性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)研(yan)(yan)究。结果表明,与常(chang)(chang)规条件(jian)下分(fen)离得(de)到的(de)(de)(de)相同菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株相比(bi)较,青藏(zang)高原极端(duan)环境(jing)中(zhong)分(fen)离的(de)(de)(de)魏(wei)斯(si)氏乳(ru)(ru)酸(suan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)和明串珠菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株都能(neng)在(zai)(zai)4~40 ℃的(de)(de)(de)条件(jian)下生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang),部分(fen)融(rong)合魏(wei)斯(si)氏菌(jun)(jun)(jun)还(hai)可(ke)在(zai)(zai)50 ℃下微(wei)弱(ruo)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang);耐(nai)酸(suan)碱试验(yan)(yan)表明,魏(wei)斯(si)氏乳(ru)(ru)酸(suan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株都能(neng)在(zai)(zai)pH值为3.0和9.5的(de)(de)(de)条件(jian)下生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang);在(zai)(zai)耐(nai)盐性(xing)方(fang)(fang)面,部分(fen)魏(wei)斯(si)氏菌(jun)(jun)(jun)可(ke)以在(zai)(zai)18%的(de)(de)(de)NaCl下生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang);在(zai)(zai)碳(tan)源利(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)方(fang)(fang)面,本(ben)研(yan)(yan)究提取(qu)的(de)(de)(de)食物魏(wei)斯(si)氏菌(jun)(jun)(jun)可(ke)利(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)半乳(ru)(ru)糖;融(rong)合魏(wei)斯(si)氏菌(jun)(jun)(jun)可(ke)利(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)阿拉(la)伯糖、蜜二糖、甘露醇。因此,藏(zang)北(bei)嵩草中(zhong)所分(fen)离的(de)(de)(de)乳(ru)(ru)酸(suan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)比(bi)常(chang)(chang)规环境(jing)中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)乳(ru)(ru)酸(suan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)有较强的(de)(de)(de)耐(nai)温性(xing)和耐(nai)酸(suan)碱性(xing),而且能(neng)更广地利(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)碳(tan)源,从而为其在(zai)(zai)饲料青贮、酸(suan)奶(nai)发(fa)酵等方(fang)(fang)面的(de)(de)(de)应用(yong)(yong)奠定(ding)基础。
调制方式对苜蓿青干草干燥特性和营养品质的影响
周娟娟, 王欣荣, 吴建平, 冯忠心, 史 静, 陈本建
2013, 7(8): 1272-1277.
[摘要](1313) [PDF 0KB](91)
摘要:
本(ben)研(yan)究以种植(zhi)第(di)2年处(chu)于初花期的紫花苜蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)为(wei)材料,设压(ya)扁(bian)+喷碳(tan)酸钾(2.5%)、压(ya)扁(bian)茎(jing)秆、自然晾晒和(he)阴干(gan)(gan)4种青干(gan)(gan)草(cao)调(diao)(diao)制方(fang)法(fa)(fa),以105 ℃烘干(gan)(gan)为(wei)对(dui)照,研(yan)究不同调(diao)(diao)制方(fang)法(fa)(fa)对(dui)苜蓿(xu)干(gan)(gan)燥(zao)(zao)(zao)特性(xing)和(he)营养(yang)品(pin)质(zhi)的影响,并对(dui)干(gan)(gan)草(cao)质(zhi)量进行综合评价。结果(guo)表(biao)明,除对(dui)照外,参试调(diao)(diao)制方(fang)式(shi)的苜蓿(xu)干(gan)(gan)燥(zao)(zao)(zao)速(su)率均(jun)呈现先快后慢(man)的趋势(shi);对(dui)照、压(ya)扁(bian)+喷碳(tan)酸钾(2.5%)都能加速(su)干(gan)(gan)燥(zao)(zao)(zao),减少干(gan)(gan)草(cao)营养(yang)物质(zhi)损失(shi);常规晾晒虽(sui)缩(suo)短了干(gan)(gan)燥(zao)(zao)(zao)时间,但对(dui)干(gan)(gan)草(cao)品(pin)质(zhi)的保(bao)持效(xiao)果(guo)不显著。采用(yong)灰色关联分析对(dui)参试方(fang)法(fa)(fa)的调(diao)(diao)制效(xiao)果(guo)进行综合评价表(biao)明,对(dui)照的综合表(biao)现最(zui)好(hao),其次是压(ya)扁(bian)+喷碳(tan)酸钾(2.5%),该晾晒方(fang)法(fa)(fa)快速(su)、简便、实用(yong),在(zai)生(sheng)产中(zhong)值得推荐。
晾晒时间对初花期紫花苜蓿青贮发酵品质的影响
史卉玲, 刘 慧, 马春晖
2013, 7(8): 1278-1283.
[摘要](1169) [PDF 444KB](275)
摘要:
本试验旨在(zai)研(yan)究不(bu)同晾(liang)晒(shai)时(shi)间对3个(ge)品种(zhong)(zhong)紫花(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)初(chu)花(hua)(hua)期青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)发(fa)(fa)(fa)酵品质(zhi)的(de)影响。在(zai)刈割后(hou)经2、4和6 h晾(liang)晒(shai)的(de)紫花(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)原料中加(jia)(jia)(jia)入青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)添加(jia)(jia)(jia)剂(ji)进行(xing)裹包青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)180 d,然后(hou)通过现场感官评定和实验室分析评价紫花(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)的(de)发(fa)(fa)(fa)酵品质(zhi)。结果表(biao)明,晾(liang)晒(shai)4~6 h可以提高3个(ge)品种(zhong)(zhong)的(de)紫花(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)的(de)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)发(fa)(fa)(fa)酵品质(zhi);晾(liang)晒(shai)6 h与(yu)2 h相(xiang)比丁酸(suan)、氨态氮含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)显著降低(P0.01),可溶性(xing)糖的(de)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)极显著增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(P0.01);粗(cu)蛋白含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)在(zai)晾(liang)晒(shai)4 h时(shi)能很(hen)好(hao)地保存(cun)(P0.01);加(jia)(jia)(jia)入添加(jia)(jia)(jia)剂(ji)可显著降低青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)饲料中的(de)中性(xing)洗涤纤维(wei)和酸(suan)性(xing)洗涤纤维(wei)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(P0.01)。3个(ge)品种(zhong)(zhong)的(de)紫花(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)均在(zai)晾(liang)晒(shai)4~6 h时(shi)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)效果最(zui)好(hao)。
5种饲草的分级指数测定与评价
成立新, 杨瑞杰, 格根图, 孙 林, 付俊平, 贾玉山
2013, 7(8): 1284-1288.
[摘要](1071) [PDF 375KB](307)
摘要:
本研究通过测定草(cao)(cao)原2号杂花苜蓿(xu)(Medicago varia cv.caoyuan No.2)、沙打旺(Astragalus adsurgens)、黑麦草(cao)(cao)(Lolium perenne)、高(gao)丹草(cao)(cao)(Sorghum vulgareS.sudanese)和(he)狼(lang)尾草(cao)(cao)(Pennisetum alopecuroides)5种(zhong)(zhong)饲草(cao)(cao)的常规营养(yang)成分、体外消化(hua)率(lv)、总(zong)能值(zhi)及(ji)自由采食量等指(zhi)标,以中性洗涤(di)纤(xian)(xian)维(NDF)、酸性洗涤(di)纤(xian)(xian)维(ADF)和(he)酸性洗涤(di)木质素(su)(ADL)为不同纤(xian)(xian)维素(su)指(zhi)标计(ji)算(suan)得出5种(zhong)(zhong)饲草(cao)(cao)的分级指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)(Grading Index,GI)。经对比分析后(hou)认为,以ADL为纤(xian)(xian)维素(su)指(zhi)标计(ji)算(suan)得出的饲草(cao)(cao)分级指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)最符合(he)实际饲养(yang)中的饲草(cao)(cao)价值(zhi)。按此指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)评价的5种(zhong)(zhong)饲草(cao)(cao)品质优劣顺序为苜蓿(xu)沙打旺黑麦草(cao)(cao)高(gao)丹草(cao)(cao)狼(lang)尾草(cao)(cao)。
农户种草意愿及其影响因素的实证分析
曾 嵘, 余成群, 曲云鹤, 李少伟, 秦基伟
2013, 7(8): 1289-1294.
[摘要](951) [PDF 431KB](263)
摘要:
为寻求促进(jin)(jin)扩大栽培牧草(cao)(cao)(cao)种植面积的有效途径,本(ben)研究(jiu)对(dui)(dui)西(xi)藏(zang)拉萨(sa)、日喀则和(he)山南地(di)区(qu)(qu)的797个农(nong)(nong)户(hu)的种草(cao)(cao)(cao)意(yi)愿(yuan)情况(kuang)进(jin)(jin)行调查,并采(cai)用(yong)Logistic回归分(fen)析对(dui)(dui)影响该地(di)区(qu)(qu)农(nong)(nong)户(hu)种草(cao)(cao)(cao)意(yi)愿(yuan)的因素进(jin)(jin)行分(fen)析。结果表明(ming),农(nong)(nong)户(hu)的受教育年限、家(jia)庭(ting)总(zong)收入、耕地(di)总(zong)面积、牲畜头数、牧草(cao)(cao)(cao)种子来(lai)源受到政府或项目支持及农(nong)(nong)户(hu)参加牲畜合作(zuo)社对(dui)(dui)农(nong)(nong)户(hu)种草(cao)(cao)(cao)意(yi)愿(yuan)具有积极的影响,而(er)家(jia)庭(ting)劳动力人(ren)数对(dui)(dui)种草(cao)(cao)(cao)意(yi)愿(yuan)具有负(fu)向影响。其中,户(hu)主(zhu)(zhu)年龄、家(jia)庭(ting)人(ren)口数和(he)户(hu)主(zhu)(zhu)是否有村(cun)干(gan)部(bu)或科技特派员经历3个因素对(dui)(dui)种草(cao)(cao)(cao)意(yi)愿(yuan)无(wu)显著(zhu)影响。基于以(yi)上研究(jiu)结果,本(ben)研究(jiu)提出了加快普及种草(cao)(cao)(cao)养畜相(xiang)关知识、研发适宜(yi)农(nong)(nong)区(qu)(qu)种草(cao)(cao)(cao)相(xiang)关技术和(he)加强牧草(cao)(cao)(cao)种植补贴额度的对(dui)(dui)策。
菊芋的研究现状及开发潜力
乌日娜, 朱铁霞, 于永奇, 高 凯
2013, 7(8): 1295-1300.
[摘要](945) [PDF 480KB](393)
摘要:
菊(ju)芋(yu)(yu)(Helianthus tuberosus)具(ju)有(you)广(guang)泛的(de)(de)(de)(de)推(tui)广(guang)和利用价值,是(shi)当今重要的(de)(de)(de)(de)开发能源(yuan)植(zhi)(zhi)物之一(yi)。作(zuo)为(wei)一(yi)种新型能源(yuan)植(zhi)(zhi)物,菊(ju)芋(yu)(yu)具(ju)有(you)抗旱、抗寒以(yi)及耐盐碱等优良特性,能有(you)效解决能源(yuan)植(zhi)(zhi)物在种植(zhi)(zhi)过程中与粮(liang)争地、与人(ren)争粮(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)矛(mao)盾。本(ben)研(yan)究对菊(ju)芋(yu)(yu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生态学特征(zheng)、经济用途、耐盐碱特性以(yi)及菊(ju)芋(yu)(yu)菊(ju)糖和菊(ju)芋(yu)(yu)乙醇(chun)的(de)(de)(de)(de)研(yan)究现状进(jin)(jin)行综述,并(bing)对菊(ju)芋(yu)(yu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)研(yan)究方向和发展潜(qian)力进(jin)(jin)行探讨(tao),以(yi)期为(wei)菊(ju)芋(yu)(yu)研(yan)究者提供参考。
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