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2014年31卷4期

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前植物生产层
马铃薯软腐病菌Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora 714种胞外酶基因的克隆和原核表达分析
李洋, 张俊莲, 白江平, 徐振峰, 王蒂
2014, 8(4): 561-574.
[摘要](1582) [PDF 2157KB](453)
摘要:
以(yi)马铃(ling)薯(shu)软(ruan)腐(fu)病(bing)(bing)菌Erwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora 71(Ecc71)为(wei)材(cai)料,利用(yong)同源(yuan)克隆(long)技术(shu)克隆(long)软(ruan)腐(fu)病(bing)(bing)果胶酸盐(yan)裂解(jie)酶(mei)(mei)(pel)、多聚半乳(ru)糖醛酸酶(mei)(mei)(peh)、纤维素酶(mei)(mei)(cel)和(he)蛋白酶(mei)(mei)(prt)基(ji)因,对其(qi)进行生物(wu)信息学(xue)分析,并(bing)将(jiang)其(qi)克隆(long)到(dao)原(yuan)核表达载体pET28a中,将(jiang)重组载体pET28a-pel、pET28a-peh、pET28a-cel和(he)pET28a-prt转(zhuan)化至(zhi)大肠杆菌E.coli BL21(DE3),经(jing)IPTG诱导后,SDS-PAGE电泳(yong)鉴定(ding)和(he)酶(mei)(mei)活测定(ding),得(de)到(dao)了(le)与理论推算(suan)的(de)pel、peh、cel和(he)prt基(ji)因表达产物(wu)分子质量相符的(de)特异条带,并(bing)且其(qi)酶(mei)(mei)活性分别为(wei)1.672 U·mL-1·h-1和(he)0.024、112.7、16.95 U·mL-1·min-1。这些结果为(wei)今(jin)后探究这4种酶(mei)(mei)之间的(de)相互作用(yong)及马铃(ling)薯(shu)抗病(bing)(bing)性研究奠定(ding)了(le)基(ji)础。
草地早熟禾根际固氮菌的生物效能
许沛冬, 赵艳, 张晓波, 李新英
2014, 8(4): 575-580.
[摘要](1668) [PDF 455KB](550)
摘要:
利用乙炔还原(yuan)法、比(bi)色法等对(dui)草地早熟禾(Poa pratensis)根际分(fen)离得到(dao)的(de)21个固(gu)氮(dan)(dan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)进行固(gu)氮(dan)(dan)酶活性、溶磷能力(li)和分(fen)泌(mi)植(zhi)物(wu)生长(zhang)素性能的(de)研究测(ce)(ce)定(ding),在固(gu)氮(dan)(dan)酶活性测(ce)(ce)定(ding)中(zhong),21个菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)还原(yuan)C2H2产生的(de)C2H4在39.9~227.5 nmol·mL-1·h-1,大(da)于100 nmol·mL-1·h-1的(de)有14株(zhu),占所分(fen)离固(gu)氮(dan)(dan)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)的(de)67%;菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)的(de)溶磷强(qiang)度在13.38~58.21 μg·mL-1,其中(zhong)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)N4 、N16及N20溶磷能力(li)较(jiao)强(qiang);菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株(zhu)N2、N4、N5、N10、N14、N16、N17及N20具(ju)有较(jiao)强(qiang)的(de)分(fen)泌(mi)植(zhi)物(wu)生长(zhang)激(ji)素的(de)能力(li)。
黑河湿地自然保护区生态功能变化的驱动力
孔东升, 郭有燕, 张灏
2014, 8(4): 581-589.
[摘要](1254) [PDF 728KB](452)
摘要:
为了(le)(le)更(geng)好地(di)(di)(di)发(fa)(fa)挥张掖(ye)黑河(he)湿地(di)(di)(di)国家级自然保护(hu)区的(de)(de)生态功能,对(dui)该湿地(di)(di)(di)生态功能变(bian)化的(de)(de)自然和人为驱(qu)动力(li)进行了(le)(le)研究。结果(guo)表明(ming),温度升高是该湿地(di)(di)(di)生态系统环境变(bian)化的(de)(de)驱(qu)动力(li)之一;而人口(kou)数(shu)量的(de)(de)增加、耕地(di)(di)(di)面(mian)积(ji)的(de)(de)持(chi)续扩展以及社会经(jing)济持(chi)续快速(su)发(fa)(fa)展,是造成(cheng)自然资源过度开(kai)发(fa)(fa)利(li)用的(de)(de)最主要原因(yin),也(ye)是促进湿地(di)(di)(di)环境恶(e)(e)化的(de)(de)主要驱(qu)动力(li);此外,工农业发(fa)(fa)展过程中,废(fei)水和废(fei)气排放(fang)对(dui)湿地(di)(di)(di)造成(cheng)严重污染,过度放(fang)牧导致其(qi)生态服务(wu)功能减弱;加之水资源不合(he)理的(de)(de)利(li)用,加剧了(le)(le)湿地(di)(di)(di)生态系统环境的(de)(de)进一步恶(e)(e)化。针(zhen)对(dui)目前存在的(de)(de)问题,提出湿地(di)(di)(di)保护(hu)的(de)(de)建议。
石羊河流域1951-2005年气候变化特征
魏怀东, 李亚, 丁峰, 陈芳, 周兰萍, 胡小柯
2014, 8(4): 590-598.
[摘要](1218) [PDF 2136KB](358)
摘要:
运用区域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)空间和(he)(he)时间的平(ping)均(jun)视角,采用气(qi)(qi)(qi)候倾(qing)向率、距平(ping)、累积距平(ping)、5 a滑动(dong)平(ping)均(jun)等指(zhi)标,对石羊河(he)流(liu)(liu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)1951-2005年(nian)(nian)(nian)气(qi)(qi)(qi)候变化(hua)过程进行了研(yan)究,初(chu)步探讨了气(qi)(qi)(qi)象要素的变化(hua)特(te)征及规律。结果表明(ming)(ming),过去50 a,全(quan)(quan)流(liu)(liu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)及上(shang)、中、下游(you)(you)(you),降(jiang)(jiang)水量分别表现(xian)为(wei)减少、减少、增(zeng)(zeng)加、增(zeng)(zeng)加状态,上(shang)游(you)(you)(you)以(yi)1962年(nian)(nian)(nian)为(wei)转折(zhe)点明(ming)(ming)显(xian)减少,中、下游(you)(you)(you)从90年(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)起出现(xian)明(ming)(ming)显(xian)增(zeng)(zeng)加;气(qi)(qi)(qi)温变暖趋势明(ming)(ming)显(xian),其(qi)中下游(you)(you)(you)增(zeng)(zeng)加程度(du)最高,中游(you)(you)(you)次之(zhi),上(shang)游(you)(you)(you)最低(di)(di),上(shang)、中、下游(you)(you)(you)分别以(yi)1987、1997和(he)(he)1987年(nian)(nian)(nian)为(wei)转折(zhe)点出现(xian)明(ming)(ming)显(xian)增(zeng)(zeng)加,尤其(qi)是2000年(nian)(nian)(nian)以(yi)来增(zeng)(zeng)幅(fu)较大;全(quan)(quan)流(liu)(liu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)及上(shang)、中、下游(you)(you)(you),风(feng)速呈下降(jiang)(jiang)、增(zeng)(zeng)加、下降(jiang)(jiang)、下降(jiang)(jiang)状态,上(shang)游(you)(you)(you)在90年(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)增(zeng)(zeng)幅(fu)明(ming)(ming)显(xian),80年(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)至(zhi)今逐渐趋于平(ping)稳,中游(you)(you)(you)以(yi)10年(nian)(nian)(nian)为(wei)周(zhou)期波动(dong)变化(hua),下游(you)(you)(you)以(yi)1984年(nian)(nian)(nian)为(wei)拐(guai)点明(ming)(ming)显(xian)下降(jiang)(jiang),2000-2005年(nian)(nian)(nian)为(wei)最低(di)(di)阶段(duan)(duan);湿度(du)呈下降(jiang)(jiang)趋势,50年(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)中期至(zhi)60年(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)中期下降(jiang)(jiang)较为(wei)明(ming)(ming)显(xian),中游(you)(you)(you)在90年(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)末出现(xian)大幅(fu)度(du)降(jiang)(jiang)低(di)(di),1999-2005年(nian)(nian)(nian)为(wei)最低(di)(di)时期;目前中、下游(you)(you)(you)干旱(han)程度(du)有所缓解(jie),今后一(yi)段(duan)(duan)时间内,全(quan)(quan)流(liu)(liu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)干旱(han)程度(du)将逐渐改善。
间伐强度对白龙江林区云杉人工林下植物多样性及其更新的影响
秦燕燕, 蒋斌, 曹秀文, 冯宜明, 李丹春, 杨萌萌, 向梅, 陈蓉, 李波, 车宗全
2014, 8(4): 599-606.
[摘要](1788) [PDF 735KB](445)
摘要:
调查(cha)了粗(cu)枝(zhi)云杉(Picea asperata)人工(gong)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)间(jian)伐(fa)(fa)后和(he)(he)未间(jian)伐(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)分生(sheng)(sheng)长、林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)下植(zhi)物和(he)(he)幼苗(miao)种类、数(shu)量(liang)(liang)、盖度(du)(du)(du)(du)及(ji)高(gao)(gao)度(du)(du)(du)(du),采(cai)用物种丰富(fu)度(du)(du)(du)(du)、Shannon-Wiener指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)、Simpson指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)和(he)(he)Pielou均匀度(du)(du)(du)(du)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)进行多样性(xing)(xing)(xing)分析,以(yi)探讨间(jian)伐(fa)(fa)强(qiang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)对云杉人工(gong)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)下植(zhi)物多样性(xing)(xing)(xing)及(ji)其(qi)更新的(de)(de)影响。结果表明,随(sui)着(zhe)间(jian)伐(fa)(fa)强(qiang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)增(zeng)大,保留木的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)长显(xian)著(zhu)优于对照(zhao)区(qu)(qu)(P0.05),林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)下植(zhi)物种类和(he)(he)数(shu)量(liang)(liang)明显(xian)增(zeng)加;不同间(jian)伐(fa)(fa)强(qiang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)下植(zhi)物多样性(xing)(xing)(xing)、丰富(fu)度(du)(du)(du)(du)、生(sheng)(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)和(he)(he)盖度(du)(du)(du)(du)等都(dou)(dou)显(xian)著(zhu)高(gao)(gao)于对照(zhao)区(qu)(qu),且随(sui)间(jian)伐(fa)(fa)强(qiang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)增(zeng)强(qiang)而增(zeng)大;幼苗(miao)密度(du)(du)(du)(du)、多样性(xing)(xing)(xing)、丰富(fu)度(du)(du)(du)(du)及(ji)其(qi)高(gao)(gao)度(du)(du)(du)(du)也随(sui)着(zhe)间(jian)伐(fa)(fa)强(qiang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)增(zeng)强(qiang)而增(zeng)大,且幼苗(miao)在各(ge)个径(jing)级都(dou)(dou)有分布。幼苗(miao)与生(sheng)(sheng)境条件的(de)(de)相关分析结果显(xian)示,光照(zhao)和(he)(he)枯枝(zhi)落叶层厚度(du)(du)(du)(du)是影响间(jian)伐(fa)(fa)林(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)地幼苗(miao)生(sheng)(sheng)长的(de)(de)主要因素。
2003-2010年克氏针茅放牧草地资源的变化
赛西雅拉图, 白丽艳, 张萍
2014, 8(4): 607-613. doi:
[摘要](1662) [PDF 605KB](388)
摘要:
对锡林郭(guo)勒克(ke)氏针茅(Stipa krylovii)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)原(yuan)5个典型(xing)聚居区的(de)(de)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di),在2003、2007和(he)2010年(nian)的(de)(de)冬(dong)春季(ji)和(he)夏秋季(ji)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)地(di)(di)(di)定(ding)期进行植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)群(qun)(qun)落(luo)调查。结果表明,围栏放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)常见植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)有(you)(you)60种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)建群(qun)(qun)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)克(ke)氏针茅和(he)羊草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Leymus chinensis)的(de)(de)优势度在冬(dong)春季(ji)和(he)夏秋季(ji)两(liang)季(ji)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)中均(jun)保持递增(zeng),而草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)沙化退化指示(shi)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)猪毛(mao)菜(Salsola collina)优势度始终递减(jian)。随着放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)内牲畜(chu)平均(jun)占(zhan)有(you)(you)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)面(mian)积(ji)的(de)(de)增(zeng)加(jia),克(ke)氏针茅、羊草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)等地(di)(di)(di)带(dai)性植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)优势度迅速增(zeng)大(da)(da),猪毛(mao)菜的(de)(de)优势度迅速减(jian)小,至每(mei)个牲畜(chu)平均(jun)占(zhan)有(you)(you)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)面(mian)积(ji)大(da)(da)于(yu)3.5 hm2的(de)(de)3年(nian)后,猪毛(mao)菜退出(chu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)群(qun)(qun)落(luo)的(de)(de)优势物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)行列(lie)。锡林郭(guo)勒克(ke)氏针茅草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)原(yuan)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)群(qun)(qun)落(luo)的(de)(de)30年(nian)演(yan)替历程(cheng)与由政府(fu)主(zhu)导的(de)(de)一(yi)系列(lie)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)归(gui)属权(quan)改革引发放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)方式的(de)(de)变更动态相关,同(tong)时短期演(yan)替过程(cheng)与牲畜(chu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)资源(yuan)占(zhan)有(you)(you)量相关。
黑河流域中游湿地维管束植物区系
李小燕, 占玉芳, 田晓萍, 滕玉风, 鲁延芳
2014, 8(4): 614-620.
[摘要](1208) [PDF 577KB](479)
摘要:
对河(he)西(xi)走廊(lang)黑河(he)流域(yu)中游(张(zhang)掖段(duan))湿(shi)地(di)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)区系(xi)的(de)(de)研究表明,该区域(yu)内共有维管束(shu)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)269种(zhong)(zhong),隶属(shu)(shu)52科(ke)162属(shu)(shu),其中包括蕨类(lei)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)1科(ke)1属(shu)(shu)3种(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)51科(ke)161属(shu)(shu)266种(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)中裸子(zi)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)2科(ke)2属(shu)(shu)2种(zhong)(zhong),被(bei)子(zi)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)49科(ke)159属(shu)(shu)264种(zhong)(zhong),可见植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)类(lei)较为(wei)丰富;同时通过对该区湿(shi)地(di)维管束(shu)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)区系(xi)的(de)(de)地(di)理成(cheng)(cheng)分分析表明,在(zai)科(ke)级(ji)水(shui)平上有6个(ge)分布类(lei)型(xing)2个(ge)变型(xing),在(zai)属(shu)(shu)级(ji)水(shui)平上有14个(ge)分布类(lei)型(xing)8个(ge)变型(xing),地(di)理联系(xi)广(guang)泛,分布具有广(guang)域(yu)性,且以温带成(cheng)(cheng)分为(wei)主,热(re)带性质的(de)(de)属(shu)(shu)起补充成(cheng)(cheng)分的(de)(de)作(zuo)用。
太阳山地区蕨类植物资源调查
李丽, 赵东海, 何莉, 彭友林, 王云
2014, 8(4): 621-626.
[摘要](1043) [PDF 499KB](430)
摘要:
近年来,湖南常(chang)德太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)(yang)山(shan)(shan)的(de)(de)(de)旅游业得到了(le)极(ji)大发(fa)展,太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)(yang)山(shan)(shan)蕨(jue)(jue)(jue)(jue)类(lei)植(zhi)物生(sheng)(sheng)存也因此受到了(le)极(ji)大的(de)(de)(de)干(gan)扰和破坏。为(wei)了(le)合理开(kai)发(fa)利(li)用(yong)和保(bao)护太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)(yang)山(shan)(shan)地(di)区蕨(jue)(jue)(jue)(jue)类(lei)植(zhi)物资源,本研究(jiu)(jiu)对太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)(yang)山(shan)(shan)地(di)区蕨(jue)(jue)(jue)(jue)类(lei)植(zhi)物资源的(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)类(lei)、分布、生(sheng)(sheng)境及其利(li)用(yong)价值(zhi)进行了(le)研究(jiu)(jiu)。结果表(biao)明,太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)(yang)山(shan)(shan)地(di)区现有蕨(jue)(jue)(jue)(jue)类(lei)植(zhi)物17 科(ke)20属(shu)32种(zhong)(zhong)。其中优势(shi)科(ke)为(wei)鳞毛(mao)蕨(jue)(jue)(jue)(jue)科(ke)(Dryopteridaceae, 3 属(shu)9种(zhong)(zhong)),优势(shi)属(shu)为(wei)鳞毛(mao)蕨(jue)(jue)(jue)(jue)属(shu)(Dryopteris,6种(zhong)(zhong))、凤尾蕨(jue)(jue)(jue)(jue)属(shu)(Pteris,4种(zhong)(zhong))。该区蕨(jue)(jue)(jue)(jue)类(lei)植(zhi)物生(sheng)(sheng)境多样(yang)化,以林下、林缘为(wei)主(zhu),共(gong)有17种(zhong)(zhong),占(zhan)总(zong)(zong)种(zhong)(zhong)数的(de)(de)(de)53.1%。生(sheng)(sheng)态型以陆生(sheng)(sheng)为(wei)主(zhu),共(gong)有25种(zhong)(zhong),占(zhan)太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)(yang)山(shan)(shan)地(di)区蕨(jue)(jue)(jue)(jue)类(lei)总(zong)(zong)种(zhong)(zhong)数的(de)(de)(de)78.1%。太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)(yang)山(shan)(shan)药(yao)用(yong)蕨(jue)(jue)(jue)(jue)类(lei)植(zhi)物资源丰富,共(gong)有23种(zhong)(zhong),占(zhan)总(zong)(zong)种(zhong)(zhong)数的(de)(de)(de)71.9%。
我国野生芒资源的细胞学研究
刘秀明, 崔腾腾, 葛春霞, 陈翠霞
2014, 8(4): 627-631.
[摘要](1740) [PDF 847KB](444)
摘要:
芒属(Miscanthus)植物作为(wei)(wei)当(dang)今最具开(kai)发利用(yong)价(jia)值的(de)(de)(de)纤维素(su)生(sheng)(sheng)物质能源(yuan)植物之一,受到(dao)世(shi)界上许多国(guo)家(jia)的(de)(de)(de)广泛关注。中国(guo)是芒属植物的(de)(de)(de)分布(bu)中心,有着极其丰富的(de)(de)(de)种质遗传资(zi)源(yuan),这为(wei)(wei)我(wo)国(guo)芒属植物的(de)(de)(de)研(yan)究(jiu)利用(yong)提供了得(de)天独厚的(de)(de)(de)资(zi)源(yuan)优势。本(ben)研(yan)究(jiu)收集来自全国(guo)10个(ge)省(sheng)份(fen)的(de)(de)(de)30份(fen)不同生(sheng)(sheng)态型(xing)野生(sheng)(sheng)芒资(zi)源(yuan),利用(yong)细胞(bao)压片(pian)和流式细胞(bao)仪技术进行染(ran)色(se)体数目和倍性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)鉴(jian)定(ding),以期为(wei)(wei)我(wo)国(guo)野生(sheng)(sheng)芒种质资(zi)源(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)遗传育种和利用(yong)奠定(ding)基础。结(jie)果表明,30份(fen)种质的(de)(de)(de)染(ran)色(se)体数目均为(wei)(wei)2n=2x=38,且均是二(er)倍体。
土壤石油污染下柠条生长反应与抗氧化保护响应
崔碧霄, 韩刚, 李凯荣, 王波
2014, 8(4): 632-640.
[摘要](1310) [PDF 690KB](430)
摘要:
为探讨柠条(Caragana korshinskii)对石(shi)(shi)(shi)油(you)(you)污(wu)(wu)染的耐受(shou)性(xing)及(ji)耐受(shou)机制,采(cai)用盆栽试验,于(yu)2012年7-9月(yue)测定了不同(tong)浓(nong)度(du)石(shi)(shi)(shi)油(you)(you)污(wu)(wu)染(0、5、10、15和(he)20 g·kg-1,原油(you)(you)·干土(tu)-1)土(tu)壤中一年生柠条幼苗的生长指标、抗(kang)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)指标及(ji)过氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)氢(H2O2)含量的动态(tai)变化(hua)(hua)。结果表(biao)明,石(shi)(shi)(shi)油(you)(you)浓(nong)度(du)为5 g·kg-1时,对柠条生长影响不显著,10~20 g·kg-1时抑(yi)制柠条生长;超氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)物(wu)歧化(hua)(hua)酶(mei)(mei)(SOD)、抗(kang)坏(huai)血酸过氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)物(wu)酶(mei)(mei)(APX)、谷胱甘(gan)肽(tai)还(hai)原酶(mei)(mei)(GR)、抗(kang)坏(huai)血酸(AsA)和(he)还(hai)原型谷胱甘(gan)肽(tai)(GSH)在土(tu)壤石(shi)(shi)(shi)油(you)(you)污(wu)(wu)染胁迫下发(fa)挥了重(zhong)要的抗(kang)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)保护作(zuo)用,而过氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)物(wu)酶(mei)(mei)(CAT)活性(xing)长时间(jian)受(shou)抑(yi)制,类胡萝卜素(Car)也表(biao)现(xian)出(chu)明显的降(jiang)解(jie)现(xian)象;石(shi)(shi)(shi)油(you)(you)浓(nong)度(du)为5和(he)10 g·kg-1时,H2O2无显著积累(lei)(lei),15和(he)20 g·kg-1时H2O2积累(lei)(lei)。总(zong)体上(shang),整个土(tu)壤石(shi)(shi)(shi)油(you)(you)胁迫期间(jian),SOD与CAT协同(tong)作(zuo)用被削弱(ruo);石(shi)(shi)(shi)油(you)(you)在较高(gao)浓(nong)度(du)(15和(he)20 g·kg-1),APX、GR、AsA与GSH协同(tong)作(zuo)用表(biao)现(xian)突出(chu),Halliwell-AsAda循环高(gao)效启(qi)动;10 g·kg-1浓(nong)度(du)应(ying)是柠条对土(tu)壤石(shi)(shi)(shi)油(you)(you)污(wu)(wu)染的耐受(shou)阈(yu)值。
城镇生活污泥对绿地植物生长和生理的影响
韩朝, 常智慧
2014, 8(4): 641-649.
[摘要](1823) [PDF 623KB](437)
摘要:
污(wu)(wu)(wu)水处(chu)理过程中会产生大量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)污(wu)(wu)(wu)泥(ni)(ni)(ni),污(wu)(wu)(wu)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)的(de)(de)(de)处(chu)置已成为人们日(ri)益关注的(de)(de)(de)问题。污(wu)(wu)(wu)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)在(zai)绿(lv)地(di)植物(wu)上的(de)(de)(de)应用(yong)是实现污(wu)(wu)(wu)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)资(zi)源化的(de)(de)(de)有效(xiao)途径。为此,本(ben)文对(dui)(dui)(dui)污(wu)(wu)(wu)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)对(dui)(dui)(dui)绿(lv)地(di)植物(wu)生长和(he)生理方(fang)面影(ying)响的(de)(de)(de)研究进行了总结,认为污(wu)(wu)(wu)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)对(dui)(dui)(dui)绿(lv)地(di)植物(wu)的(de)(de)(de)生长品质、生物(wu)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)加和(he)开花具有促进作(zuo)用(yong);对(dui)(dui)(dui)其矿(kuang)质元素的(de)(de)(de)积累、渗透调节、激素和(he)酶的(de)(de)(de)代谢、叶(ye)绿(lv)素和(he)抗(kang)性的(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)加有良好效(xiao)果;同时污(wu)(wu)(wu)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)对(dui)(dui)(dui)绿(lv)地(di)植物(wu)发芽和(he)幼苗生长有抑制作(zuo)用(yong),过量(liang)还能(neng)对(dui)(dui)(dui)绿(lv)地(di)植物(wu)的(de)(de)(de)生长产生毒害且有引起(qi)土壤重金属污(wu)(wu)(wu)染的(de)(de)(de)风(feng)险。
免耕对土壤物理性状及作物产量影响
陈强, 孙涛, 宋春雨
2014, 8(4): 650-658.
[摘要](2222) [PDF 559KB](469)
摘要:
免(mian)耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)为农(nong)业(ye)生(sheng)产(chan)中一项重(zhong)要(yao)的管理(li)措(cuo)施(shi),有(you)蓄水(shui)保墒、培肥土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)、提升地(di)力、防治扬(yang)尘、减少水(shui)土(tu)(tu)流(liu)失和促(cu)进农(nong)牧(mu)业(ye)可持(chi)续发(fa)展等(deng)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)用,在我国(guo)(guo)北方(fang)干旱半干旱地(di)区(qu)已(yi)见成效。但(dan)受区(qu)域生(sheng)态环境、气候类型和农(nong)业(ye)生(sheng)产(chan)措(cuo)施(shi)在不(bu)同时(shi)空尺度的变异,加之土(tu)(tu)地(di)利用方(fang)式有(you)别(bie),有(you)关免(mian)耕措(cuo)施(shi)对土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)物(wu)理(li)性状(zhuang)、作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)产(chan)量(liang)的影响(xiang),呈(cheng)现(xian)一定(ding)分异特(te)性。本文就免(mian)耕这一保护(hu)性耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)措(cuo)施(shi)对土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)物(wu)理(li)特(te)性及(ji)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)产(chan)量(liang)的影响(xiang)研究进行综合归纳,并对以免(mian)耕为代(dai)表保护(hu)性耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)在我国(guo)(guo)推广(guang)应用中存在的问题及(ji)应对策略做了概(gai)述,为保护(hu)性耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)在我国(guo)(guo)发(fa)展提供支持(chi)。
植物生产层
植物染色质免疫共沉淀方法
李东明, 宋渊, 安黎哲
2014, 8(4): 659-667.
[摘要](1952) [PDF 647KB](569)
摘要:
染(ran)色(se)(se)质(zhi)结(jie)构的(de)(de)动(dong)态变化和基(ji)(ji)因(yin)的(de)(de)适时适量表达(da),在植(zhi)物生长发育过程中起着非常(chang)重要的(de)(de)作用(yong)。研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)染(ran)色(se)(se)质(zhi)结(jie)合蛋白(bai)和DNA的(de)(de)时空结(jie)合关(guan)系,对(dui)认识这些复(fu)杂的(de)(de)生命过程有重大意义(yi)。染(ran)色(se)(se)质(zhi)免疫共沉淀(dian)(Chromatin Immunoprecipitation)就是在体内染(ran)色(se)(se)质(zhi)环境下研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)蛋白(bai)质(zhi)和DNA结(jie)合关(guan)系的(de)(de)方(fang)(fang)法(fa),本研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)利用(yong)先(xian)提核(he)再甲醛交联的(de)(de)方(fang)(fang)法(fa),详细叙述(shu)了该(gai)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)的(de)(de)6个主要步骤。通过对(dui)拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)野(ye)生型Col-0和突变体met1中组蛋白(bai)H3K9甲基(ji)(ji)化在At4g03870转(zhuan)座子上差异的(de)(de)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu),认为染(ran)色(se)(se)质(zhi)免疫共沉淀(dian)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)可行(xing)、稳定,此方(fang)(fang)法(fa)不仅适用(yong)于单个基(ji)(ji)因(yin)与(yu)蛋白(bai)结(jie)合关(guan)系的(de)(de)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu),还适用(yong)于特异蛋白(bai)结(jie)合位(wei)点(dian)的(de)(de)全(quan)基(ji)(ji)因(yin)组学(xue)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)。
披针叶黄华试管正常苗与玻璃化苗茎叶的解剖特征比较
郑秀芳, 高海宁, 张超强, 李彩霞
2014, 8(4): 668-671.
[摘要](1035) [PDF 799KB](371)
摘要:
利用解剖(pou)学方法(fa),对披针(zhen)叶(ye)黄华(Thermopsis lanceolatar)试(shi)(shi)管(guan)正(zheng)常苗(miao)与玻璃化(hua)(hua)苗(miao)茎叶(ye)的(de)(de)解剖(pou)结(jie)(jie)构进行了观察比较。结(jie)(jie)果表(biao)明,玻璃化(hua)(hua)试(shi)(shi)管(guan)苗(miao)叶(ye)片(pian)和(he)茎的(de)(de)解剖(pou)结(jie)(jie)构与正(zheng)常试(shi)(shi)管(guan)苗(miao)有显著差异。前者叶(ye)片(pian)肥(fei)厚,无(wu)角质层(ceng),上表(biao)皮细(xi)胞(bao)多肿胀破裂;叶(ye)肉中(zhong)栅栏组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)退化(hua)(hua)消失(shi),海绵组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)细(xi)胞(bao)体(ti)积膨大,液泡化(hua)(hua),某些(xie)(xie)区域细(xi)胞(bao)壁发(fa)育不(bu)完(wan)全,出现大的(de)(de)裂隙腔;叶(ye)片(pian)维(wei)管(guan)束退化(hua)(hua);茎部(bu)表(biao)皮不(bu)完(wan)整,皮层(ceng)和(he)髓部(bu)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)细(xi)胞(bao)皱缩变形(xing),维(wei)管(guan)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)分(fen)化(hua)(hua)不(bu)完(wan)全等。这些(xie)(xie)结(jie)(jie)构上的(de)(de)畸形(xing)发(fa)育是影响披针(zhen)叶(ye)黄华试(shi)(shi)管(guan)苗(miao)正(zheng)常生长(zhang)和(he)增殖的(de)(de)重要原因(yin)。
GA3和IAA处理对4种铁线莲种子萌发的影响
王非, 王金侠, 李强, 何淼
2014, 8(4): 672-676.
[摘要](6343) [PDF 456KB](492)
摘要:
以林(lin)地铁(tie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)莲(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)(Clematis brevicaudata)、齿叶铁(tie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)莲(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)(C.serratifolia)、棉(mian)团(tuan)铁(tie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)莲(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)(C.hexapetala)和(he)褐(he)(he)(he)毛(mao)铁(tie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)莲(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)(C.fusca)为(wei)试材,研究(jiu)了不(bu)同浓(nong)度(du)(du)的(de)赤霉素(GA3)和(he)吲哚(duo)乙酸(IAA)浸种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)处理对(dui)4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)铁(tie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)莲(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子萌(meng)发(fa)的(de)影响。结(jie)果表(biao)明,20 mg·L-1 IAA是(shi)林(lin)地铁(tie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)莲(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子萌(meng)发(fa)的(de)最(zui)佳(jia)处理浓(nong)度(du)(du),发(fa)芽(ya)率(lv)可达(da)83%,平均(jun)发(fa)芽(ya)时间(jian)缩短了4.6 d;20 mg·L-1 IAA、5 mg·L-1 GA3是(shi)齿叶铁(tie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)莲(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子的(de)最(zui)佳(jia)处理浓(nong)度(du)(du),其(qi)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子发(fa)芽(ya)率(lv)分别(bie)(bie)达(da)到93.4%和(he)90%,平均(jun)发(fa)芽(ya)时间(jian)分别(bie)(bie)缩短了3和(he)2.3 d;500 mg·L-1 GA3能显著提(ti)高棉(mian)团(tuan)铁(tie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)莲(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子、褐(he)(he)(he)毛(mao)铁(tie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)莲(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子的(de)发(fa)芽(ya)率(lv),其(qi)中棉(mian)团(tuan)铁(tie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)莲(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子的(de)萌(meng)发(fa)率(lv)由原有的(de)5.1%提(ti)高到33.4%,其(qi)平均(jun)萌(meng)发(fa)时间(jian)缩短不(bu)明显,而褐(he)(he)(he)毛(mao)铁(tie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)莲(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子萌(meng)发(fa)率(lv)由原有的(de)4%提(ti)高到53.3%,平均(jun)萌(meng)发(fa)时间(jian)缩短了2 d。
Na2CO3胁迫对高羊茅种子萌发的影响
孙西红, 赵凌平, 王占彬
2014, 8(4): 677-682.
[摘要](1570) [PDF 482KB](534)
摘要:
研究了不同浓(nong)度(du)Na2CO3(0、20、40、60、80和(he)100 mmol·L-1)胁迫对4个(ge)(ge)高(gao)羊(yang)茅(mao)(Festuca arundinacea)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(美(mei)洲(zhou)虎(hu)3号(hao)(hao)、雅(ya)(ya)典娜(na)、爱瑞(rui)(rui)3号(hao)(hao)和(he)火凤(feng)(feng)凰)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)发的(de)影响。结(jie)果表明,Na2CO3胁迫均(jun)会延迟4个(ge)(ge)高(gao)羊(yang)茅(mao)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)初始萌(meng)(meng)发时(shi)间,延缓发芽(ya)进(jin)程。随Na2CO3浓(nong)度(du)的(de)增加,4个(ge)(ge)高(gao)羊(yang)茅(mao)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)发芽(ya)率和(he)发芽(ya)势均(jun)呈下降(jiang)趋(qu)势。4个(ge)(ge)高(gao)羊(yang)茅(mao)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)相对发芽(ya)率与(yu)盐(yan)浓(nong)度(du)均(jun)呈抛物(wu)线关系,拟(ni)合回归方程分别为(wei)美(mei)洲(zhou)虎(hu)3号(hao)(hao):y=-6E-05x2-1.203 5x+110.61;雅(ya)(ya)典娜(na):y = 0.007 4x2-1.792 8x+101.58;爱瑞(rui)(rui)3号(hao)(hao):y=-0.001x2-1.070 3x+107.72;火凤(feng)(feng)凰:y=0.004 9x2-1.722 8x+114.97。分别得出了4个(ge)(ge)高(gao)羊(yang)茅(mao)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)发的(de)临(lin)界(jie)耐(nai)盐(yan)浓(nong)度(du):美(mei)洲(zhou)虎(hu)3号(hao)(hao)耐(nai)盐(yan)致死浓(nong)度(du)是87.2 mmol·L-1,雅(ya)(ya)典娜(na)是73.2 mmol·L-1,爱瑞(rui)(rui)虎(hu)3号(hao)(hao)是84.6 mmol·L-1,火凤(feng)(feng)凰是78.4 mmol·L-1。美(mei)洲(zhou)虎(hu)3号(hao)(hao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)发的(de)耐(nai)盐(yan)性(xing)最(zui)好(hao),其次(ci)为(wei)爱瑞(rui)(rui)虎(hu)3号(hao)(hao)和(he)火凤(feng)(feng)凰,雅(ya)(ya)典娜(na)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)发的(de)耐(nai)盐(yan)性(xing)最(zui)差。
施氮、磷肥对老芒麦种子产量、产量组分及成熟期冠层NDVI值的影响
王明亚, 毛培胜
2014, 8(4): 683-688.
[摘要](1430) [PDF 527KB](370)
摘要:
试验采用裂区设计,研究(jiu)氮(dan)、磷处(chu)理对种(zhong)植4年(nian)老(lao)芒麦(Elymus sibiricus)种(zhong)子产量、产量组分和成熟期(qi)冠层归一化差(cha)值植被(bei)指数(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index,NDVI)的影(ying)响。结果表明,施磷120 kg·hm-2时,种(zhong)子产量最大(385.18 kg·hm-2),施氮(dan)和氮(dan)磷互(hu)作均对其影(ying)响不(bu)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P0.05)。不(bu)同(tong)氮(dan)、磷处(chu)理对老(lao)芒麦成熟期(qi)冠层NDVI值影(ying)响不(bu)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu);用所(suo)测NDVI值和对应产量做(zuo)相(xiang)关分析表明,NDVI与实际产量呈(cheng)极显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P0.01)正相(xiang)关。
茎点霉叶斑病对红豆草产量和养分的影响
聂红霞, 李彦忠
2014, 8(4): 689-696.
[摘要](1466) [PDF 789KB](454)
摘要:
甘肃省榆中县红(hong)(hong)(hong)豆草(cao)(Onobrychis viciifolia)上(shang)发生了(le)(le)(le)一种(zhong)叶(ye)片(pian)不规则退(tui)绿、变黄且增(zeng)厚,发病(bing)(bing)(bing)后(hou)(hou)期叶(ye)片(pian)大量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)脱(tuo)落的(de)(de)病(bing)(bing)(bing)害(hai),严重影响红(hong)(hong)(hong)豆草(cao)的(de)(de)产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)。本(ben)研究(jiu)鉴(jian)定了(le)(le)(le)其病(bing)(bing)(bing)原,评(ping)价(jia)了(le)(le)(le)其对(dui)红(hong)(hong)(hong)豆草(cao)产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)营养成(cheng)分(fen)(fen)的(de)(de)影响。红(hong)(hong)(hong)豆草(cao)发生该病(bing)(bing)(bing)后(hou)(hou),在病(bing)(bing)(bing)叶(ye)上(shang)有(you)(you)红(hong)(hong)(hong)褐色点状物,经切片(pian)后(hou)(hou)可观察到叶(ye)片(pian)内有(you)(you)分(fen)(fen)生孢子器(qi)及分(fen)(fen)生孢子,鉴(jian)定为(wei)(wei)茎点霉(Phoma sp.),但此菌(jun)在PDA培(pei)养基(ji)(ji)上(shang)无法(fa)分(fen)(fen)离培(pei)养。在田(tian)(tian)间(jian),植(zhi)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)发病(bing)(bing)(bing)率(lv)为(wei)(wei)94%,病(bing)(bing)(bing)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)上(shang)叶(ye)片(pian)发病(bing)(bing)(bing)率(lv)为(wei)(wei)50%。田(tian)(tian)间(jian)不分(fen)(fen)病(bing)(bing)(bing)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)和(he)健(jian)(jian)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)随机采集(ji)病(bing)(bing)(bing)叶(ye)和(he)健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)叶(ye)片(pian)比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao),发病(bing)(bing)(bing)的(de)(de)每百片(pian)叶(ye)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)0.5 g,病(bing)(bing)(bing)叶(ye)的(de)(de)粗蛋(dan)白(bai)、钙、磷和(he)粗灰(hui)分(fen)(fen)均(jun)分(fen)(fen)别(bie)显著(P0.05)下降了(le)(le)(le)28.54%、10.26%、13.64%和(he)6.05%,包括(kuo)7种(zhong)家畜必(bi)需氨(an)基(ji)(ji)酸(suan)(suan)在内的(de)(de)16种(zhong)氨(an)基(ji)(ji)酸(suan)(suan)的(de)(de)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)也显著降低,而粗脂肪和(he)中性(xing)洗(xi)涤(di)纤(xian)维(wei)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)160.95%和(he)97.27%。与(yu)田(tian)(tian)间(jian)健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)植(zhi)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao),病(bing)(bing)(bing)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)的(de)(de)茎叶(ye)比(bi)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)0.46,单株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)干(gan)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)了(le)(le)(le)4.4 g,草(cao)产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)了(le)(le)(le)579.87 kg·hm-2,病(bing)(bing)(bing)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)的(de)(de)中性(xing)洗(xi)涤(di)纤(xian)维(wei)和(he)酸(suan)(suan)性(xing)洗(xi)涤(di)纤(xian)维(wei)分(fen)(fen)别(bie)显著上(shang)升了(le)(le)(le)7.27%和(he)5.08%,粗灰(hui)分(fen)(fen)、总氨(an)基(ji)(ji)酸(suan)(suan)、必(bi)需氨(an)基(ji)(ji)酸(suan)(suan)、酪氨(an)酸(suan)(suan)、异亮氨(an)基(ji)(ji)酸(suan)(suan)和(he)亮氨(an)基(ji)(ji)酸(suan)(suan)均(jun)显著降低。与(yu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)叶(ye)脱(tuo)落前(qian)的(de)(de)病(bing)(bing)(bing)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao),病(bing)(bing)(bing)叶(ye)脱(tuo)落后(hou)(hou)草(cao)产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)减(jian)少了(le)(le)(le)823.12 kg·hm-2,植(zhi)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)中的(de)(de)粗脂肪、粗灰(hui)分(fen)(fen)、粗蛋(dan)白(bai)和(he)钙分(fen)(fen)别(bie)降低48.54%、4.30%、0.34%和(he)3.70%,氨(an)基(ji)(ji)酸(suan)(suan)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)变化趋(qu)势与(yu)此前(qian)计算结果(guo)基(ji)(ji)本(ben)一致。由于该病(bing)(bing)(bing)发生普遍,在田(tian)(tian)间(jian)较(jiao)(jiao)难找到健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)植(zhi)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu),且田(tian)(tian)间(jian)的(de)(de)健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)植(zhi)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)通常(chang)弱小,发病(bing)(bing)(bing)后(hou)(hou)期病(bing)(bing)(bing)叶(ye)脱(tuo)落后(hou)(hou)无法(fa)区分(fen)(fen)病(bing)(bing)(bing)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)与(yu)健(jian)(jian)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu),故(gu)本(ben)研究(jiu)认为(wei)(wei)采用病(bing)(bing)(bing)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)上(shang)叶(ye)片(pian)脱(tuo)落前(qian)后(hou)(hou)的(de)(de)方法(fa)评(ping)定此类病(bing)(bing)(bing)害(hai)对(dui)草(cao)产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)营养成(cheng)分(fen)(fen)造成(cheng)的(de)(de)损失较(jiao)(jiao)为(wei)(wei)可靠(kao)。
氮磷钾肥施用量对桑树叶片抗氧化能力的影响
刘刚, 殷浩, 黄盖群, 张建华, 朱永群, 危玲, 佟万红, 林超文
2014, 8(4): 697-704.
[摘要](1218) [PDF 627KB](352)
摘要:
研究了氮、磷、钾不(bu)同(tong)施(shi)肥(fei)处理(li)对桑树(Morus alba)叶(ye)(ye)片保(bao)护酶(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)与(yu)膜脂过(guo)氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)产物作(zuo)用的(de)影响。结果表明,春季随着(zhe)桑树的(de)生长发(fa)育,不(bu)同(tong)施(shi)肥(fei)处理(li)可(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)蛋白含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、超氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)物歧化(hua)(hua)(hua)酶(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)、过(guo)氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)氢(qing)酶(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)、过(guo)氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)物酶(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)和丙(bing)二(er)(er)醛(quan)(quan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)均(jun)提(ti)(ti)高(gao);秋季随着(zhe)桑树的(de)生长发(fa)育,不(bu)同(tong)施(shi)肥(fei)处理(li)可(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)蛋白含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、超氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)物歧化(hua)(hua)(hua)酶(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)、过(guo)氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)氢(qing)酶(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)及过(guo)氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)物酶(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)均(jun)呈现(xian)先升(sheng)后降(jiang)的(de)趋(qu)势,而丙(bing)二(er)(er)醛(quan)(quan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)则呈现(xian)逐步升(sheng)高(gao)的(de)趋(qu)势;在(zai)整个生长期,同(tong)一施(shi)肥(fei)处理(li)随着(zhe)施(shi)肥(fei)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)增加(jia),桑叶(ye)(ye)中可(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)蛋白含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、超氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)物歧化(hua)(hua)(hua)酶(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)、过(guo)氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)氢(qing)酶(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)及过(guo)氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)物酶(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)均(jun)显(xian)著提(ti)(ti)高(gao),而丙(bing)二(er)(er)醛(quan)(quan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)均(jun)显(xian)著下降(jiang),且均(jun)在(zai)N2P2K2水平(ping)时达到最佳(jia)。合理(li)的(de)氮、磷、钾配比及施(shi)入量(liang)(liang)(liang)(N2P2K2:N 600 kg·hm-2、 P2O5 210 kg·hm-2和K2O 300 kg·hm-2)能(neng)显(xian)著提(ti)(ti)高(gao)桑叶(ye)(ye)的(de)保(bao)护酶(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing),降(jiang)低其膜脂过(guo)氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)程(cheng)度,有效延缓桑叶(ye)(ye)衰老。
免耕旱地小麦产量的光温效应
杨楠, 李广
2014, 8(4): 705-710.
[摘要](1328) [PDF 631KB](456)
摘要:
为探索光(guang)温(wen)(wen)对小(xiao)(xiao)麦(mai)(mai)(Triticum aestivum)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)影(ying)响的(de)(de)(de)机制和(he)(he)(he)(he)规律,设计光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)(zhao)和(he)(he)(he)(he)温(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)2因素7水平(ping)的(de)(de)(de)模拟试验(yan),运(yun)用模型(xing)模拟1971-2005年(nian)35 a间光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)(zhao)和(he)(he)(he)(he)温(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)变(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)化下(xia)小(xiao)(xiao)麦(mai)(mai)的(de)(de)(de)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang),并采用回归方法分(fen)析免(mian)耕覆盖(NTS)、传(chuan)统耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(T)和(he)(he)(he)(he)免(mian)耕(NT)3种(zhong)耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)措施(shi)下(xia),年(nian)平(ping)均(jun)(jun)光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)(zhao)和(he)(he)(he)(he)温(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)变(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)化对小(xiao)(xiao)麦(mai)(mai)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响。结(jie)果表明,不同耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)措施(shi)下(xia),小(xiao)(xiao)麦(mai)(mai)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)随年(nian)平(ping)均(jun)(jun)光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)(zhao)和(he)(he)(he)(he)温(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)升(sheng)(sheng)高呈二次抛物线型(xing)下(xia)降(jiang)变(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)化,且(qie)NTS的(de)(de)(de)减(jian)产(chan)(chan)(chan)效应(ying)大(da)(da)于(yu)T和(he)(he)(he)(he)NT。当光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)(zhao)不变(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)、年(nian)均(jun)(jun)温(wen)(wen)升(sheng)(sheng)高时,3种(zhong)耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)措施(shi)下(xia)小(xiao)(xiao)麦(mai)(mai)均(jun)(jun)表现为减(jian)产(chan)(chan)(chan),且(qie)年(nian)平(ping)均(jun)(jun)温(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)每升(sheng)(sheng)高1 ℃,最(zui)大(da)(da)减(jian)产(chan)(chan)(chan)率(lv)可达16.2%,平(ping)均(jun)(jun)减(jian)产(chan)(chan)(chan)率(lv)7.6%。当温(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)不变(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)、年(nian)平(ping)均(jun)(jun)光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)(zhao)增加时,3种(zhong)耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)方式下(xia)小(xiao)(xiao)麦(mai)(mai)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)均(jun)(jun)降(jiang)低,且(qie)年(nian)平(ping)均(jun)(jun)光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)(zhao)每增加1 MJ·m-2,小(xiao)(xiao)麦(mai)(mai)最(zui)大(da)(da)减(jian)产(chan)(chan)(chan)率(lv)可达13.8%,平(ping)均(jun)(jun)减(jian)产(chan)(chan)(chan)率(lv)3.9%。3种(zhong)耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)方式中, NTS的(de)(de)(de)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)改变(bian)(bian)(bian)(bian)率(lv)均(jun)(jun)大(da)(da)于(yu)T和(he)(he)(he)(he)NT,表明光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)(zhao)或者温(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)升(sheng)(sheng)高相(xiang)同的(de)(de)(de)值时,NTS耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)措施(shi)下(xia)的(de)(de)(de)小(xiao)(xiao)麦(mai)(mai)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)减(jian)产(chan)(chan)(chan)效应(ying)大(da)(da)于(yu)其(qi)(qi)他两种(zhong)耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)方式。相(xiang)反,如果降(jiang)低相(xiang)同的(de)(de)(de)温(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)或者光(guang)照(zhao)(zhao)(zhao), NTS的(de)(de)(de)增产(chan)(chan)(chan)效应(ying)明显大(da)(da)于(yu)其(qi)(qi)他两种(zhong)耕作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)方式。
油茶树体调控对营养物质变化的影响
孙颖, 雷小林, 李建安, 何志祥, 陈显
2014, 8(4): 711-716.
[摘要](1115) [PDF 496KB](481)
摘要:
为探(tan)明树(shu)体调(diao)控(kong)(kong)(kong)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)(shu)(整(zheng)形修(xiu)(xiu)剪(jian))在油(you)茶(cha)(Camellia oleifera)生(sheng)长(zhang)发(fa)(fa)育(yu)过程(cheng)不同生(sheng)长(zhang)阶段对(dui)(dui)体内(nei)碳水化(hua)合物含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)、蛋(dan)白(bai)(bai)质含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)等变化(hua)的影(ying)响(xiang),本研究(jiu)在新梢(shao)生(sheng)长(zhang)期(qi)(qi)、果实(shi)发(fa)(fa)育(yu)期(qi)(qi)和(he)休(xiu)眠(mian)期(qi)(qi)3个时期(qi)(qi)对(dui)(dui)油(you)茶(cha)成(cheng)(cheng)年树(shu)体进(jin)行精细、简化(hua)、粗放(fang)整(zheng)形修(xiu)(xiu)剪(jian)和(he)对(dui)(dui)照4种(zhong)模(mo)(mo)式(shi)的树(shu)体结(jie)构调(diao)控(kong)(kong)(kong),研究(jiu)对(dui)(dui)油(you)茶(cha)树(shu)体的可(ke)(ke)(ke)(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)总(zong)糖(tang)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)、可(ke)(ke)(ke)(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)淀(dian)粉(fen)(fen)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)、可(ke)(ke)(ke)(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)蛋(dan)白(bai)(bai)质含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)及蔗糖(tang)合成(cheng)(cheng)酶(mei)活(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、硝酸还(hai)原(yuan)酶(mei)活(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)的影(ying)响(xiang),进(jin)而(er)揭示树(shu)体调(diao)控(kong)(kong)(kong)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)(shu)对(dui)(dui)油(you)茶(cha)成(cheng)(cheng)年树(shu)体内(nei)营(ying)养(yang)生(sheng)理的影(ying)响(xiang)。结(jie)果表明,油(you)茶(cha)植株体内(nei)可(ke)(ke)(ke)(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)总(zong)糖(tang)、可(ke)(ke)(ke)(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)淀(dian)粉(fen)(fen)和(he)可(ke)(ke)(ke)(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)蛋(dan)白(bai)(bai)质含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)最高,蔗糖(tang)合成(cheng)(cheng)酶(mei)活(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、硝酸还(hai)原(yuan)酶(mei)活(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)最好(hao)的调(diao)控(kong)(kong)(kong)模(mo)(mo)式(shi)为简化(hua)整(zheng)形修(xiu)(xiu)剪(jian)模(mo)(mo)式(shi)。相关(guan)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)分析表明,在新梢(shao)生(sheng)长(zhang)期(qi)(qi)和(he)果实(shi)发(fa)(fa)育(yu)期(qi)(qi),可(ke)(ke)(ke)(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)总(zong)糖(tang)、可(ke)(ke)(ke)(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)淀(dian)粉(fen)(fen)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)均与调(diao)控(kong)(kong)(kong)模(mo)(mo)式(shi)呈显著(zhu)相关(guan)(P0.05),但可(ke)(ke)(ke)(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)蛋(dan)白(bai)(bai)质含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)仅在果实(shi)发(fa)(fa)育(yu)期(qi)(qi)显著(zhu),可(ke)(ke)(ke)(ke)见树(shu)体调(diao)控(kong)(kong)(kong)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)(shu)对(dui)(dui)糖(tang)等有机营(ying)养(yang)物质的积累与利用影(ying)响(xiang)较大。建(jian)议在油(you)茶(cha)成(cheng)(cheng)林生(sheng)产中(zhong)采用简化(hua)整(zheng)形修(xiu)(xiu)剪(jian)模(mo)(mo)式(shi)进(jin)行树(shu)体结(jie)构调(diao)整(zheng)。
氮磷钾配施对甘草生长动态和产量的影响
纪瑛, 张佳杰, 王龙强, 蔺海明, 黄俊基, 陈珍新, 王昔泽, 陶永福
2014, 8(4): 717-723.
[摘要](1419) [PDF 492KB](381)
摘要:
为研究(jiu)氮(dan)(dan)磷(lin)钾(jia)配施对(dui)甘(gan)草(cao)(Glycyrrhiza uralensi)生长(zhang)动态和(he)产(chan)量(liang)的(de)影响,对(dui)其(qi)进行“3414”氮(dan)(dan)磷(lin)钾(jia)配施试验。结果表(biao)明,氮(dan)(dan)、磷(lin)、钾(jia)配施对(dui)株高的(de)促进效(xiao)应主(zhu)要表(biao)现在6月下旬之前(qian)的(de)主(zhu)茎快速生长(zhang)期,对(dui)根(gen)干质量(liang)增(zeng)加效(xiao)应则主(zhu)要表(biao)现在7―8月根(gen)粗和(he)根(gen)长(zhang)增(zeng)加高峰期;中等水平氮(dan)(dan)(N2)、磷(lin)(P2)、钾(jia)(K2)对(dui)甘(gan)草(cao)生物量(liang)和(he)产(chan)量(liang)促进效(xiao)应最大;氮(dan)(dan)磷(lin)钾(jia)配施以(yi)N2P2K2时甘(gan)草(cao)产(chan)量(liang)最高,达6 500 kg·hm-2,较不施肥增(zeng)产(chan)39.3%。推荐施氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)171 kg·hm-2,施磷(lin)量(liang)292.5 kg·hm-2,施钾(jia)量(liang)49.5 kg·hm-2。
干旱胁迫对4种景天科植物生理生化指标的影响
张寅媛, 刘英, 白龙
2014, 8(4): 724-731.
[摘要](1984) [PDF 601KB](584)
摘要:
为(wei)筛(shai)选适合(he)北方(fang)地区的屋顶绿化植物(wu),以4种(zhong)景(jing)(jing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)科(ke)植物(wu)为(wei)试材,采用盆栽(zai)控水法研究干(gan)旱胁迫对(dui)(dui)植物(wu)叶(ye)(ye)片相对(dui)(dui)含水量(liang)、相对(dui)(dui)电导率(lv)及丙(bing)二醛含量(liang)等抗旱性生(sheng)理指(zhi)标的影响(xiang),并结(jie)合(he)植物(wu)生(sheng)长(zhang)状况及隶属函数法综合(he)评价(jia)4种(zhong)植物(wu)的抗旱能力强弱(ruo)。结(jie)果表明,随着干(gan)旱胁迫时间的增(zeng)加(jia),形态上(shang)卧(wo)(wo)茎景(jing)(jing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)(Sedum sarmentosum)、长(zhang)药景(jing)(jing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)(Hylotelephium spectabile)和堪察加(jia)景(jing)(jing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)(S. kamtschaticum)的评价(jia)等级为(wei)生(sheng)长(zhang)一般,德国(guo)(guo)景(jing)(jing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)(S. hybridum cv.Immergrunchell)生(sheng)长(zhang)受(shou)抑制(zhi)。各种(zhong)景(jing)(jing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)的叶(ye)(ye)片相对(dui)(dui)含水量(liang)都呈下降趋势,卧(wo)(wo)茎景(jing)(jing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)的相对(dui)(dui)电导率(lv)及丙(bing)二醛含量(liang)增(zeng)幅(fu)较(jiao)小(xiao),抗旱性较(jiao)强。通过隶属函数综合(he)评价(jia),4种(zhong)景(jing)(jing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)植物(wu)的抗旱能力大小(xiao)为(wei)卧(wo)(wo)茎景(jing)(jing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)长(zhang)药景(jing)(jing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)堪察加(jia)景(jing)(jing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)德国(guo)(guo)景(jing)(jing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)。
3种鹅观草在成都平原的生产性能
崔忠刚, 张海琴, 黎琦, 杨财容, 黄娟, 罗小梅, 周永红
2014, 8(4): 732-736.
[摘要](1311) [PDF 741KB](387)
摘要:
对选育(yu)(yu)的鹅观(guan)(guan)草(cao)(cao)(Roegneria kamoji)新品系——都(dou)江堰(yan)鹅观(guan)(guan)草(cao)(cao)和(he)川(chuan)(chuan)农2号(hao)鹅观(guan)(guan)草(cao)(cao),以国审(shen)品种“赣饲1号(hao)” 纤毛鹅观(guan)(guan)草(cao)(cao)(R.ciliaris cv. Gansi No.1)为(wei)对照(zhao),在四川(chuan)(chuan)成都(dou)平原(yuan)上进行牧(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)生产(chan)性(xing)能和(he)适应(ying)性(xing)试(shi)验。经连(lian)续3年的品种比较试(shi)验表明,都(dou)江堰(yan)鹅观(guan)(guan)草(cao)(cao)和(he)川(chuan)(chuan)农2号(hao)鹅观(guan)(guan)草(cao)(cao)干草(cao)(cao)产(chan)量分(fen)别为(wei)20 973 和(he)21 831 kg·hm-2,显(xian)著高(gao)于对照(zhao)(P<0.05),分(fen)别比对照(zhao)增产(chan)19.9%、24.8%。新品系生育(yu)(yu)期比对照(zhao)长17~27 d,粗蛋白质含量达(da)11.68%,且高(gao)抗锈病和(he)白粉病。鹅观(guan)(guan)草(cao)(cao)可作(zuo)为(wei)山地(di)和(he)丘陵地(di)区种植的优(you)质牧(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)资源(yuan)和(he)水土保持(chi)植物。
12份苜蓿种质材料苗期抗旱性综合评价
张荟荟, 甄世财, 张一弓, 杨刚, 顾祥, 沙吾列·沙比汗, 王玉, 热娜·阿布都克力木
2014, 8(4): 737-743.
[摘要](1710) [PDF 555KB](392)
摘要:
采(cai)用室(shi)内盆栽法研(yan)究(jiu)12份苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)种质材料(liao)在(zai)3个土壤(rang)水(shui)分梯度下对干旱(han)胁迫的(de)响应,并通(tong)过隶属(shu)函数标准差系(xi)数赋(fu)予权重法对其进行抗旱(han)性综合(he)评价,为新(xin)疆地区抗旱(han)苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)品种的(de)选(xuan)育提供理(li)论依据。研(yan)究(jiu)结(jie)果表明,12份苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)苗期抗旱(han)性从强到弱(ruo)依次为和田大叶紫花(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)敖汉(han)紫花(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)阿(a)尔(er)泰杂花(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)甘农(nong)3号紫花(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)奇台苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)巴(ba)州苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)沙湾苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)阜康苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)北疆紫花(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)布尔(er)津苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)策勒苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)伊犁苜蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)。
高寒草甸退化草地引种适应性
张建全, 张吉宇, 王彦荣, 韩天文
2014, 8(4): 744-753.
[摘要](1504) [PDF 587KB](396)
摘要:
在甘肃省甘南藏族自治州玛曲(qu)县(xian)境内典型高(gao)(gao)寒草(cao)(cao)(cao)甸草(cao)(cao)(cao)原区(qu)连续(xu)两年开展退化(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)引(yin)(yin)(yin)种(zhong)适应性试(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)。试(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)期(qi)(qi)间观(guan)测引(yin)(yin)(yin)进(jin)草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)的(de)物候期(qi)(qi)、生(sheng)长发(fa)育特征、盖(gai)度、地(di)上部分生(sheng)物量(liang)、越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)性能(neng)(neng)和(he)(he)翌年种(zhong)子(zi)生(sheng)产(chan)状况。结果(guo)表明,供试(shi)(shi)草(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)在引(yin)(yin)(yin)种(zhong)当年生(sheng)长季末均达营养(yang)生(sheng)长阶段,不(bu)能(neng)(neng)结实(shi),草(cao)(cao)(cao)层高(gao)(gao)度介(jie)于4.1~29.6 cm,盖(gai)度9%~80%不(bu)等;草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)早熟(shu)(shu)禾(he)(Poa pratensis)、高(gao)(gao)冰(bing)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Agropyron elongatum)和(he)(he)高(gao)(gao)羊茅(Festuca rundinacea)均不(bu)能(neng)(neng)安全越(yue)(yue)冬(dong);第2年,越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)能(neng)(neng)正常完成(cheng)(cheng)其生(sheng)活史,垂(chui)穗披(pi)碱(jian)(jian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Elymus nutans)、中华羊茅(Festuca sinensis)、冷(leng)地(di)早熟(shu)(shu)禾(he)(P.crymophila)和(he)(he)美国披(pi)碱(jian)(jian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Eylmus american)种(zhong)子(zi)能(neng)(neng)够成(cheng)(cheng)熟(shu)(shu),其盖(gai)度和(he)(he)生(sheng)物量(liang)较第1年大(da)幅度增加;个别牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)能(neng)(neng)够结籽并成(cheng)(cheng)熟(shu)(shu)。地(di)上部分单位面(mian)积产(chan)鲜草(cao)(cao)(cao)量(liang):细茎披(pi)碱(jian)(jian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Elymustr achycautum)>扁穗冰(bing)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Agropyron cristatum)>美国披(pi)碱(jian)(jian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)>中华羊茅>无芒雀麦(Bromus inermis)>冷(leng)地(di)早熟(shu)(shu)禾(he),且差异显著(P<0.05)。在玛曲(qu)县(xian)等黄河(he)源区(qu)高(gao)(gao)寒退化(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di),引(yin)(yin)(yin)种(zhong)披(pi)碱(jian)(jian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)属(shu)(shu)、羊茅属(shu)(shu)、早熟(shu)(shu)禾(he)属(shu)(shu)、冰(bing)草(cao)(cao)(cao)属(shu)(shu)和(he)(he)雀麦属(shu)(shu)等多年生(sheng)优良禾(he)草(cao)(cao)(cao),可保证其安全越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)建立持久性栽(zai)培草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)并在建植后的(de)2~3年高(gao)(gao)产(chan)稳产(chan),可用(yong)于改良高(gao)(gao)寒天然退化(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)甸,发(fa)挥防风固(gu)沙、防治水土流失的(de)生(sheng)态效益。
后生物生产层
牧民合作社本质特征及发展趋势
韩柱
2014, 8(4): 754-759.
[摘要](1306) [PDF 552KB](402)
摘要:
“人-草(cao)(cao)-畜”共(gong)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)草(cao)(cao)原畜牧(mu)业(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)基(ji)础(chu)和(he)(he)经(jing)(jing)营方(fang)式(shi)与耕(geng)种(zhong)农(nong)业(ye)不同(tong)。因此,以(yi)(yi)草(cao)(cao)原畜牧(mu)业(ye)为基(ji)础(chu)的(de)牧(mu)民合(he)(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)社(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)受自(zi)然(ran)条件、文(wen)化(hua)背景和(he)(he)政策环(huan)境等(deng)因素影响。牧(mu)民合(he)(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)社(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)是(shi)在草(cao)(cao)原畜牧(mu)业(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)和(he)(he)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活中以(yi)(yi)劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)力(li)(li)、资(zi)本、土地(di)(di)等(deng)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)要(yao)素整(zheng)(zheng)合(he)(he)(he)方(fang)式(shi)进行互(hu)助(zhu)互(hu)利,形(xing)成合(he)(he)(he)伙放牧(mu)和(he)(he)繁重体(ti)(ti)力(li)(li)劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)的(de)社(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)会运动(dong)(dong)体(ti)(ti);继《农(nong)民专业(ye)合(he)(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)社(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)法》颁布后,结合(he)(he)(he)牧(mu)区(qu)经(jing)(jing)济(ji)的(de)特(te)点,牧(mu)区(qu)地(di)(di)方(fang)政府(fu)纷(fen)纷(fen)组(zu)(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)成立草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)联(lian)户(hu)、牲(sheng)畜饲养、生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)资(zi)料购买、牧(mu)业(ye)机械联(lian)合(he)(he)(he)、互(hu)助(zhu)基(ji)金等(deng)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)、流(liu)通领域运作(zuo)(zuo)的(de)经(jing)(jing)济(ji)体(ti)(ti);在互(hu)助(zhu)互(hu)利和(he)(he)自(zi)由、民主平等(deng)原则上(shang)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成具有紧密的(de)经(jing)(jing)济(ji)组(zu)(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)体(ti)(ti),在生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)力(li)(li)发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)和(he)(he)市场(chang)竞争条件下,形(xing)成一种(zhong)具有合(he)(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)社(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)章程,理(li)事会、监(jian)事会,生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)管理(li)、财(cai)务管理(li)、劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)管理(li)等(deng)一整(zheng)(zheng)套(tao)经(jing)(jing)营管理(li)机制(zhi)的(de)组(zu)(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)性、统一性、持续性的(de)经(jing)(jing)营体(ti)(ti)。其(qi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)趋(qu)势是(shi)以(yi)(yi)嘎查(cha)(cha)(村)为单位的(de)集(ji)体(ti)(ti)经(jing)(jing)济(ji)组(zu)(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。自(zi)然(ran)环(huan)境复杂、人烟稀(xi)少、经(jing)(jing)济(ji)基(ji)础(chu)薄弱的(de)牧(mu)区(qu),发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)合(he)(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)社(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)应该从生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)合(he)(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)社(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)开(kai)始,从联(lian)户(hu)型(xing)(xing)互(hu)助(zhu)组(zu)(zu)(zu)发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)为小组(zu)(zu)(zu)型(xing)(xing)专业(ye)合(he)(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)社(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)和(he)(he)嘎查(cha)(cha)(村)型(xing)(xing)综合(he)(he)(he)合(he)(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)社(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she),在此基(ji)础(chu)上(shang)逐步(bu)分离加(jia)工、销(xiao)售、信(xin)用专业(ye)合(he)(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)社(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she),最后发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)到牧(mu)工商(shang)一体(ti)(ti)化(hua)产(chan)业(ye)化(hua)联(lian)盟的(de)合(he)(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)社(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)。
巨菌草纤维素的酶解条件
师静, 林占熺, 林冬梅, 苏德伟, 罗海凌, 林兴生, 林占森, 郑丹, 陈锦华, 姚俊新
2014, 8(4): 760-765.
[摘要](1569) [PDF 553KB](380)
摘要:
纤(xian)维(wei)素(su)(su)(su)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)解(jie)(jie)(jie)植物纤(xian)维(wei)的过(guo)程受许(xu)多(duo)因素(su)(su)(su)的影响。选(xuan)取酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)解(jie)(jie)(jie)时间(jian)(jian)、纤(xian)维(wei)素(su)(su)(su)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)用量(liang)(liang)、底(di)(di)物浓度(du)(du)(du)、缓冲液pH值和反应温(wen)度(du)(du)(du)5个因素(su)(su)(su)对(dui)巨菌草(cao)(cao)(Pennisetum sp.)纤(xian)维(wei)素(su)(su)(su)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)解(jie)(jie)(jie)条(tiao)件(jian)进行初步研究。结果表明,各因素(su)(su)(su)对(dui)该试验的影响效果依次(ci)为(wei)纤(xian)维(wei)素(su)(su)(su)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)用量(liang)(liang)>酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)解(jie)(jie)(jie)时间(jian)(jian)>底(di)(di)物浓度(du)(du)(du)>缓冲液pH值>反应温(wen)度(du)(du)(du)。酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)解(jie)(jie)(jie)巨菌草(cao)(cao)纤(xian)维(wei)素(su)(su)(su)的最(zui)佳条(tiao)件(jian):反应时间(jian)(jian)60 h,酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)用量(liang)(liang)44.8 U·g-1,底(di)(di)物浓度(du)(du)(du)10 g·L-1,pH值5.0,酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)解(jie)(jie)(jie)温(wen)度(du)(du)(du)45 ℃。在该条(tiao)件(jian)下进行酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)解(jie)(jie)(jie)反应,酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)解(jie)(jie)(jie)液中还原糖(tang)含量(liang)(liang)为(wei)95.509 mg·g-1。该研究为(wei)巨菌草(cao)(cao)作为(wei)制备生物乙醇的材料(liao)提供了理(li)论依据。
水分和添加剂对紫花苜蓿青贮品质的影响
张金霞, 乔红霞, 刘雨田
2014, 8(4): 766-770.
[摘要](2227) [PDF 449KB](515)
摘要:
分(fen)别(bie)对含水(shui)(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)为(wei)54.27%和(he)42.67%的(de)(de)(de)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)设不添(tian)(tian)加、添(tian)(tian)加乳酸菌+葡萄糖、纤(xian)维(wei)(wei)酶剂(ji)(ji)和(he)饲(si)料(liao)(liao)益菌素(suk B)进行(xing)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu),在(zai)贮(zhu)藏后(hou)的(de)(de)(de)第65天开封,分(fen)析各(ge)(ge)处理(li)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)饲(si)料(liao)(liao)的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)酵(jiao)品(pin)(pin)质和(he)主要(yao)营养成分(fen)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)。以探讨不同水(shui)(shui)分(fen)和(he)添(tian)(tian)加剂(ji)(ji)及其互(hu)作(zuo)对紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)品(pin)(pin)质的(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)。结果(guo)表明,各(ge)(ge)处理(li)组紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)后(hou)的(de)(de)(de)感官(guan)评分(fen)均(jun)在(zai)13.6~16.1,感官(guan)评定均(jun)为(wei)优良(liang)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)饲(si)料(liao)(liao)。以添(tian)(tian)加纤(xian)维(wei)(wei)素酶组的(de)(de)(de)感官(guan)评分(fen)最高(gao),总分(fen)为(wei)16.1,达优质青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)饲(si)料(liao)(liao)。水(shui)(shui)分(fen)和(he)添(tian)(tian)加剂(ji)(ji)对苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)营养成分(fen)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)均(jun)没(mei)有显著(zhu)影响(xiang)(P0.05);但两因素的(de)(de)(de)交(jiao)互(hu)作(zuo)用可(ke)(ke)显著(zhu)提(ti)高(gao)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)后(hou)的(de)(de)(de)嗅觉评分(fen)(P0.05),54.27%的(de)(de)(de)含水(shui)(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)较42.67%的(de)(de)(de)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)效(xiao)果(guo)更好(hao),可(ke)(ke)显著(zhu)降(jiang)低(di)(di)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)pH值(P0.05),改善青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)品(pin)(pin)质,这说(shuo)明低(di)(di)水(shui)(shui)分(fen)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)可(ke)(ke)不用添(tian)(tian)加剂(ji)(ji)直接青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu),但水(shui)(shui)分(fen)过低(di)(di),不利(li)于(yu)降(jiang)低(di)(di)酸度(du)。添(tian)(tian)加剂(ji)(ji)只在(zai)适(shi)宜水(shui)(shui)分(fen)条件(jian)下才可(ke)(ke)改善紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)发(fa)酵(jiao)品(pin)(pin)质。
航天紫花苜蓿中黄酮的提取及抑菌活性
董晓宁, 赵海福, 赵强, 移瑞瑞, 靳正娟
2014, 8(4): 771-775.
[摘要](1441) [PDF 479KB](441)
摘要:
用索(suo)氏(shi)回(hui)流法正交提(ti)取航天紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)中的黄(huang)酮(tong)(芦(lu)(lu)丁),以510 nm最大吸光度进行可见光谱(pu)检测,测定(ding)芦(lu)(lu)丁含(han)量,并对两种供试菌(jun)(jun)进行体外(wai)抑(yi)菌(jun)(jun)活性测定(ding)。结(jie)果表(biao)明,通过单因(yin)素试验(yan)确定(ding)的各(ge)因(yin)素影响能力大小为(wei)超(chao)声提(ti)取时间料液比乙(yi)醇(chun)浓(nong)(nong)度,芦(lu)(lu)丁含(han)量最高(gao)为(wei)10.04 mg·g-1;大肠埃希氏(shi)杆菌(jun)(jun)的最小抗菌(jun)(jun)浓(nong)(nong)度为(wei)0.40 mg·g-1,金黄(huang)色(se)葡萄球菌(jun)(jun)的最小抗菌(jun)(jun)浓(nong)(nong)度为(wei)0.70 mg·g-1。
祁连山北坡高寒草地退化现状及应对策略
张佳宁
2014, 8(4): 776-780.
[摘要](989) [PDF 583KB](496)
摘要:
祁连(lian)(lian)山北坡高寒(han)草(cao)(cao)地(di)是河(he)西走廊重要的生(sheng)(sheng)态和生(sheng)(sheng)产安(an)全屏障。本研(yan)究(jiu)通过分析祁连(lian)(lian)山北坡草(cao)(cao)地(di)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)的利(li)用(yong)(yong)现状及存在问题,明(ming)晰了导致(zhi)草(cao)(cao)地(di)退(tui)化的可(ke)调控因素,提出了基(ji)于草(cao)(cao)地(di)分类经(jing)营理念,确立(li)合理利(li)用(yong)(yong)草(cao)(cao)地(di)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)的生(sheng)(sheng)产经(jing)营格局、完善草(cao)(cao)地(di)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)结构(gou)、明(ming)确草(cao)(cao)地(di)拥有权(quan)、合理有序樵采(cai)中药材、实(shi)施生(sheng)(sheng)态补偿和基(ji)础(chu)设(she)施建设(she)、改进现行放牧(mu)制度和鼠(shu)害防控等(deng)草(cao)(cao)地(di)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)可(ke)持续利(li)用(yong)(yong)对(dui)策。
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