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前植物生产层
喀斯特地区不同年限桂牧1号 象草草地土壤养分特征
胡培雷, 曾昭霞, 王克林, 宋希娟, 李莎莎
2016, 10(1): 1-10. doi:
[摘要](1484) [HTML全文] (39) [PDF 658KB](321)
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人为(wei)干扰和(he)管理措(cuo)施对喀斯特地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)区生态恢复影响显著。本研究(jiu)以(yi)典型喀斯特地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)区种植1年(nian)(nian)(nian)(1-y G)、5年(nian)(nian)(nian)(5-y G)和(he)7年(nian)(nian)(nian)(7-y G)的桂(gui)牧(mu)(mu)1号(hao)杂交(jiao)象草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Pennisetum purpureum cv. Guimu-1)栽培草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)为(wei)研究(jiu)对象,以(yi)玉米(Zea mays)种植地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(CK)作为(wei)对照,分(fen)析不(bu)同建(jian)(jian)植年(nian)(nian)(nian)限下(xia)栽培草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)对地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)上(shang)部分(fen)生物量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)养分(fen)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)及(ji)微生物量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)碳(tan)的影响。结果(guo)表(biao)(biao)明,1)建(jian)(jian)植年(nian)(nian)(nian)限对桂(gui)牧(mu)(mu)1号(hao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)上(shang)部分(fen)生物量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)影响显著(P0.05),表(biao)(biao)现(xian)为(wei)7-y G1-y G5-y G。2)桂(gui)牧(mu)(mu)1号(hao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)0-50 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)N、P、K随(sui)建(jian)(jian)植年(nian)(nian)(nian)限呈(cheng)现(xian)先下(xia)降后升(sheng)高(gao)的趋势,建(jian)(jian)植5年(nian)(nian)(nian)的牧(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)N、P、K养分(fen)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)普(pu)遍较低(di);土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)有机(ji)碳(tan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)在各(ge)土(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)均(jun)以(yi)建(jian)(jian)植7年(nian)(nian)(nian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)最高(gao),5年(nian)(nian)(nian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)最低(di)。土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)表(biao)(biao)层(ceng)(0-10 cm)微生物生物量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)碳(tan)表(biao)(biao)现(xian)为(wei)1-y G5-y G7-y G,且7年(nian)(nian)(nian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)分(fen)别比1年(nian)(nian)(nian)和(he)5年(nian)(nian)(nian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)增加(jia)了(le)32.37%和(he)19.18%。3)桂(gui)牧(mu)(mu)1号(hao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)有机(ji)碳(tan)、全(quan)(quan)氮(dan)、全(quan)(quan)磷、全(quan)(quan)钾(jia)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)及(ji)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)表(biao)(biao)层(ceng)微生物生物量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)碳(tan)均(jun)高(gao)于相应土(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)玉米地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di),而碱解氮(dan)、速效(xiao)磷和(he)速效(xiao)钾(jia)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)则(ze)刚(gang)好相反。因此(ci),相比玉米农(nong)耕地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di),桂(gui)牧(mu)(mu)1号(hao)栽培草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)能(neng)有效(xiao)提高(gao)喀斯特地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)区土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)肥力,其(qi)中,以(yi)建(jian)(jian)植7年(nian)(nian)(nian)的草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)固碳(tan)效(xiao)果(guo)最好,“种草(cao)(cao)(cao)养畜”是喀斯特地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)区生态恢复与重建(jian)(jian)的有效(xiao)措(cuo)施。
放牧季节及退化程度对高寒草甸土壤有机碳的影响
刘淑丽, 林丽, 张法伟, 杜岩功, 李以康, 郭小伟, 欧阳经政, 曹广民
2016, 10(1): 11-18. doi:
[摘要](612) [HTML全文] (18) [PDF 518KB](350)
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高寒(han)草(cao)甸是青藏高原的主要植被类型,本研究(jiu)以青海省高寒(han)草(cao)甸为研究(jiu)对(dui)象(xiang),探讨(tao)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同放牧(mu)(mu)季(ji)(ji)(ji)节(jie)(jie)及退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)程(cheng)度(du)下(xia)高寒(han)草(cao)甸土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机碳(tan)含量(liang)(liang)及密度(du)的分异特征。结果表明,在(zai)(zai)0-30 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)内(nei),土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机碳(tan)含量(liang)(liang)随土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)深度(du)逐渐(jian)(jian)减小。土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机碳(tan)含量(liang)(liang)暖(nuan)季(ji)(ji)(ji)放牧(mu)(mu)与冷(leng)季(ji)(ji)(ji)放牧(mu)(mu)之间无显著(zhu)差异(P>0.05),且在(zai)(zai)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)深度(du)中一(yi)致。不(bu)(bu)(bu)同放牧(mu)(mu)季(ji)(ji)(ji)节(jie)(jie)下(xia)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)理(li)(li)化(hua)(hua)性(xing)质及生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)(liang)各不(bu)(bu)(bu)相同。0-30 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)内(nei),除0-5 cm未退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)阶(jie)(jie)段土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机碳(tan)含量(liang)(liang)最高,其余(yu)各层(ceng)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机碳(tan)含量(liang)(liang)均(jun)在(zai)(zai)轻(qing)度(du)退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)阶(jie)(jie)段达到(dao)最大。土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)理(li)(li)化(hua)(hua)性(xing)质在(zai)(zai)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)阶(jie)(jie)段也变化(hua)(hua)各异,地(di)(di)下(xia)生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)(liang)随草(cao)地(di)(di)退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)呈先增加(jia)后减小的趋(qu)(qu)势(shi),而地(di)(di)上(shang)生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)(liang)随草(cao)地(di)(di)退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)呈逐渐(jian)(jian)减小的趋(qu)(qu)势(shi)。冷(leng)季(ji)(ji)(ji)放牧(mu)(mu)高寒(han)草(cao)甸土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机碳(tan)含量(liang)(liang)随草(cao)地(di)(di)退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)呈逐渐(jian)(jian)减小的趋(qu)(qu)势(shi),而暖(nuan)季(ji)(ji)(ji)放牧(mu)(mu)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机碳(tan)含量(liang)(liang)随草(cao)地(di)(di)退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)呈先增加(jia)后减小的趋(qu)(qu)势(shi)。0-30 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)冷(leng)季(ji)(ji)(ji)放牧(mu)(mu)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同阶(jie)(jie)段土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机碳(tan)储量(liang)(liang)均(jun)低于暖(nuan)季(ji)(ji)(ji)放牧(mu)(mu),但未达到(dao)显著(zhu)水(shui)平。可见,放牧(mu)(mu)强(qiang)度(du)的不(bu)(bu)(bu)同会对(dui)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机碳(tan)的影响(xiang)比(bi)放牧(mu)(mu)季(ji)(ji)(ji)节(jie)(jie)更大。
鄱阳湖湿地灰化苔草群落物种多度分布格局沿水分梯度的变化
刘扬, 施建敏, 边子星, 邓绍勇, 裘利洪, 张微微, 缪伸义
2016, 10(1): 19-26. doi:
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为(wei)揭(jie)示鄱(po)阳(yang)湖湿(shi)地(di)苔(tai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)群落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)的(de)构(gou)建机制,选择灰(hui)(hui)(hui)(hui)化苔(tai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Carex cinerascens)群落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)作为(wei)研(yan)究(jiu)对(dui)象,通过设立3条样(yang)带调查(cha)不同水(shui)分(fen)(fen)梯度(du)(du)的(de)群落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)多度(du)(du),选用断棍模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)(BSM)、生(sheng)态位(wei)优(you)先(xian)(xian)占领(ling)模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)(NPM)、优(you)势优(you)先(xian)(xian)模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)(DPM)、随机分(fen)(fen)配模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)(RAM)和(he)(he)生(sheng)态位(wei)重叠模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)(ONM)5个(ge)生(sheng)态位(wei)模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)对(dui)群落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)种(zhong)-多度(du)(du)关系进行拟合,结果表(biao)明,1)灰(hui)(hui)(hui)(hui)化苔(tai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)群落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)可按土壤水(shui)分(fen)(fen)划(hua)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)高湿(shi)度(du)(du)、中(zhong)湿(shi)度(du)(du)和(he)(he)低湿(shi)度(du)(du)3组,分(fen)(fen)别对(dui)应从(cong)湖边(bian)、湿(shi)地(di)中(zhong)间和(he)(he)湿(shi)地(di)边(bian)缘的(de)梯度(du)(du)分(fen)(fen)布;2)从(cong)高到低的(de)水(shui)分(fen)(fen)梯度(du)(du)上,灰(hui)(hui)(hui)(hui)化苔(tai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)群落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)的(de)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)数先(xian)(xian)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)后降低,优(you)势种(zhong)多度(du)(du)逐渐增(zeng)加(jia)(jia),物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)多度(du)(du)分(fen)(fen)布曲线由(you)相对(dui)平缓(huan)变为(wei)陡(dou)峭;3)高湿(shi)度(du)(du)灰(hui)(hui)(hui)(hui)化苔(tai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)群落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)多度(du)(du)分(fen)(fen)布格(ge)局的(de)最佳拟合模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)为(wei)BSM,中(zhong)、低湿(shi)度(du)(du)的(de)理(li)(li)想模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)转变为(wei)NPM。研(yan)究(jiu)认为(wei),水(shui)分(fen)(fen)条件(jian)的(de)变化是灰(hui)(hui)(hui)(hui)化苔(tai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)群落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)多度(du)(du)分(fen)(fen)布格(ge)局改变的(de)主因,随着水(shui)分(fen)(fen)梯度(du)(du)降低,群落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)构(gou)建的(de)生(sheng)态学过程由(you)随机生(sheng)态位(wei)变为(wei)生(sheng)态位(wei)优(you)先(xian)(xian)占领(ling)。研(yan)究(jiu)为(wei)鄱(po)阳(yang)湖湿(shi)地(di)多样(yang)性保育(yu)和(he)(he)生(sheng)态功能管理(li)(li)提供了理(li)(li)论参考(kao)。
青藏高原北缘3种高寒草地的CH4、CO2和N2O通量特征的初步研究
郭小伟, 杜岩功, 林丽, 李以康, 张法伟, 李茜, 刘淑丽, 欧阳经政, 曹广民
2016, 10(1): 27-37. doi:
[摘要](547) [HTML全文] (10) [PDF 654KB](316)
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高(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)温(wen)室气(qi)体(ti)排放研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)已成为(wei)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)与气(qi)候变化关(guan)系的(de)(de)(de)重要议题之一,但目前的(de)(de)(de)研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)多(duo)集中于单(dan)种类型草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)的(de)(de)(de)温(wen)室气(qi)体(ti)通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu),缺乏(fa)多(duo)种草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)类型间的(de)(de)(de)比较。本研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)于2009年以高(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸、栽(zai)(zai)培(pei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)和(he)(he)(he)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)灌(guan)丛为(wei)研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)对(dui)象,利用(yong)静态箱法研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)3种草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)的(de)(de)(de)CH4、CO2和(he)(he)(he)N2O通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)特征。结果显(xian)示(shi),天然高(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸、栽(zai)(zai)培(pei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)和(he)(he)(he)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)灌(guan)丛是(shi)大(da)(da)气(qi)CH4的(de)(de)(de)汇,大(da)(da)气(qi)CO2和(he)(he)(he)N2O的(de)(de)(de)源,其CH4通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)别为(wei)-21.4、-28.1和(he)(he)(he)-41.1 μg·m-2·h-1;CO2通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)别为(wei)360.6、447.9和(he)(he)(he)475.1 mg·m-2·h-1;N2O通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)别为(wei)34.2、51.6和(he)(he)(he)50.6 μg·m-2·h-1。生长季的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)CH4吸收(shou)占全年的(de)(de)(de)42.4%~45.6%,生长季的(de)(de)(de)CO2和(he)(he)(he)N2O排放量(liang)(liang)分(fen)别占全年的(de)(de)(de)64.1%~67.8%和(he)(he)(he)37.9%~66.7%。土(tu)壤5 cm温(wen)度(du)(du)与CH4、CO2、N2O通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)别呈(cheng)负(fu)相(xiang)关(guan)、正(zheng)相(xiang)关(guan)和(he)(he)(he)正(zheng)相(xiang)关(guan)关(guan)系,除高(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸CH4通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)外土(tu)壤5 cm与其他草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)温(wen)室气(qi)体(ti)通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)均达(da)到显(xian)著(zhu)水(shui)平(P0.01);土(tu)壤湿度(du)(du)与草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)CH4和(he)(he)(he)CO2通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)呈(cheng)正(zheng)相(xiang)关(guan),与N2O通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)呈(cheng)负(fu)相(xiang)关(guan),但仅与高(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)CH4和(he)(he)(he)CO2相(xiang)关(guan)性达(da)到显(xian)著(zhu)水(shui)平(P0.01)。土(tu)壤呼(hu)吸温(wen)度(du)(du)敏(min)(min)感性大(da)(da)小(Q10)值显(xian)示(shi),CO2通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)较CH4和(he)(he)(he)N2O通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)对(dui)温(wen)度(du)(du)更为(wei)敏(min)(min)感。将3种草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)的(de)(de)(de)CH4、N2O通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)值换算(suan)为(wei)等量(liang)(liang)CO2后发现(xian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)温(wen)室气(qi)体(ti)通(tong)(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)造成的(de)(de)(de)温(wen)室效应表现(xian)为(wei)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)灌(guan)丛>栽(zai)(zai)培(pei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)>高(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸。
氮硅添加对高寒草甸生物量和多样性的影响
张文鹏, 司晓林, 王文银, 高天鹏, 徐当会
2016, 10(1): 38-45. doi:
[摘要](618) [HTML全文] (29) [PDF 585KB](373)
摘要:
草地(di)施肥(fei)(fei)多集中(zhong)于添(tian)(tian)加氮(dan)肥(fei)(fei)与磷肥(fei)(fei),很少涉及硅(gui)肥(fei)(fei)。硅(gui)作为(wei)对(dui)植物(wu)有(you)益的(de)(de)(de)(de)一种(zhong)(zhong)元素,能(neng)提高植物(wu)对(dui)环境的(de)(de)(de)(de)抗性,促进植物(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生长。本(ben)研究(jiu)以(yi)青藏高原(yuan)高寒草甸为(wei)研究(jiu)对(dui)象,通(tong)(tong)过添(tian)(tian)加不同(tong)组(zu)合的(de)(de)(de)(de)氮(dan)肥(fei)(fei)和(he)硅(gui)肥(fei)(fei),研究(jiu)群落地(di)上(shang)生物(wu)量(liang)和(he)生物(wu)多样(yang)性的(de)(de)(de)(de)变(bian)化。结果表(biao)明(ming),氮(dan)肥(fei)(fei)和(he)硅(gui)肥(fei)(fei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)添(tian)(tian)加均能(neng)提高群落的(de)(de)(de)(de)地(di)上(shang)生物(wu)量(liang),然而硅(gui)肥(fei)(fei)提高群落地(di)上(shang)生物(wu)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)幅度远低(di)于氮(dan)肥(fei)(fei);在添(tian)(tian)加氮(dan)肥(fei)(fei)导致群落物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)多样(yang)性下降的(de)(de)(de)(de)同(tong)时(shi)(shi),添(tian)(tian)加硅(gui)肥(fei)(fei)可以(yi)缓解群落多样(yang)性下降的(de)(de)(de)(de)趋(qu)势;硅(gui)肥(fei)(fei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生物(wu)学功能(neng)在群落水(shui)平上(shang)存在着最佳(jia)浓(nong)度效应。同(tong)时(shi)(shi),我们推(tui)测硅(gui)肥(fei)(fei)在维持群落中(zhong)杂草的(de)(de)(de)(de)存活率上(shang)发挥着积极的(de)(de)(de)(de)作用,并通(tong)(tong)过比较不同(tong)硅(gui)肥(fei)(fei)处理时(shi)(shi),杂草生物(wu)量(liang)所(suo)占群落生物(wu)量(liang)比重(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)变(bian)化,支持了(le)上(shang)述推(tui)测。
进境草种种带真菌的检测与初步鉴定
雷娅红, 况卫刚, 郑春生, 汪万春, 李春杰, 高文娜
2016, 10(1): 46-53. doi:
[摘要](714) [HTML全文] (32) [PDF 1358KB](561)
摘要:
采用(yong)(yong)平皿测(ce)(ce)定法对(dui)我国北京(jing)口(kou)(kou)岸2014年(nian)(nian)进(jin)境草种(zhong)(zhong)高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)、多年(nian)(nian)生黑麦(mai)草(Lolium perenne)和(he)(he)苏丹草(Sorghum sudanense)携带真菌(jun)进(jin)行分离培(pei)养,利(li)用(yong)(yong)ITS4和(he)(he)ITS5引物对(dui)其内转录间隔(ge)区(qu)(Internal Transcribed Spacer,ITS) 进(jin)行扩增(zeng),PCR产物纯化后(hou)测(ce)(ce)序并与数据库中的(de)已知序列进(jin)行BLAST比对(dui),对(dui)种(zhong)(zhong)带真菌(jun)进(jin)行初步鉴定。研(yan)究结果(guo)表明(ming),不(bu)同来源(yuan)种(zhong)(zhong)子携带真菌(jun)种(zhong)(zhong)类差异较(jiao)大(da),从5个国家(jia)的(de)7个进(jin)境草种(zhong)(zhong)批(pi)次中共检(jian)测(ce)(ce)出13属21种(zhong)(zhong)48株真菌(jun),主要菌(jun)群为镰刀菌(jun)属(Fusarium spp.)、曲霉属(Aspergillus spp.)、茎点霉属(Phoma spp.)和(he)(he)链格(ge)孢(bao)属(Alternaria spp.)。基于ITS序列构(gou)建系统(tong)发(fa)育树(shu),能够(gou)将所有(you)分离到的(de)真菌(jun)鉴定到属,但是在(zai)种(zhong)(zhong)水(shui)平上鉴定有(you)限(xian),不(bu)能将细(xi)极链格(ge)孢(bao)(Alternaria tenuissima)、细(xi)交链孢(bao)(A. alternata)和(he)(he)乔木链格(ge)孢(bao)(A. arborescens)很好地区(qu)分开。本研(yan)究明(ming)确了5个来样(yang)量较(jiao)大(da)国家(jia)的(de)草种(zhong)(zhong)带菌(jun)情况,ITS基因能够(gou)运(yun)用(yong)(yong)于口(kou)(kou)岸草种(zhong)(zhong)携带真菌(jun)的(de)初步检(jian)测(ce)(ce)鉴定。
早开堇菜对镉污染的耐性及其富集特征
赵景龙, 张帆, 万雪琴, 肖朝
2016, 10(1): 54-60. doi:
[摘要](598) [HTML全文] (20) [PDF 539KB](323)
摘要:
为(wei)(wei)(wei)研究早(zao)(zao)开(kai)堇菜(cai)(cai)(cai)(Viola prionantha)对(dui)镉(ge)(Cd)的耐性及其对(dui)Cd的富集(ji)特征,使用(yong)盆(pen)栽方法对(dui)早(zao)(zao)开(kai)堇菜(cai)(cai)(cai)进(jin)行不同浓度水平Cd处(chu)理(li)。结果(guo)表明(ming),低(di)浓度Cd(≤10 mg·kg-1)促(cu)进(jin)早(zao)(zao)开(kai)堇菜(cai)(cai)(cai)的生长。当(dang)Cd浓度为(wei)(wei)(wei)5 mg·kg-1时,早(zao)(zao)开(kai)堇菜(cai)(cai)(cai)植(zhi)株地(di)下(xia)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)、地(di)上部(bu)分(fen)(fen)生物(wu)量(liang)显(xian)著高(gao)于对(dui)照(P<0.05),达到最大。随Cd处(chu)理(li)浓度的升(sheng)高(gao),其叶(ye)绿素(su)含(han)量(liang)逐渐(jian)下(xia)降(jiang),超氧化(hua)物(wu)歧化(hua)酶(mei)(SOD)、抗(kang)氧化(hua)物(wu)酶(mei)(POD)、过(guo)氧化(hua)氢酶(mei)(CAT)活性先升(sheng)高(gao)后降(jiang)低(di),丙(bing)二(er)醛(MDA)含(han)量(liang)则先下(xia)降(jiang)后上升(sheng)。当(dang)Cd处(chu)理(li)浓度≤10 mg·kg-1时,SOD、POD、CAT表现出较(jiao)高(gao)的活性,与对(dui)照无Cd处(chu)理(li)相比,MDA含(han)量(liang)未显(xian)著增加(P0.05),叶(ye)绿素(su)合成也未受到显(xian)著抑制(zhi),说明(ming)早(zao)(zao)开(kai)堇菜(cai)(cai)(cai)对(dui)Cd污染有(you)较(jiao)强的耐性。本研究中,早(zao)(zao)开(kai)堇菜(cai)(cai)(cai)对(dui)Cd的富集(ji)系数和转运(yun)系数均大于1.0。当(dang)Cd处(chu)理(li)浓度为(wei)(wei)(wei)5 mg·kg-1时,早(zao)(zao)开(kai)堇菜(cai)(cai)(cai)植(zhi)株地(di)上部(bu)Cd含(han)量(liang)为(wei)(wei)(wei)113.083 mg·kg-1,达到了Cd超富集(ji)植(zhi)物(wu)的筛选标准。因此,早(zao)(zao)开(kai)堇菜(cai)(cai)(cai)在(zai)修(xiu)复Cd污染土(tu)壤方面具有(you)一(yi)定的潜在(zai)应用(yong)价值(zhi)。
3种生长素对蓝叶忍冬枝条扦插生根的影响
朱永超, 李彬, 廖伟彪
2016, 10(1): 61-66. doi:
[摘要](842) [HTML全文] (57) [PDF 419KB](297)
摘要:
以蓝叶忍冬(dong)(Lonicera korolkowi ‘Zabclii’)为(wei)材料,研究了2种(zhong)不同浓度(50、100 mg·L-1)的(de)(de)生(sheng)长(zhang)素吲(yin)哚乙酸(suan)(suan)(IAA)、吲(yin)哚丁酸(suan)(suan)(IBA)和萘乙酸(suan)(suan)(NAA)在不同处(chu)(chu)理时(shi)间(30、60 min),对(dui)(dui)蓝叶忍冬(dong)生(sheng)根(gen)(gen)部位(wei)(wei)、根(gen)(gen)数和根(gen)(gen)长(zhang)的(de)(de)影响(xiang)。结(jie)果表明(ming),3种(zhong)生(sheng)长(zhang)素对(dui)(dui)蓝叶忍冬(dong)枝(zhi)条扦插生(sheng)根(gen)(gen)都产生(sheng)了一定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)影响(xiang),IAA处(chu)(chu)理增加(jia)蓝叶忍冬(dong)的(de)(de)生(sheng)根(gen)(gen)率和根(gen)(gen)数,但抑制根(gen)(gen)的(de)(de)伸(shen)长(zhang)。NAA处(chu)(chu)理对(dui)(dui)蓝叶忍冬(dong)生(sheng)根(gen)(gen)效果不明(ming)显(xian)(xian),仅对(dui)(dui)根(gen)(gen)长(zhang)有(you)一定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)促进作用。与对(dui)(dui)照相比,50 mg·L-1 IBA处(chu)(chu)理60 min显(xian)(xian)著增加(jia)了蓝叶忍冬(dong)的(de)(de)生(sheng)根(gen)(gen)率和根(gen)(gen)数(P0.05)。另外,3种(zhong)生(sheng)长(zhang)素对(dui)(dui)蓝叶忍冬(dong)枝(zhi)条生(sheng)根(gen)(gen)部位(wei)(wei)也有(you)影响(xiang),3种(zhong)生(sheng)长(zhang)素处(chu)(chu)理都可(ke)以增加(jia)皮层生(sheng)根(gen)(gen)数,对(dui)(dui)切口愈伤组织的(de)(de)生(sheng)根(gen)(gen)有(you)一定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)抑制作用。其中IBA处(chu)(chu)理对(dui)(dui)生(sheng)根(gen)(gen)部位(wei)(wei)影响(xiang)的(de)(de)效果最明(ming)显(xian)(xian),100 mg·L-1处(chu)(chu)理30 min可(ke)以显(xian)(xian)著提高皮层生(sheng)根(gen)(gen)数并抑制愈伤组织生(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(P0.05)。综合比较3种(zhong)生(sheng)长(zhang)素促进生(sheng)根(gen)(gen)的(de)(de)效果,IBA最好,IAA和NAA次之。
3种镰刀菌对小扁豆生长的影响
安欢乐, 燕翀, 徐娜, 宋雨阳, 李彦忠
2016, 10(1): 67-74. doi:
[摘要](621) [HTML全文] (18) [PDF 1271KB](286)
摘要:
小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)扁(bian)(bian)豆(Lens culinaris)是甘肃中部地(di)区普遍栽(zai)培(pei)的(de)(de)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)杂粮之一,既是经济作物(wu),又是轮(lun)作倒茬和肥地(di)作物(wu)。会宁县种植(zhi)的(de)(de)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)扁(bian)(bian)豆近年(nian)来死亡(wang)严重,为(wei)查明(ming)其死亡(wang)原(yuan)因(yin),开(kai)展了田(tian)间调查与病(bing)原(yuan)物(wu)研究(jiu)。2012年(nian),当地(di)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)扁(bian)(bian)豆根腐病(bing)的(de)(de)发(fa)病(bing)率(lv)为(wei)58.4%,死亡(wang)率(lv)为(wei)43.2%,从(cong)发(fa)病(bing)植(zhi)株(zhu)的(de)(de)根部分(fen)离出(chu)的(de)(de)真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)从(cong)形态(tai)学上鉴定为(wei)尖孢镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(Fusarium oxysporum)、锐顶镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(F. acuminatum)和木贼(zei)(zei)镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(F. equiseti),分(fen)离率(lv)分(fen)别为(wei)55%、18%和9%,以(yi)(yi)ITS为(wei)引物(wu)扩展真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)的(de)(de)DNA,测序后构(gou)建的(de)(de)系(xi)统发(fa)育树支持以(yi)(yi)上形态(tai)学鉴定结果(guo)。接种试验结果(guo)显示(shi),此(ci)3种镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)均能显著(P0.05)降(jiang)低植(zhi)株(zhu)的(de)(de)根长(zhang)和干重,其中尖孢镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)的(de)(de)影(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)最大,其次(ci)为(wei)木贼(zei)(zei)镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun),此(ci)2种镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)还显著降(jiang)低植(zhi)株(zhu)的(de)(de)鲜重和株(zhu)高,但3种镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)均未(wei)对出(chu)苗率(lv)和死亡(wang)率(lv)产生影(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(P0.05)。在发(fa)病(bing)田(tian)间采集的(de)(de)土壤(rang)(rang)(rang)中播种小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)扁(bian)(bian)豆,与灭(mie)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)土壤(rang)(rang)(rang)中栽(zai)培(pei)的(de)(de)植(zhi)株(zhu)相比,未(wei)灭(mie)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)土壤(rang)(rang)(rang)中植(zhi)株(zhu)的(de)(de)根长(zhang)和根干重显著降(jiang)低。3种镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)对小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)扁(bian)(bian)豆菌(jun)(jun)(jun)有(you)致(zhi)病(bing)性,但致(zhi)病(bing)性均不强,干旱可(ke)能是导致(zhi)镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)在田(tian)间危害程度加(jia)大的(de)(de)主(zhu)要原(yuan)因(yin)。
植物生产层
基于RNA-Seq技术的苜蓿根蘖性状 发生相关下调基因
郭云, 王铁梅
2016, 10(1): 75-85. doi:
[摘要](553) [HTML全文] (20) [PDF 605KB](336)
摘要:
为了从(cong)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)子水平上分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(Medicago sativa)根(gen)(gen)蘖(nie)(nie)(nie)性状的发生(sheng)机制,对根(gen)(gen)蘖(nie)(nie)(nie)型(xing)苜(mu)(mu)蓿的根(gen)(gen)蘖(nie)(nie)(nie)与(yu)非根(gen)(gen)蘖(nie)(nie)(nie)根(gen)(gen)部进行(xing)RNA-seq转(zhuan)录组文库(ku)(ku)构建,并分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)差(cha)异(yi)表(biao)达(da)基因(yin)及其(qi)(qi)功能(neng)。分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)别(bie)提取品系(xi)“BL-101”的根(gen)(gen)蘖(nie)(nie)(nie)型(xing)苜(mu)(mu)蓿根(gen)(gen)蘖(nie)(nie)(nie)与(yu)非根(gen)(gen)蘖(nie)(nie)(nie)部位总RNA,利(li)用磁(ci)珠法分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)离mRNA后(hou)通(tong)过(guo)PCR扩增构建RNA-Seq转(zhuan)录组文库(ku)(ku),并对差(cha)异(yi)表(biao)达(da)基因(yin)进行(xing)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi),得到差(cha)异(yi)表(biao)达(da)基因(yin)15 978条,本研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)重点(dian)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)下调基因(yin),通(tong)过(guo)生(sheng)物过(guo)程分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)类,发现与(yu)根(gen)(gen)蘖(nie)(nie)(nie)性状发生(sheng)有关的表(biao)达(da)下调的基因(yin)为5个,经生(sheng)物学(xue)信息分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)确定,其(qi)(qi)中(zhong)2个属于Lon蛋白(bai)酶(mei)(mei)家族,其(qi)(qi)余分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)别(bie)属于植物肌动蛋白(bai)酶(mei)(mei)家族,硫氧(yang)还蛋白(bai)和脂氧(yang)合酶(mei)(mei),其(qi)(qi)与(yu)植物抗逆(ni)性相(xiang)关,且与(yu)植物激素ABA的调控有关。研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)结果可(ke)以为探讨(tao)苜(mu)(mu)蓿根(gen)(gen)蘖(nie)(nie)(nie)性状发生(sheng)的分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)子机制提供理(li)论依据。
草地早熟禾愈伤组织对NaCl胁迫的生理响应
徐海鹏, 李慧萍, 金小煜, 金宁, 牛奎举, 马晖玲
2016, 10(1): 86-92. doi:
[摘要](658) [HTML全文] (16) [PDF 750KB](423)
摘要:
以草(cao)(cao)地(di)早(zao)熟(shu)禾(he)(Poa pratensis)午夜(ye)Ⅱ号愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)为材(cai)料,研(yan)究(jiu)NaCl胁迫(po)对(dui)其生长(zhang)、细胞膜相对(dui)透性(xing)、游离脯氨(an)酸(suan)、丙(bing)二醛(quan)、可溶性(xing)蛋白及抗氧化(hua)(hua)酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)的(de)影响(xiang)。结(jie)果(guo)(guo)表明,低(di)浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)NaCl胁迫(po)对(dui)午夜(ye)Ⅱ号愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)的(de)生长(zhang)有促(cu)进(jin)作用,高浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)NaCl胁迫(po)对(dui)愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)生长(zhang)具有抑(yi)制(zhi)作用,且当NaCl浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)高于(yu)1.5%时(shi)愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)开始出现(xian)(xian)褐化(hua)(hua)的(de)现(xian)(xian)象;随(sui)NaCl浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)的(de)升(sheng)高,其胁迫(po)程(cheng)度(du)也随(sui)之(zhi)加强,丙(bing)二醛(quan)(MDA)和可溶性(xing)蛋白含(han)(han)量(liang)呈现(xian)(xian)先升(sheng)高后降低(di)的(de)趋势,游离脯氨(an)酸(suan)(Pro)含(han)(han)量(liang)和细胞膜相对(dui)透性(xing)则呈现(xian)(xian)出一直增(zeng)加的(de)趋势;过氧化(hua)(hua)物酶(mei)(mei)(POD)、超氧化(hua)(hua)物歧化(hua)(hua)酶(mei)(mei)(SOD)和过氧化(hua)(hua)氢酶(mei)(mei)(CAT)活(huo)性(xing)随(sui)NaCl胁迫(po)程(cheng)度(du)的(de)增(zeng)加呈先升(sheng)高后降低(di)的(de)趋势,在NaCl浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)为1.5%时(shi)酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)达到最(zui)高。研(yan)究(jiu)结(jie)果(guo)(guo)为草(cao)(cao)地(di)早(zao)熟(shu)禾(he)愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)(shang)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)耐盐突变(bian)体的(de)筛选奠定了基础。
基于生长度日的紫花苜蓿生育期预测模型
徐博, 王英哲, 徐安凯, 孙启忠
2016, 10(1): 93-100. doi:
[摘要](713) [HTML全文] (8) [PDF 511KB](380)
摘要:
利(li)用2014年(nian)在吉林(lin)省(sheng)农业(ye)科学院草地研究所(suo)试验田开(kai)(kai)展紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)种植试验数(shu)据,建立基于(yu)生理发育(yu)时间和生长(zhang)度日的(de)生育(yu)期(qi)(qi)(qi)模(mo)型,再利(li)用气象站观测数(shu)据资料进行模(mo)型验证。结(jie)(jie)果(guo)表(biao)明,紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)从返(fan)青(qing)(qing)至(zhi)(zhi)分枝的(de)发育(yu)基点温(wen)度为(wei)(wei)5 ℃;从分枝至(zhi)(zhi)现(xian)蕾(lei)为(wei)(wei)16 ℃;从现(xian)蕾(lei)至(zhi)(zhi)开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)为(wei)(wei)18 ℃ ;从开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)至(zhi)(zhi)结(jie)(jie)荚(jia)为(wei)(wei)23 ℃。以此为(wei)(wei)依(yi)据建立紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)植株(zhu)发育(yu)的(de)动(dong)态模(mo)拟模(mo)型,以各生育(yu)期(qi)(qi)(qi)发育(yu)基点温(wen)度确定返(fan)青(qing)(qing)期(qi)(qi)(qi)至(zhi)(zhi)分枝期(qi)(qi)(qi)、分枝期(qi)(qi)(qi)至(zhi)(zhi)现(xian)蕾(lei)期(qi)(qi)(qi)、现(xian)蕾(lei)期(qi)(qi)(qi)至(zhi)(zhi)开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)期(qi)(qi)(qi)、开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)期(qi)(qi)(qi)至(zhi)(zhi)结(jie)(jie)荚(jia)期(qi)(qi)(qi)所(suo)需的(de)生长(zhang)度日(Growing degree days,GDD)分别(bie)为(wei)(wei)38.18、90.16、76.6、23.96 ℃·d。参试的(de)5个(ge)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)品种的(de)回(hui)归估计(ji)标准误(wu)差(RMSE)在1.1~2.72 d,相对误(wu)差(RE)范围在9.48%~17.87%,该模(mo)型的(de)实测值(zhi)与预(yu)测值(zhi)较为(wei)(wei)吻合,适用于(yu)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)生育(yu)期(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)预(yu)测模(mo)拟。
腐殖酸钠对紫花苜蓿生长及生物量的影响
张丽珍, 陈伟, 史静, 刘建荣, 王德宏, 陈本建
2016, 10(1): 101-109. doi:
[摘要](724) [HTML全文] (9) [PDF 546KB](276)
摘要:
采(cai)用(yong)盆栽(zai)试验,研究腐(fu)殖酸钠(na)肥(fei)(NaHA)单施(shi)及(ji)(ji)其与(yu)磷肥(fei)(P)配(pei)施(shi)对(dui)紫(zi)花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)生长(zhang)特(te)性及(ji)(ji)生物量的影响。结(jie)果表明(ming),NaHA单施(shi)及(ji)(ji)其与(yu)P配(pei)施(shi)对(dui)紫(zi)花苜蓿生产(chan)指标均有一定(ding)的促(cu)进作用(yong),且(qie)NaHA与(yu)P配(pei)施(shi)的促(cu)进作用(yong)更明(ming)显(xian)。NaHA与(yu)P配(pei)施(shi)条件下(xia),当P水平一定(ding)时(shi),紫(zi)花苜蓿生长(zhang)速度、株(zhu)高、节间(jian)数(shu)、节间(jian)距(ju)及(ji)(ji)生物量随(sui)NaHA施(shi)用(yong)量的增(zeng)加呈现先增(zeng)后减(jian)的趋势;当P从P1(642 kg·hm-2)水平增(zeng)至P2(1 286 kg·hm-2)水平时(shi), NaHA-P2施(shi)肥(fei)组合(he)对(dui)紫(zi)花苜蓿各(ge)生产(chan)指标的促(cu)进作用(yong)不及(ji)(ji)NaHA-P1组合(he)显(xian)著。通(tong)过(guo)灰色关联(lian)度分析对(dui)供试处(chu)理各(ge)性状指标进行(xing)综合(he)评价,得出NaHA5-P1 处(chu)理的综合(he)表现最好,而且(qie)其获得的总(zong)生物量也最高。因此,NaHA5-P1是该试验最佳(jia)的施(shi)肥(fei)组合(he),即NaHA为2 118 kg·hm-2,P为642 kg·hm-2。
施氮水平和收获时间对柳枝稷生物质产量和
高丽欣, 刘静, 邓波, 杨富裕, 张蕴薇
2016, 10(1): 110-115. doi:
[摘要](852) [HTML全文] (14) [PDF 461KB](337)
摘要:
为提高(gao)(gao)(gao)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)柳(liu)(liu)枝稷(Panicum virgatum)的(de)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)品(pin)质,通过田间试验探讨(tao)黄(huang)河三(san)(san)角洲盐碱地施氮(dan)(dan)水(shui)平和收获(huo)时间对(dui)柳(liu)(liu)枝稷生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)质产(chan)量(liang)和氮(dan)(dan)含(han)量(liang)、灰(hui)分含(han)量(liang)、木(mu)质纤(xian)(xian)维(wei)素含(han)量(liang)的(de)影(ying)响。结果表明,收获(huo)时间对(dui)柳(liu)(liu)枝稷生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)质产(chan)量(liang)、氮(dan)(dan)含(han)量(liang)、灰(hui)分、木(mu)质纤(xian)(xian)维(wei)素含(han)量(liang)有显(xian)著(P0.05)或(huo)极显(xian)著(P0.01)影(ying)响。生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)质产(chan)量(liang)随(sui)(sui)着施氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)的(de)增(zeng)加(jia)而(er)(er)(er)增(zeng)加(jia),且(qie)在(zai)施氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)为200 kg·hm-2时达到最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao)值;木(mu)质纤(xian)(xian)维(wei)素含(han)量(liang)随(sui)(sui)着收获(huo)时间的(de)推迟而(er)(er)(er)增(zeng)加(jia),冬(dong)季收获(huo)含(han)量(liang)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),施氮(dan)(dan)水(shui)平为100 kg·hm-2时含(han)量(liang)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao);灰(hui)分含(han)量(liang)、氮(dan)(dan)含(han)量(liang)随(sui)(sui)收获(huo)时间推移而(er)(er)(er)降(jiang)低。黄(huang)河三(san)(san)角洲地区柳(liu)(liu)枝稷生(sheng)产(chan)时施氮(dan)(dan)肥100~150 kg·hm-2,且(qie)在(zai)冬(dong)季收获(huo),能(neng)(neng)获(huo)得(de)较高(gao)(gao)(gao)的(de)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)品(pin)质。
不同豆禾混播模式的草地生产性能
祁军, 郑伟, 张鲜花, 唐高溶, 王祥, 朱进忠
2016, 10(1): 116-128. doi:
[摘要](653) [HTML全文] (14) [PDF 735KB](479)
摘要:
选择(ze)5种豆(dou)科(ke)与(yu)(yu)(yu)禾本(ben)科(ke)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)建植同(tong)(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)与(yu)(yu)(yu)异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)豆(dou)禾混(hun)播(bo)(bo)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di),混(hun)播(bo)(bo)种类(lei)为(wei)(wei)2种豆(dou)禾牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)混(hun)播(bo)(bo)、5种豆(dou)禾牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)混(hun)播(bo)(bo),豆(dou)禾混(hun)播(bo)(bo)比例为(wei)(wei)豆(dou)禾比6∶4、5∶5和4∶6。依据2012-2013年各混(hun)播(bo)(bo)组合的(de)(de)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、粗(cu)蛋白产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、粗(cu)脂肪产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、中性洗涤纤维(wei)(wei)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、相(xiang)对(dui)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)总和(RYT)及豆(dou)科(ke)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)与(yu)(yu)(yu)禾草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)相(xiang)对(dui)密(mi)度(du)(du)(du)和相(xiang)对(dui)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)相(xiang)异(yi)度(du)(du)(du),分(fen)析了(le)不同(tong)(tong)混(hun)播(bo)(bo)群落(luo)(luo)空(kong)间结构(gou)下各混(hun)播(bo)(bo)处理的(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)性能变化。结果表明(ming),混(hun)2-1(鸭茅Dactylis glomerata+红豆(dou)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)Onobrychis viciaefolia)、混(hun)2-2(无芒雀麦(mai)Bromus inermis+红豆(dou)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao))的(de)(de)1∶1行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)处理具(ju)有(you)较(jiao)(jiao)高的(de)(de)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)与(yu)(yu)(yu)粗(cu)蛋白、粗(cu)脂肪和中性洗涤纤维(wei)(wei)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang),且均(jun)高于(yu)同(tong)(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)播(bo)(bo);同(tong)(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)播(bo)(bo)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)均(jun)低(di)(di)于(yu)异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)播(bo)(bo)。各混(hun)播(bo)(bo)处理RYT值均(jun)高于(yu)1,且混(hun)2-1、混(hun)2-2的(de)(de)1∶1行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)处理RYT值高于(yu)同(tong)(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)播(bo)(bo)。2∶2行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、3∶3行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)具(ju)有(you)较(jiao)(jiao)高的(de)(de)相(xiang)对(dui)密(mi)度(du)(du)(du)和相(xiang)对(dui)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)相(xiang)异(yi)度(du)(du)(du),同(tong)(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)播(bo)(bo)具(ju)有(you)较(jiao)(jiao)低(di)(di)的(de)(de)相(xiang)对(dui)密(mi)度(du)(du)(du)和相(xiang)对(dui)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)相(xiang)异(yi)度(du)(du)(du)。由此可见,从同(tong)(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)播(bo)(bo)改为(wei)(wei)异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)播(bo)(bo),可提高牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)品质(zhi)和种间相(xiang)容性,维(wei)(wei)持(chi)较(jiao)(jiao)高的(de)(de)群落(luo)(luo)稳定性,使豆(dou)禾混(hun)播(bo)(bo)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)的(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)性能进一(yi)步增(zeng)加。
14份燕麦种质在肃南皇城镇的生产性能比较
杨海磊, 徐长林, 鱼小军, 肖红, 张建文, 安晓东, 杨发森, 任宝虎, 周瑞娟
2016, 10(1): 129-135. doi:
[摘要](603) [HTML全文] (26) [PDF 498KB](298)
摘要:
对14份燕(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)麦(Avena sativa)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)株高(gao)(gao)(gao)、产(chan)(chan)(chan)草量(liang)、营(ying)(ying)养、种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)、千粒重、发(fa)芽率(lv)等方面进行评(ping)比研(yan)究,以期筛选(xuan)出适(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)在甘肃省肃南(nan)县皇城(cheng)地区种(zhong)(zhong)植的燕(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)麦种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)。结果(guo)(guo)表明(ming),青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)479号(hao)植株高(gao)(gao)(gao)度最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),达到151.3 cm;青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)474号(hao)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)矮(ai),为(wei)(wei)128.4 cm。青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)12号(hao)分蘖最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)多(duo),为(wei)(wei)2.0;其余燕(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)麦种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)的分蘖都低(di)于2.0。叶(ye)茎比变化(hua)在1.79~2.46,青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)195号(hao)叶(ye)茎比最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(2.46),陇燕(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)2号(hao)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di)(1.79)。陇燕(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)2号(hao)干(gan)草产(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),为(wei)(wei)11.11 t·hm-2;巴燕(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)3号(hao)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)少,为(wei)(wei)7.71 t·hm-2。青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)416号(hao)干(gan)草粗蛋白(bai)含量(liang)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),为(wei)(wei)8.2%;青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)195号(hao)的最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di),为(wei)(wei)6.3%。青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)97号(hao)干(gan)草酸性洗涤纤(xian)维(wei)含量(liang)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),为(wei)(wei)47.4%;加(jia)燕(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)2号(hao)的最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di),为(wei)(wei)37.4%。中性洗涤纤(xian)维(wei)含量(liang)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di)的是(shi)青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)233号(hao),为(wei)(wei)59.5%;陇燕(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)2号(hao)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),为(wei)(wei)66.7%。巴燕(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)3号(hao)、青(qing)(qing)(qing)海(hai)444、青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)93、青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)474和(he)甘南(nan)燕(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)麦种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)能够成熟,适(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)籽实(shi)农业生产(chan)(chan)(chan),其中种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)甘南(nan)的千粒重、发(fa)芽率(lv)以及(ji)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)表现最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)好。综合结果(guo)(guo)表明(ming),青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)479、青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)167和(he)青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)233适(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)在肃南(nan)皇城(cheng)进行营(ying)(ying)养体农业生产(chan)(chan)(chan)。
种子热激蛋白研究进展
陈泉竹, 毛培胜
2016, 10(1): 136-143. doi:
[摘要](694) [HTML全文] (27) [PDF 534KB](346)
摘要:
植(zhi)物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)在(zai)(zai)成(cheng)(cheng)熟(shu)、贮(zhu)藏与(yu)(yu)(yu)萌发(fa)中(zhong)会合成(cheng)(cheng)大(da)量(liang)蛋白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)质,其中(zhong)包括具有重要(yao)作用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)热(re)激(ji)蛋白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)。研究种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)热(re)激(ji)蛋白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)的(de)(de)(de)结构(gou)与(yu)(yu)(yu)功能(neng),能(neng)够揭示热(re)激(ji)蛋白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)与(yu)(yu)(yu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)正常(chang)发(fa)育、抵(di)抗高温等逆境胁迫(po)的(de)(de)(de)相关(guan)性,阐释热(re)激(ji)蛋白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)在(zai)(zai)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)作用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)机理。通过培(pei)育具有抵(di)抗高温逆境的(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)可以提高植(zhi)物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)活(huo)力、保护(hu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质资源,实现种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)生产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)高产(chan)与(yu)(yu)(yu)稳产(chan)以达到(dao)推动农(nong)业经(jing)济(ji)发(fa)展的(de)(de)(de)目(mu)的(de)(de)(de)。本(ben)文从热(re)激(ji)蛋白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)的(de)(de)(de)合成(cheng)(cheng)、分类、特点与(yu)(yu)(yu)功能(neng)等方面(mian)进(jin)行了(le)概述,并(bing)详细(xi)分析(xi)了(le)热(re)激(ji)蛋白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)在(zai)(zai)植(zhi)物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)成(cheng)(cheng)熟(shu)、贮(zhu)藏和(he)萌发(fa)中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)作用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong),并(bing)对热(re)激(ji)蛋白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)在(zai)(zai)蛋白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)质组(zu)学(xue)上的(de)(de)(de)研究进(jin)行了(le)总(zong)结。提出(chu)利用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)蛋白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)质组(zu)学(xue)分析(xi)牧草种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)劣变过程中(zhong)热(re)激(ji)蛋白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)合成(cheng)(cheng)类型与(yu)(yu)(yu)数量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)应用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)前景。
动物生产层
豌豆蚜为害对苜蓿品种酶活性和 营养物质的影响
张洪英, 魏淑花, 张蓉, 苗润, 李克昌, 罗晓玲, 张宇
2016, 10(1): 144-152. doi:
[摘要](526) [HTML全文] (9) [PDF 557KB](320)
摘要:
为了(le)探(tan)讨苜蓿(Medicago sativa)对蚜虫(chong)(chong)取食防御反(fan)应(ying)的(de)生化(hua)机制,本(ben)研究通过(guo)(guo)室(shi)内人工接虫(chong)(chong),研究了(le)豌豆(dou)蚜(Acyrthosiphon pisum)取食后苜蓿体(ti)内防御性(xing)(xing)酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)、营养物质(zhi)含量的(de)动(dong)态变化(hua)。结果表明(ming),豌豆(dou)蚜为害7 d后,与低(di)抗(kang)品(pin)种(惊喜、WL343HQ和(he)德宝)相(xiang)比,抗(kang)虫(chong)(chong)品(pin)种(三得利、MF4020、皇后、皇冠和(he)SR4030)的(de)苜蓿幼苗苯丙氨酸解氨酶(mei)(mei)(PAL)、超氧化(hua)物歧(qi)化(hua)酶(mei)(mei)(SOD)、过(guo)(guo)氧化(hua)物酶(mei)(mei)(POD)及可(ke)(ke)溶性(xing)(xing)糖活(huo)性(xing)(xing)变化(hua)总体(ti)上显(xian)著(zhu)增高(P0.01),多酚氧化(hua)酶(mei)(mei)(PPO)和(he)过(guo)(guo)氧化(hua)氢(qing)酶(mei)(mei)(CAT)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)变化(hua)显(xian)著(zhu)降低(di)(P0.01),中抗(kang)品(pin)种(柏拉图、甘农4号、先(xian)行者(zhe)和(he)中苜3号)介于(yu)其间,可(ke)(ke)溶性(xing)(xing)蛋白质(zhi)含量变化(hua)量无明(ming)显(xian)规律。
提孜那甫河流域冬季牲畜宿营地环境特征遥感分析
陈蜀江, 李琪, 黄铁成, 贾翔, 张展赫, 陈孟禹
2016, 10(1): 153-163. doi:
[摘要](509) [HTML全文] (13) [PDF 1705KB](269)
摘要:
冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)季(ji)牲(sheng)畜宿营地是(shi)游牧(mu)过(guo)程中(zhong)牲(sheng)畜和人共(gong)同休(xiu)憩的(de)场(chang)所。以提孜(zi)那甫(fu)河流域为研(yan)究(jiu)区(qu),通过(guo)解译Landsat8 OLI影(ying)像,提取冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)季(ji)牲(sheng)畜宿营地地理信息,探究(jiu)山区(qu)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)牧(mu)场(chang)的(de)优劣(lie)及(ji)牧(mu)民的(de)生(sheng)活生(sheng)存条(tiao)件(jian)。结(jie)果表明,研(yan)究(jiu)区(qu)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)季(ji)牲(sheng)畜宿营地共(gong)708处,平均(jun)面积(ji)(ji)9 543 m2,多分布在海(hai)拔(ba)较(jiao)高的(de)山脊,坡(po)度(du)平缓,坡(po)向(xiang)向(xiang)南或(huo)西,草地类(lei)型以合头草(Sympegma regelii)荒漠与高山绢蒿(Seriphidium rhodanthum)草原化荒漠为主(zhu);冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)季(ji)牲(sheng)畜宿营地积(ji)(ji)雪时长较(jiao)短,融(rong)雪不易保存,距(ju)离(li)水(shui)(shui)源水(shui)(shui)平距(ju)离(li)和高差均(jun)较(jiao)大,取水(shui)(shui)困难;冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)季(ji)牲(sheng)畜宿营地生(sheng)活条(tiao)件(jian)艰苦,冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)季(ji)温度(du)较(jiao)低,燃料(liao)匮(kui)乏,距(ju)离(li)居民点(dian)路途遥远(yuan),道路崎岖难行,大部分地区(qu)无通讯信号覆盖(gai)。
后生物生产层
草畜产品安全溯源管理模式初探
石福于, 王虎成
2016, 10(1): 164-170. doi:
[摘要](473) [HTML全文] (14) [PDF 566KB](374)
摘要:
频发的(de)(de)(de)食(shi)品(pin)(pin)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)问题(ti),使(shi)得草(cao)畜产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)问题(ti)备受人们关注。溯(su)源(yuan)管理(li)技(ji)术(shu)是(shi)保障食(shi)品(pin)(pin)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)的(de)(de)(de)重要手段(duan)之(zhi)一(yi),且(qie)电子(zi)信(xin)息(xi)编码(ma)(ma)技(ji)术(shu)和(he)(he)稳定同位素技(ji)术(shu)已在(zai)(zai)很多领域得到应用(yong),但在(zai)(zai)我(wo)国(guo)草(cao)畜产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)中的(de)(de)(de)应用(yong)范围较小。本研(yan)究(jiu)在(zai)(zai)基(ji)于电子(zi)信(xin)息(xi)编码(ma)(ma)技(ji)术(shu)及稳定同位素溯(su)源(yuan)技(ji)术(shu)在(zai)(zai)国(guo)内外研(yan)究(jiu)应用(yong)现状的(de)(de)(de)综合(he)分(fen)析基(ji)础之(zhi)上,初步建(jian)立了以产(chan)(chan)地(di)地(di)理(li)编码(ma)(ma)为主线(xian),连接生产(chan)(chan)、加工、销售(shou)3个环(huan)节,形成一(yi)套完整的(de)(de)(de)草(cao)畜产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)电子(zi)信(xin)息(xi)编码(ma)(ma)技(ji)术(shu);并且(qie)通(tong)过(guo)(guo)(guo)测(ce)定同位素标记过(guo)(guo)(guo)的(de)(de)(de)元素(δ2H、δ13C、δ15N、δ16O、δ32S、δ86Sr等)从牧草(cao)、饮水到组(zu)织中的(de)(de)(de)含量,建(jian)立稳定同位素数(shu)据(ju)库(ku),通(tong)过(guo)(guo)(guo)分(fen)子(zi)生物学技(ji)术(shu),分(fen)析草(cao)畜产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)中各同位素之(zhi)间的(de)(de)(de)相关性(xing),经过(guo)(guo)(guo)数(shu)理(li)统计(ji)分(fen)析,辨识(shi)影响(xiang)畜产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)的(de)(de)(de)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)因子(zi)。基(ji)于食(shi)品(pin)(pin)溯(su)源(yuan)管理(li)原(yuan)理(li),初步建(jian)立的(de)(de)(de)草(cao)畜产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)生产(chan)(chan)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)覆盖和(he)(he)供应全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)过(guo)(guo)(guo)程的(de)(de)(de)追踪(zong)体系(xi),将为实(shi)现草(cao)畜产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)控制和(he)(he)有效(xiao)追踪(zong)提(ti)供参考(kao)模式。
欧宝体育