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前植物生产层
喀斯特地区不同年限桂牧1号 象草草地土壤养分特征
胡培雷, 曾昭霞, 王克林, 宋希娟, 李莎莎
2016, 10(1): 1-10. doi:
[摘要](1537) [HTML全文] (41) [PDF 658KB](322)
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人为干扰和管理措(cuo)(cuo)施对(dui)喀(ka)(ka)斯特地(di)(di)(di)(di)区(qu)生(sheng)态(tai)恢(hui)复影(ying)(ying)响(xiang)显著。本研(yan)究以(yi)典型喀(ka)(ka)斯特地(di)(di)(di)(di)区(qu)种植(zhi)1年(nian)(nian)(1-y G)、5年(nian)(nian)(5-y G)和7年(nian)(nian)(7-y G)的(de)桂(gui)牧(mu)(mu)1号(hao)(hao)(hao)杂交(jiao)象(xiang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Pennisetum purpureum cv. Guimu-1)栽培草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)为研(yan)究对(dui)象(xiang),以(yi)玉米(Zea mays)种植(zhi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(CK)作为对(dui)照(zhao),分析不同建(jian)植(zhi)年(nian)(nian)限(xian)下栽培草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)对(dui)地(di)(di)(di)(di)上部(bu)分生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量、土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)养(yang)分含量及微(wei)生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量碳(tan)的(de)影(ying)(ying)响(xiang)。结果表(biao)(biao)明,1)建(jian)植(zhi)年(nian)(nian)限(xian)对(dui)桂(gui)牧(mu)(mu)1号(hao)(hao)(hao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)地(di)(di)(di)(di)上部(bu)分生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量影(ying)(ying)响(xiang)显著(P0.05),表(biao)(biao)现为7-y G1-y G5-y G。2)桂(gui)牧(mu)(mu)1号(hao)(hao)(hao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)0-50 cm土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)N、P、K随建(jian)植(zhi)年(nian)(nian)限(xian)呈现先下降后升高的(de)趋势,建(jian)植(zhi)5年(nian)(nian)的(de)牧(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)N、P、K养(yang)分含量普(pu)遍较低(di);土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)机碳(tan)含量在(zai)各土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)均以(yi)建(jian)植(zhi)7年(nian)(nian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)最(zui)高,5年(nian)(nian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)最(zui)低(di)。土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)表(biao)(biao)层(ceng)(0-10 cm)微(wei)生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量碳(tan)表(biao)(biao)现为1-y G5-y G7-y G,且7年(nian)(nian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)分别比1年(nian)(nian)和5年(nian)(nian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)增加了32.37%和19.18%。3)桂(gui)牧(mu)(mu)1号(hao)(hao)(hao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)机碳(tan)、全(quan)氮、全(quan)磷(lin)(lin)、全(quan)钾含量及土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)表(biao)(biao)层(ceng)微(wei)生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量碳(tan)均高于(yu)相应(ying)土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)玉米地(di)(di)(di)(di),而碱解氮、速效(xiao)磷(lin)(lin)和速效(xiao)钾含量则刚好(hao)相反。因此,相比玉米农耕地(di)(di)(di)(di),桂(gui)牧(mu)(mu)1号(hao)(hao)(hao)栽培草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)能有(you)效(xiao)提(ti)高喀(ka)(ka)斯特地(di)(di)(di)(di)区(qu)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)肥力,其中,以(yi)建(jian)植(zhi)7年(nian)(nian)的(de)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)固碳(tan)效(xiao)果最(zui)好(hao),“种草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)养(yang)畜”是(shi)喀(ka)(ka)斯特地(di)(di)(di)(di)区(qu)生(sheng)态(tai)恢(hui)复与重建(jian)的(de)有(you)效(xiao)措(cuo)(cuo)施。
放牧季节及退化程度对高寒草甸土壤有机碳的影响
刘淑丽, 林丽, 张法伟, 杜岩功, 李以康, 郭小伟, 欧阳经政, 曹广民
2016, 10(1): 11-18. doi:
[摘要](630) [HTML全文] (22) [PDF 518KB](351)
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高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)草甸是青(qing)藏(zang)高(gao)(gao)(gao)原的(de)(de)主要植被类(lei)型,本研究以青(qing)海(hai)省(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)草甸为研究对象,探讨不同(tong)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)季(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)节及退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)(hua)程度(du)下(xia)(xia)高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)草甸土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)碳(tan)含(han)量(liang)及密(mi)度(du)的(de)(de)分异特征。结果表明,在0-30 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)内,土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)碳(tan)含(han)量(liang)随(sui)土(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)深(shen)度(du)逐渐减(jian)小(xiao)。土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)碳(tan)含(han)量(liang)暖季(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)与(yu)冷(leng)季(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)之间无显著差(cha)异(P>0.05),且在不同(tong)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)深(shen)度(du)中一致(zhi)。不同(tong)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)季(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)节下(xia)(xia)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)理(li)(li)化(hua)(hua)(hua)性质及生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)各不相同(tong)。0-30 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)内,除0-5 cm未(wei)退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)(hua)阶(jie)(jie)段土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)碳(tan)含(han)量(liang)最(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),其余各层(ceng)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)碳(tan)含(han)量(liang)均在轻度(du)退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)(hua)阶(jie)(jie)段达到最(zui)大(da)(da)。土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)理(li)(li)化(hua)(hua)(hua)性质在不同(tong)退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)(hua)阶(jie)(jie)段也变化(hua)(hua)(hua)各异,地(di)(di)下(xia)(xia)生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)随(sui)草地(di)(di)退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)(hua)呈先(xian)增加后(hou)减(jian)小(xiao)的(de)(de)趋(qu)势,而(er)地(di)(di)上生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)随(sui)草地(di)(di)退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)(hua)呈逐渐减(jian)小(xiao)的(de)(de)趋(qu)势。冷(leng)季(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)草甸土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)碳(tan)含(han)量(liang)随(sui)草地(di)(di)退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)(hua)呈逐渐减(jian)小(xiao)的(de)(de)趋(qu)势,而(er)暖季(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)碳(tan)含(han)量(liang)随(sui)草地(di)(di)退(tui)(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)(hua)呈先(xian)增加后(hou)减(jian)小(xiao)的(de)(de)趋(qu)势。0-30 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)层(ceng)冷(leng)季(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)不同(tong)阶(jie)(jie)段土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)碳(tan)储量(liang)均低于暖季(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu),但未(wei)达到显著水平。可见,放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)强(qiang)度(du)的(de)(de)不同(tong)会对土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)碳(tan)的(de)(de)影响(xiang)比放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)季(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)节更大(da)(da)。
鄱阳湖湿地灰化苔草群落物种多度分布格局沿水分梯度的变化
刘扬, 施建敏, 边子星, 邓绍勇, 裘利洪, 张微微, 缪伸义
2016, 10(1): 19-26. doi:
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为(wei)揭示鄱(po)阳湖(hu)湿(shi)(shi)地苔(tai)(tai)(tai)草(cao)(cao)群(qun)(qun)落(luo)的(de)(de)构(gou)(gou)建机制,选(xuan)择灰(hui)化(hua)苔(tai)(tai)(tai)草(cao)(cao)(Carex cinerascens)群(qun)(qun)落(luo)作为(wei)研究对象,通过设(she)立3条样带调(diao)查(cha)不同水(shui)分(fen)(fen)梯度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)群(qun)(qun)落(luo)物(wu)(wu)种多(duo)度(du)(du)(du),选(xuan)用(yong)断棍模型(xing)(xing)(xing)(BSM)、生态(tai)位(wei)优先(xian)占(zhan)领模型(xing)(xing)(xing)(NPM)、优势(shi)优先(xian)模型(xing)(xing)(xing)(DPM)、随(sui)机分(fen)(fen)配(pei)模型(xing)(xing)(xing)(RAM)和(he)生态(tai)位(wei)重叠模型(xing)(xing)(xing)(ONM)5个生态(tai)位(wei)模型(xing)(xing)(xing)对群(qun)(qun)落(luo)种-多(duo)度(du)(du)(du)关(guan)系进行拟合,结(jie)果(guo)表明,1)灰(hui)化(hua)苔(tai)(tai)(tai)草(cao)(cao)群(qun)(qun)落(luo)可按土壤水(shui)分(fen)(fen)划(hua)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)高(gao)湿(shi)(shi)度(du)(du)(du)、中湿(shi)(shi)度(du)(du)(du)和(he)低(di)湿(shi)(shi)度(du)(du)(du)3组,分(fen)(fen)别(bie)对应从湖(hu)边、湿(shi)(shi)地中间和(he)湿(shi)(shi)地边缘的(de)(de)梯度(du)(du)(du)分(fen)(fen)布(bu);2)从高(gao)到低(di)的(de)(de)水(shui)分(fen)(fen)梯度(du)(du)(du)上,灰(hui)化(hua)苔(tai)(tai)(tai)草(cao)(cao)群(qun)(qun)落(luo)的(de)(de)物(wu)(wu)种数先(xian)增加后降低(di),优势(shi)种多(duo)度(du)(du)(du)逐渐(jian)增加,物(wu)(wu)种多(duo)度(du)(du)(du)分(fen)(fen)布(bu)曲线由(you)相对平(ping)缓变为(wei)陡峭;3)高(gao)湿(shi)(shi)度(du)(du)(du)灰(hui)化(hua)苔(tai)(tai)(tai)草(cao)(cao)群(qun)(qun)落(luo)物(wu)(wu)种多(duo)度(du)(du)(du)分(fen)(fen)布(bu)格局(ju)的(de)(de)最佳拟合模型(xing)(xing)(xing)为(wei)BSM,中、低(di)湿(shi)(shi)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)理想(xiang)模型(xing)(xing)(xing)转变为(wei)NPM。研究认为(wei),水(shui)分(fen)(fen)条件的(de)(de)变化(hua)是灰(hui)化(hua)苔(tai)(tai)(tai)草(cao)(cao)群(qun)(qun)落(luo)物(wu)(wu)种多(duo)度(du)(du)(du)分(fen)(fen)布(bu)格局(ju)改变的(de)(de)主因,随(sui)着水(shui)分(fen)(fen)梯度(du)(du)(du)降低(di),群(qun)(qun)落(luo)构(gou)(gou)建的(de)(de)生态(tai)学过程由(you)随(sui)机生态(tai)位(wei)变为(wei)生态(tai)位(wei)优先(xian)占(zhan)领。研究为(wei)鄱(po)阳湖(hu)湿(shi)(shi)地多(duo)样性保育和(he)生态(tai)功能管理提供了理论参考。
青藏高原北缘3种高寒草地的CH4、CO2和N2O通量特征的初步研究
郭小伟, 杜岩功, 林丽, 李以康, 张法伟, 李茜, 刘淑丽, 欧阳经政, 曹广民
2016, 10(1): 27-37. doi:
[摘要](564) [HTML全文] (11) [PDF 654KB](317)
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高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)温(wen)(wen)室(shi)气体(ti)排(pai)放研(yan)(yan)究已(yi)成(cheng)为(wei)(wei)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)与(yu)(yu)气候变(bian)化关(guan)(guan)(guan)系的(de)(de)重要议题之(zhi)一(yi),但目前的(de)(de)研(yan)(yan)究多集中于单(dan)种类型草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)温(wen)(wen)室(shi)气体(ti)通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)研(yan)(yan)究,缺乏多种草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)类型间的(de)(de)比较。本研(yan)(yan)究于2009年以高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)(dian)、栽(zai)(zai)培草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)和(he)(he)(he)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)灌丛为(wei)(wei)研(yan)(yan)究对象,利用(yong)静态箱法研(yan)(yan)究3种草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)CH4、CO2和(he)(he)(he)N2O通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)特(te)征(zheng)。结(jie)果显示,天然高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)(dian)、栽(zai)(zai)培草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)和(he)(he)(he)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)灌丛是大(da)气CH4的(de)(de)汇(hui),大(da)气CO2和(he)(he)(he)N2O的(de)(de)源(yuan),其CH4通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)别(bie)为(wei)(wei)-21.4、-28.1和(he)(he)(he)-41.1 μg·m-2·h-1;CO2通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)别(bie)为(wei)(wei)360.6、447.9和(he)(he)(he)475.1 mg·m-2·h-1;N2O通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)别(bie)为(wei)(wei)34.2、51.6和(he)(he)(he)50.6 μg·m-2·h-1。生长季的(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)CH4吸收占全年的(de)(de)42.4%~45.6%,生长季的(de)(de)CO2和(he)(he)(he)N2O排(pai)放量(liang)(liang)分(fen)别(bie)占全年的(de)(de)64.1%~67.8%和(he)(he)(he)37.9%~66.7%。土(tu)壤5 cm温(wen)(wen)度与(yu)(yu)CH4、CO2、N2O通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)别(bie)呈(cheng)负(fu)相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan)、正相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan)和(he)(he)(he)正相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan)关(guan)(guan)(guan)系,除(chu)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)(dian)CH4通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)外土(tu)壤5 cm与(yu)(yu)其他草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)温(wen)(wen)室(shi)气体(ti)通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)均达到显著(zhu)水平(P0.01);土(tu)壤湿度与(yu)(yu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)CH4和(he)(he)(he)CO2通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)呈(cheng)正相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan),与(yu)(yu)N2O通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)呈(cheng)负(fu)相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan),但仅(jin)与(yu)(yu)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)CH4和(he)(he)(he)CO2相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan)性达到显著(zhu)水平(P0.01)。土(tu)壤呼(hu)吸温(wen)(wen)度敏感(gan)性大(da)小(Q10)值(zhi)(zhi)显示,CO2通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)较CH4和(he)(he)(he)N2O通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)对温(wen)(wen)度更为(wei)(wei)敏感(gan)。将(jiang)3种草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)CH4、N2O通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)值(zhi)(zhi)换算(suan)为(wei)(wei)等量(liang)(liang)CO2后发现草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)温(wen)(wen)室(shi)气体(ti)通(tong)(tong)量(liang)(liang)造成(cheng)的(de)(de)温(wen)(wen)室(shi)效应表现为(wei)(wei)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)灌丛>栽(zai)(zai)培草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)>高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)(dian)。
氮硅添加对高寒草甸生物量和多样性的影响
张文鹏, 司晓林, 王文银, 高天鹏, 徐当会
2016, 10(1): 38-45. doi:
[摘要](627) [HTML全文] (29) [PDF 585KB](374)
摘要:
草(cao)地施(shi)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)多集中于(yu)添(tian)加(jia)(jia)氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)与磷肥(fei)(fei)(fei),很少涉(she)及硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)。硅(gui)(gui)作为(wei)对(dui)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)有(you)益(yi)的(de)(de)一种元素,能(neng)提(ti)(ti)高(gao)(gao)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)对(dui)环境的(de)(de)抗性(xing),促(cu)进(jin)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)长。本(ben)研究(jiu)以青(qing)藏(zang)高(gao)(gao)原高(gao)(gao)寒草(cao)甸为(wei)研究(jiu)对(dui)象,通过(guo)添(tian)加(jia)(jia)不(bu)同组(zu)合的(de)(de)氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)和(he)(he)硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei),研究(jiu)群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)(luo)地上生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量和(he)(he)生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)多样(yang)性(xing)的(de)(de)变化(hua)。结(jie)果表(biao)明,氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)和(he)(he)硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)的(de)(de)添(tian)加(jia)(jia)均能(neng)提(ti)(ti)高(gao)(gao)群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)(luo)的(de)(de)地上生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量,然而硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)提(ti)(ti)高(gao)(gao)群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)(luo)地上生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量的(de)(de)幅度远(yuan)低于(yu)氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei);在(zai)(zai)添(tian)加(jia)(jia)氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)导致群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)种多样(yang)性(xing)下降(jiang)的(de)(de)同时,添(tian)加(jia)(jia)硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)可以缓解群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)(luo)多样(yang)性(xing)下降(jiang)的(de)(de)趋势;硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)学功能(neng)在(zai)(zai)群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)(luo)水平上存(cun)在(zai)(zai)着最佳浓(nong)度效应。同时,我们推(tui)测硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)在(zai)(zai)维(wei)持群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)(luo)中杂草(cao)的(de)(de)存(cun)活率上发挥着积极的(de)(de)作用,并通过(guo)比较不(bu)同硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)处(chu)理时,杂草(cao)生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量所占群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)(luo)生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量比重(zhong)的(de)(de)变化(hua),支持了上述推(tui)测。
进境草种种带真菌的检测与初步鉴定
雷娅红, 况卫刚, 郑春生, 汪万春, 李春杰, 高文娜
2016, 10(1): 46-53. doi:
[摘要](731) [HTML全文] (36) [PDF 1358KB](562)
摘要:
采用(yong)(yong)平皿(min)测(ce)(ce)定(ding)法对(dui)(dui)(dui)我国北京(jing)口(kou)岸(an)2014年(nian)进(jin)(jin)境草种高(gao)羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)、多年(nian)生黑麦草(Lolium perenne)和苏丹草(Sorghum sudanense)携(xie)带真菌(jun)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)分离培养,利用(yong)(yong)ITS4和ITS5引(yin)物(wu)对(dui)(dui)(dui)其内转录(lu)间(jian)隔(ge)区(qu)(Internal Transcribed Spacer,ITS) 进(jin)(jin)行(xing)扩增,PCR产物(wu)纯(chun)化后测(ce)(ce)序(xu)并与数据库(ku)中(zhong)的(de)已(yi)知序(xu)列(lie)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)BLAST比对(dui)(dui)(dui),对(dui)(dui)(dui)种带真菌(jun)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)初步鉴定(ding)。研究结果表明(ming),不同来(lai)源种子携(xie)带真菌(jun)种类差异较大(da),从5个(ge)国家(jia)的(de)7个(ge)进(jin)(jin)境草种批次中(zhong)共检测(ce)(ce)出13属(shu)(shu)21种48株真菌(jun),主要菌(jun)群为镰刀菌(jun)属(shu)(shu)(Fusarium spp.)、曲霉属(shu)(shu)(Aspergillus spp.)、茎点(dian)霉属(shu)(shu)(Phoma spp.)和链格孢(bao)属(shu)(shu)(Alternaria spp.)。基(ji)于ITS序(xu)列(lie)构建(jian)系(xi)统发育树,能够(gou)将所有(you)(you)分离到的(de)真菌(jun)鉴定(ding)到属(shu)(shu),但是在种水平上鉴定(ding)有(you)(you)限,不能将细(xi)极链格孢(bao)(Alternaria tenuissima)、细(xi)交(jiao)链孢(bao)(A. alternata)和乔木链格孢(bao)(A. arborescens)很好地(di)区(qu)分开。本研究明(ming)确了5个(ge)来(lai)样量较大(da)国家(jia)的(de)草种带菌(jun)情(qing)况(kuang),ITS基(ji)因能够(gou)运(yun)用(yong)(yong)于口(kou)岸(an)草种携(xie)带真菌(jun)的(de)初步检测(ce)(ce)鉴定(ding)。
早开堇菜对镉污染的耐性及其富集特征
赵景龙, 张帆, 万雪琴, 肖朝
2016, 10(1): 54-60. doi:
[摘要](610) [HTML全文] (20) [PDF 539KB](324)
摘要:
为研(yan)究早(zao)(zao)开(kai)(kai)堇(jin)菜(cai)(cai)(Viola prionantha)对(dui)(dui)(dui)镉(Cd)的耐性(xing)及(ji)其对(dui)(dui)(dui)Cd的富(fu)集特征,使用(yong)盆栽方(fang)法对(dui)(dui)(dui)早(zao)(zao)开(kai)(kai)堇(jin)菜(cai)(cai)进行不同(tong)浓(nong)度(du)水平Cd处理(li)。结(jie)果表明,低浓(nong)度(du)Cd(≤10 mg·kg-1)促进早(zao)(zao)开(kai)(kai)堇(jin)菜(cai)(cai)的生(sheng)长。当Cd浓(nong)度(du)为5 mg·kg-1时(shi),早(zao)(zao)开(kai)(kai)堇(jin)菜(cai)(cai)植株地下部分、地上部分生(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)显著(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于对(dui)(dui)(dui)照(zhao)(P<0.05),达到(dao)(dao)最(zui)大。随Cd处理(li)浓(nong)度(du)的升(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao),其叶绿(lv)(lv)素含量(liang)(liang)逐(zhu)渐下降,超氧(yang)化物歧化酶(mei)(SOD)、抗氧(yang)化物酶(mei)(POD)、过氧(yang)化氢酶(mei)(CAT)活性(xing)先升(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)后(hou)降低,丙二(er)醛(quan)(MDA)含量(liang)(liang)则先下降后(hou)上升(sheng)(sheng)。当Cd处理(li)浓(nong)度(du)≤10 mg·kg-1时(shi),SOD、POD、CAT表现出较高(gao)(gao)(gao)的活性(xing),与对(dui)(dui)(dui)照(zhao)无Cd处理(li)相比,MDA含量(liang)(liang)未显著(zhu)增(zeng)加(jia)(P0.05),叶绿(lv)(lv)素合(he)成也未受(shou)到(dao)(dao)显著(zhu)抑制(zhi),说明早(zao)(zao)开(kai)(kai)堇(jin)菜(cai)(cai)对(dui)(dui)(dui)Cd污染有较强的耐性(xing)。本研(yan)究中(zhong),早(zao)(zao)开(kai)(kai)堇(jin)菜(cai)(cai)对(dui)(dui)(dui)Cd的富(fu)集系数和转运系数均大于1.0。当Cd处理(li)浓(nong)度(du)为5 mg·kg-1时(shi),早(zao)(zao)开(kai)(kai)堇(jin)菜(cai)(cai)植株地上部Cd含量(liang)(liang)为113.083 mg·kg-1,达到(dao)(dao)了(le)Cd超富(fu)集植物的筛选标准。因此(ci),早(zao)(zao)开(kai)(kai)堇(jin)菜(cai)(cai)在修(xiu)复Cd污染土壤(rang)方(fang)面具有一定的潜在应(ying)用(yong)价值。
3种生长素对蓝叶忍冬枝条扦插生根的影响
朱永超, 李彬, 廖伟彪
2016, 10(1): 61-66. doi:
[摘要](871) [HTML全文] (58) [PDF 419KB](298)
摘要:
以(yi)蓝(lan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)忍(ren)(ren)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(Lonicera korolkowi ‘Zabclii’)为(wei)材料,研究了2种不同浓(nong)度(50、100 mg·L-1)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)素(su)吲哚乙酸(suan)(IAA)、吲哚丁酸(suan)(IBA)和萘乙酸(suan)(NAA)在不同处理(li)(li)(li)时间(30、60 min),对蓝(lan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)忍(ren)(ren)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)部位(wei)、根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)数和根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)长(zhang)(zhang)的(de)(de)(de)影响。结果表明,3种生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)素(su)对蓝(lan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)忍(ren)(ren)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)枝条扦插生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)都(dou)产生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)了一定的(de)(de)(de)影响,IAA处理(li)(li)(li)增加(jia)蓝(lan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)忍(ren)(ren)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)率和根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)数,但(dan)抑(yi)制根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)的(de)(de)(de)伸长(zhang)(zhang)。NAA处理(li)(li)(li)对蓝(lan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)忍(ren)(ren)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)效果不明显(xian),仅对根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)长(zhang)(zhang)有(you)(you)一定的(de)(de)(de)促进作用。与对照相比,50 mg·L-1 IBA处理(li)(li)(li)60 min显(xian)著增加(jia)了蓝(lan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)忍(ren)(ren)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)率和根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)数(P0.05)。另外,3种生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)素(su)对蓝(lan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)忍(ren)(ren)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)枝条生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)部位(wei)也有(you)(you)影响,3种生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)素(su)处理(li)(li)(li)都(dou)可以(yi)增加(jia)皮层生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)数,对切口愈伤组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)有(you)(you)一定的(de)(de)(de)抑(yi)制作用。其中IBA处理(li)(li)(li)对生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)部位(wei)影响的(de)(de)(de)效果最明显(xian),100 mg·L-1处理(li)(li)(li)30 min可以(yi)显(xian)著提高(gao)皮层生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)数并抑(yi)制愈伤组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)(P0.05)。综合比较3种生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)素(su)促进生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(gen)的(de)(de)(de)效果,IBA最好,IAA和NAA次之(zhi)。
3种镰刀菌对小扁豆生长的影响
安欢乐, 燕翀, 徐娜, 宋雨阳, 李彦忠
2016, 10(1): 67-74. doi:
[摘要](639) [HTML全文] (18) [PDF 1271KB](287)
摘要:
小(xiao)(xiao)扁豆(dou)(dou)(dou)(Lens culinaris)是(shi)甘肃中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)部(bu)地区普遍栽(zai)培的(de)(de)小(xiao)(xiao)杂粮之一,既是(shi)经济(ji)作(zuo)(zuo)物,又(you)是(shi)轮作(zuo)(zuo)倒茬和(he)肥地作(zuo)(zuo)物。会宁县(xian)种(zhong)植的(de)(de)小(xiao)(xiao)扁豆(dou)(dou)(dou)近年来死亡严重(zhong),为(wei)(wei)查明其死亡原因(yin),开展了田(tian)(tian)间调查与病(bing)(bing)原物研究(jiu)。2012年,当(dang)地小(xiao)(xiao)扁豆(dou)(dou)(dou)根腐病(bing)(bing)的(de)(de)发(fa)病(bing)(bing)率(lv)为(wei)(wei)58.4%,死亡率(lv)为(wei)(wei)43.2%,从发(fa)病(bing)(bing)植株(zhu)(zhu)的(de)(de)根部(bu)分离出的(de)(de)真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)从形态(tai)学上(shang)鉴定为(wei)(wei)尖孢镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(Fusarium oxysporum)、锐顶镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(F. acuminatum)和(he)木(mu)(mu)贼镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(F. equiseti),分离率(lv)分别为(wei)(wei)55%、18%和(he)9%,以ITS为(wei)(wei)引物扩展真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)的(de)(de)DNA,测(ce)序后构建的(de)(de)系统发(fa)育树(shu)支持以上(shang)形态(tai)学鉴定结果(guo)。接(jie)种(zhong)试验(yan)结果(guo)显示(shi),此3种(zhong)镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)均(jun)能(neng)显著(zhu)(P0.05)降(jiang)(jiang)低(di)植株(zhu)(zhu)的(de)(de)根长(zhang)和(he)干(gan)(gan)重(zhong),其中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)尖孢镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)的(de)(de)影(ying)响最大(da),其次为(wei)(wei)木(mu)(mu)贼镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun),此2种(zhong)镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)还显著(zhu)降(jiang)(jiang)低(di)植株(zhu)(zhu)的(de)(de)鲜重(zhong)和(he)株(zhu)(zhu)高,但(dan)3种(zhong)镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)均(jun)未对(dui)出苗率(lv)和(he)死亡率(lv)产生影(ying)响(P0.05)。在发(fa)病(bing)(bing)田(tian)(tian)间采集的(de)(de)土壤中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)播种(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)扁豆(dou)(dou)(dou),与灭菌(jun)(jun)(jun)土壤中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)栽(zai)培的(de)(de)植株(zhu)(zhu)相比,未灭菌(jun)(jun)(jun)土壤中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植株(zhu)(zhu)的(de)(de)根长(zhang)和(he)根干(gan)(gan)重(zhong)显著(zhu)降(jiang)(jiang)低(di)。3种(zhong)镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)对(dui)小(xiao)(xiao)扁豆(dou)(dou)(dou)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)有致病(bing)(bing)性,但(dan)致病(bing)(bing)性均(jun)不强,干(gan)(gan)旱可能(neng)是(shi)导(dao)致镰(lian)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)在田(tian)(tian)间危害程度加大(da)的(de)(de)主(zhu)要原因(yin)。
植物生产层
基于RNA-Seq技术的苜蓿根蘖性状 发生相关下调基因
郭云, 王铁梅
2016, 10(1): 75-85. doi:
[摘要](573) [HTML全文] (22) [PDF 605KB](337)
摘要:
为了从分(fen)(fen)(fen)子水平上分(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)苜蓿(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)根(gen)(gen)蘖性(xing)(xing)状的(de)(de)发生(sheng)(sheng)机制,对根(gen)(gen)蘖型苜蓿(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)根(gen)(gen)蘖与非根(gen)(gen)蘖根(gen)(gen)部进行(xing)RNA-seq转录组(zu)文库(ku)构建,并(bing)分(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)差异(yi)(yi)表达(da)基(ji)因及其(qi)功能(neng)。分(fen)(fen)(fen)别(bie)提取品系“BL-101”的(de)(de)根(gen)(gen)蘖型苜蓿(xu)(xu)根(gen)(gen)蘖与非根(gen)(gen)蘖部位总RNA,利用磁珠(zhu)法分(fen)(fen)(fen)离mRNA后通过(guo)PCR扩增构建RNA-Seq转录组(zu)文库(ku),并(bing)对差异(yi)(yi)表达(da)基(ji)因进行(xing)分(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi),得到差异(yi)(yi)表达(da)基(ji)因15 978条,本研究重点(dian)分(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)下调(diao)(diao)基(ji)因,通过(guo)生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)过(guo)程分(fen)(fen)(fen)类(lei),发现与根(gen)(gen)蘖性(xing)(xing)状发生(sheng)(sheng)有关的(de)(de)表达(da)下调(diao)(diao)的(de)(de)基(ji)因为5个(ge),经生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)学信息分(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)确(que)定,其(qi)中2个(ge)属于Lon蛋白酶(mei)家族,其(qi)余分(fen)(fen)(fen)别(bie)属于植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)肌动蛋白酶(mei)家族,硫氧还蛋白和脂氧合酶(mei),其(qi)与植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)抗逆(ni)性(xing)(xing)相(xiang)关,且与植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)激素ABA的(de)(de)调(diao)(diao)控有关。研究结果可(ke)以(yi)为探讨苜蓿(xu)(xu)根(gen)(gen)蘖性(xing)(xing)状发生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)分(fen)(fen)(fen)子机制提供理论(lun)依据。
草地早熟禾愈伤组织对NaCl胁迫的生理响应
徐海鹏, 李慧萍, 金小煜, 金宁, 牛奎举, 马晖玲
2016, 10(1): 86-92. doi:
[摘要](677) [HTML全文] (25) [PDF 750KB](424)
摘要:
以草地早熟禾(he)(Poa pratensis)午夜(ye)Ⅱ号愈伤(shang)组织为(wei)材(cai)料,研究(jiu)NaCl胁迫(po)对(dui)其(qi)(qi)生长、细胞膜相对(dui)透性(xing)、游离脯氨(an)酸、丙二醛、可(ke)溶性(xing)蛋白(bai)及抗氧化(hua)酶(mei)活性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)影响。结果表明,低浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)NaCl胁迫(po)对(dui)午夜(ye)Ⅱ号愈伤(shang)组织的(de)(de)(de)生长有(you)促进作(zuo)用,高(gao)(gao)浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)NaCl胁迫(po)对(dui)愈伤(shang)组织生长具(ju)有(you)抑制作(zuo)用,且当NaCl浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)高(gao)(gao)于1.5%时愈伤(shang)组织开始出现(xian)褐化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)现(xian)象;随NaCl浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)升高(gao)(gao),其(qi)(qi)胁迫(po)程度(du)(du)(du)(du)也随之(zhi)加(jia)强,丙二醛(MDA)和可(ke)溶性(xing)蛋白(bai)含(han)量呈(cheng)现(xian)先升高(gao)(gao)后(hou)降(jiang)低的(de)(de)(de)趋(qu)势(shi),游离脯氨(an)酸(Pro)含(han)量和细胞膜相对(dui)透性(xing)则呈(cheng)现(xian)出一直(zhi)增(zeng)加(jia)的(de)(de)(de)趋(qu)势(shi);过氧化(hua)物酶(mei)(POD)、超氧化(hua)物歧化(hua)酶(mei)(SOD)和过氧化(hua)氢酶(mei)(CAT)活性(xing)随NaCl胁迫(po)程度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)加(jia)呈(cheng)先升高(gao)(gao)后(hou)降(jiang)低的(de)(de)(de)趋(qu)势(shi),在NaCl浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)1.5%时酶(mei)活性(xing)达到最高(gao)(gao)。研究(jiu)结果为(wei)草地早熟禾(he)愈伤(shang)组织耐盐突变体的(de)(de)(de)筛(shai)选(xuan)奠(dian)定了(le)基础。
基于生长度日的紫花苜蓿生育期预测模型
徐博, 王英哲, 徐安凯, 孙启忠
2016, 10(1): 93-100. doi:
[摘要](727) [HTML全文] (12) [PDF 511KB](382)
摘要:
利用(yong)2014年(nian)在(zai)(zai)(zai)吉林省农业科学(xue)院草地研究所试(shi)验田开(kai)展紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿(Medicago sativa)种(zhong)植试(shi)验数据,建立基于生(sheng)理(li)发(fa)育(yu)时间(jian)和生(sheng)长度(du)日(ri)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)育(yu)期(qi)模型(xing),再利用(yong)气象站(zhan)观测数据资(zi)料进行模型(xing)验证。结果表(biao)明(ming),紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿从(cong)(cong)返(fan)(fan)青至(zhi)(zhi)分(fen)枝(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)育(yu)基点(dian)温(wen)度(du)为(wei)(wei)5 ℃;从(cong)(cong)分(fen)枝(zhi)至(zhi)(zhi)现蕾为(wei)(wei)16 ℃;从(cong)(cong)现蕾至(zhi)(zhi)开(kai)花(hua)为(wei)(wei)18 ℃ ;从(cong)(cong)开(kai)花(hua)至(zhi)(zhi)结荚(jia)(jia)为(wei)(wei)23 ℃。以此为(wei)(wei)依据建立紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿植株发(fa)育(yu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)动态模拟(ni)模型(xing),以各生(sheng)育(yu)期(qi)发(fa)育(yu)基点(dian)温(wen)度(du)确(que)定返(fan)(fan)青期(qi)至(zhi)(zhi)分(fen)枝(zhi)期(qi)、分(fen)枝(zhi)期(qi)至(zhi)(zhi)现蕾期(qi)、现蕾期(qi)至(zhi)(zhi)开(kai)花(hua)期(qi)、开(kai)花(hua)期(qi)至(zhi)(zhi)结荚(jia)(jia)期(qi)所需的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)长度(du)日(ri)(Growing degree days,GDD)分(fen)别为(wei)(wei)38.18、90.16、76.6、23.96 ℃·d。参(can)试(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)5个紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)回归估计(ji)标(biao)准误差(RMSE)在(zai)(zai)(zai)1.1~2.72 d,相对误差(RE)范围在(zai)(zai)(zai)9.48%~17.87%,该模型(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)实测值与预(yu)测值较为(wei)(wei)吻(wen)合,适用(yong)于紫(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)蓿生(sheng)育(yu)期(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)预(yu)测模拟(ni)。
腐殖酸钠对紫花苜蓿生长及生物量的影响
张丽珍, 陈伟, 史静, 刘建荣, 王德宏, 陈本建
2016, 10(1): 101-109. doi:
[摘要](738) [HTML全文] (12) [PDF 546KB](279)
摘要:
采用(yong)盆栽试(shi)验(yan),研究(jiu)腐殖(zhi)酸钠肥(NaHA)单施(shi)(shi)及其(qi)与磷肥(P)配(pei)施(shi)(shi)对(dui)紫(zi)花苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)生(sheng)(sheng)长特性(xing)及生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)影响。结(jie)果表明(ming),NaHA单施(shi)(shi)及其(qi)与P配(pei)施(shi)(shi)对(dui)紫(zi)花苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)(biao)均(jun)有一定的(de)(de)(de)促进(jin)作用(yong),且NaHA与P配(pei)施(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)促进(jin)作用(yong)更明(ming)显。NaHA与P配(pei)施(shi)(shi)条件下(xia),当P水平一定时,紫(zi)花苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)生(sheng)(sheng)长速(su)度(du)、株(zhu)高(gao)(gao)、节间数、节间距(ju)及生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)随NaHA施(shi)(shi)用(yong)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)增加呈现先增后减的(de)(de)(de)趋势;当P从P1(642 kg·hm-2)水平增至P2(1 286 kg·hm-2)水平时, NaHA-P2施(shi)(shi)肥组(zu)(zu)合对(dui)紫(zi)花苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)各生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)(biao)的(de)(de)(de)促进(jin)作用(yong)不及NaHA-P1组(zu)(zu)合显著(zhu)。通过灰色关联度(du)分(fen)析对(dui)供(gong)试(shi)处理(li)各性(xing)状指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)(biao)进(jin)行(xing)综合评价,得(de)出NaHA5-P1 处理(li)的(de)(de)(de)综合表现最好,而且其(qi)获得(de)的(de)(de)(de)总生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)也最高(gao)(gao)。因(yin)此,NaHA5-P1是(shi)该试(shi)验(yan)最佳的(de)(de)(de)施(shi)(shi)肥组(zu)(zu)合,即NaHA为2 118 kg·hm-2,P为642 kg·hm-2。
施氮水平和收获时间对柳枝稷生物质产量和
高丽欣, 刘静, 邓波, 杨富裕, 张蕴薇
2016, 10(1): 110-115. doi:
[摘要](876) [HTML全文] (16) [PDF 461KB](338)
摘要:
为提(ti)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)能(neng)源(yuan)植物(wu)(wu)柳(liu)枝(zhi)稷(Panicum virgatum)的(de)能(neng)源(yuan)品质(zhi)(zhi),通过田(tian)间(jian)(jian)(jian)试验(yan)探讨黄河(he)三角洲盐(yan)碱地施(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)水平(ping)和(he)收获(huo)(huo)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)对柳(liu)枝(zhi)稷生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)质(zhi)(zhi)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)氮(dan)(dan)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、灰分(fen)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、木(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)纤维素(su)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)影(ying)响。结果表明,收获(huo)(huo)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)对柳(liu)枝(zhi)稷生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)质(zhi)(zhi)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、氮(dan)(dan)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、灰分(fen)、木(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)纤维素(su)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)有显著(P0.05)或极显著(P0.01)影(ying)响。生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)质(zhi)(zhi)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)随(sui)着施(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)增加(jia)而(er)(er)增加(jia),且(qie)(qie)在施(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)为200 kg·hm-2时(shi)达(da)到最高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)值;木(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)纤维素(su)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)随(sui)着收获(huo)(huo)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)推迟而(er)(er)增加(jia),冬季(ji)收获(huo)(huo)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)最高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao),施(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)水平(ping)为100 kg·hm-2时(shi)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)最高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao);灰分(fen)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、氮(dan)(dan)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)随(sui)收获(huo)(huo)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)推移而(er)(er)降低。黄河(he)三角洲地区柳(liu)枝(zhi)稷生(sheng)产(chan)时(shi)施(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)肥100~150 kg·hm-2,且(qie)(qie)在冬季(ji)收获(huo)(huo),能(neng)获(huo)(huo)得较高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)的(de)能(neng)源(yuan)品质(zhi)(zhi)。
不同豆禾混播模式的草地生产性能
祁军, 郑伟, 张鲜花, 唐高溶, 王祥, 朱进忠
2016, 10(1): 116-128. doi:
[摘要](686) [HTML全文] (26) [PDF 735KB](481)
摘要:
选(xuan)择5种(zhong)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)科(ke)(ke)与(yu)禾本科(ke)(ke)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)建植同(tong)(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)与(yu)异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)禾混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di),混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)种(zhong)类(lei)为2种(zhong)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)禾牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)、5种(zhong)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)禾牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo),豆(dou)(dou)(dou)禾混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)比例为豆(dou)(dou)(dou)禾比6∶4、5∶5和4∶6。依据2012-2013年(nian)各混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)组合的(de)(de)(de)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、粗蛋白(bai)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、粗脂肪产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、中性(xing)洗(xi)涤纤(xian)维产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)总和(RYT)及豆(dou)(dou)(dou)科(ke)(ke)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)与(yu)禾草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)密度(du)和相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)相(xiang)异(yi)度(du),分析了(le)不同(tong)(tong)混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)群(qun)落空间(jian)结构下各混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)处理(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)性(xing)能(neng)变化。结果表明,混(hun)(hun)(hun)2-1(鸭茅(mao)Dactylis glomerata+红豆(dou)(dou)(dou)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)Onobrychis viciaefolia)、混(hun)(hun)(hun)2-2(无芒雀麦Bromus inermis+红豆(dou)(dou)(dou)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao))的(de)(de)(de)1∶1行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)处理(li)(li)具有较高的(de)(de)(de)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)与(yu)粗蛋白(bai)、粗脂肪和中性(xing)洗(xi)涤纤(xian)维产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang),且均高于同(tong)(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo);同(tong)(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)均低(di)于异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)。各混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)处理(li)(li)RYT值均高于1,且混(hun)(hun)(hun)2-1、混(hun)(hun)(hun)2-2的(de)(de)(de)1∶1行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)处理(li)(li)RYT值高于同(tong)(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)。2∶2行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、3∶3行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)具有较高的(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)密度(du)和相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)相(xiang)异(yi)度(du),同(tong)(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)具有较低(di)的(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)密度(du)和相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)相(xiang)异(yi)度(du)。由此可(ke)见,从同(tong)(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)改为异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo),可(ke)提高牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)品(pin)质和种(zhong)间(jian)相(xiang)容性(xing),维持较高的(de)(de)(de)群(qun)落稳(wen)定性(xing),使豆(dou)(dou)(dou)禾混(hun)(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)的(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)性(xing)能(neng)进(jin)一步增加。
14份燕麦种质在肃南皇城镇的生产性能比较
杨海磊, 徐长林, 鱼小军, 肖红, 张建文, 安晓东, 杨发森, 任宝虎, 周瑞娟
2016, 10(1): 129-135. doi:
[摘要](620) [HTML全文] (27) [PDF 498KB](299)
摘要:
对14份燕麦(Avena sativa)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)株(zhu)高(gao)(gao)、产草量(liang)(liang)、营养、种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子产量(liang)(liang)、千粒重、发(fa)芽率等方面进(jin)行(xing)评比研究,以(yi)期筛选出适宜在甘肃省肃南(nan)(nan)县(xian)皇城(cheng)地区种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植的(de)(de)燕麦种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)。结果表(biao)(biao)明(ming),青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)479号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)植株(zhu)高(gao)(gao)度最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao),达到(dao)151.3 cm;青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)474号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)矮,为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)128.4 cm。青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)12号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)分蘖(nie)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)多(duo),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)2.0;其余燕麦种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)的(de)(de)分蘖(nie)都低(di)于2.0。叶茎比变化在1.79~2.46,青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)195号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)叶茎比最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(2.46),陇燕2号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di)(1.79)。陇燕2号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)干草产量(liang)(liang)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)11.11 t·hm-2;巴(ba)燕3号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)少(shao),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)7.71 t·hm-2。青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)416号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)干草粗蛋(dan)白含(han)量(liang)(liang)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)8.2%;青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)195号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)的(de)(de)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)6.3%。青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)97号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)干草酸性洗涤(di)纤维(wei)含(han)量(liang)(liang)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)47.4%;加(jia)燕2号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)的(de)(de)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)37.4%。中性洗涤(di)纤维(wei)含(han)量(liang)(liang)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di)的(de)(de)是青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)233号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)59.5%;陇燕2号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)66.7%。巴(ba)燕3号(hao)(hao)(hao)(hao)、青(qing)(qing)(qing)海444、青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)93、青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)474和(he)甘南(nan)(nan)燕麦种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)能够(gou)成熟,适宜籽(zi)实农业(ye)(ye)生(sheng)产,其中种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)甘南(nan)(nan)的(de)(de)千粒重、发(fa)芽率以(yi)及种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子产量(liang)(liang)表(biao)(biao)现(xian)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)好。综合结果表(biao)(biao)明(ming),青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)479、青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)167和(he)青(qing)(qing)(qing)永(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)久(jiu)(jiu)233适宜在肃南(nan)(nan)皇城(cheng)进(jin)行(xing)营养体农业(ye)(ye)生(sheng)产。
种子热激蛋白研究进展
陈泉竹, 毛培胜
2016, 10(1): 136-143. doi:
[摘要](714) [HTML全文] (28) [PDF 534KB](347)
摘要:
植(zhi)物种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)在(zai)成熟、贮(zhu)(zhu)藏(zang)与(yu)萌发(fa)(fa)中(zhong)会合成大量蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)质(zhi)(zhi),其中(zhong)包括(kuo)具有重要作用(yong)的(de)(de)热(re)(re)激(ji)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)。研(yan)究种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)热(re)(re)激(ji)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)的(de)(de)结(jie)(jie)构与(yu)功(gong)能,能够揭示热(re)(re)激(ji)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)与(yu)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)正常(chang)发(fa)(fa)育、抵抗高(gao)(gao)温(wen)等(deng)逆(ni)境胁迫的(de)(de)相关性,阐释热(re)(re)激(ji)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)在(zai)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)中(zhong)的(de)(de)作用(yong)机理(li)。通过培育具有抵抗高(gao)(gao)温(wen)逆(ni)境的(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)可以提高(gao)(gao)植(zhi)物种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)活力(li)、保护种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)资源,实(shi)现(xian)种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)生产的(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)产与(yu)稳(wen)产以达(da)到推动农(nong)业经济(ji)发(fa)(fa)展的(de)(de)目的(de)(de)。本(ben)文(wen)从热(re)(re)激(ji)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)的(de)(de)合成、分(fen)类、特点与(yu)功(gong)能等(deng)方面进行了概述,并详细分(fen)析了热(re)(re)激(ji)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)在(zai)植(zhi)物种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)成熟、贮(zhu)(zhu)藏(zang)和萌发(fa)(fa)中(zhong)的(de)(de)作用(yong),并对热(re)(re)激(ji)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)在(zai)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)质(zhi)(zhi)组学上的(de)(de)研(yan)究进行了总结(jie)(jie)。提出利用(yong)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)质(zhi)(zhi)组学分(fen)析牧草种(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)劣变过程中(zhong)热(re)(re)激(ji)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)合成类型与(yu)数(shu)量的(de)(de)应用(yong)前景。
动物生产层
豌豆蚜为害对苜蓿品种酶活性和 营养物质的影响
张洪英, 魏淑花, 张蓉, 苗润, 李克昌, 罗晓玲, 张宇
2016, 10(1): 144-152. doi:
[摘要](537) [HTML全文] (9) [PDF 557KB](321)
摘要:
为(wei)了探讨苜(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)对蚜虫取食防御(yu)反应的生(sheng)化(hua)(hua)机(ji)制,本研究通过(guo)室内人工接虫,研究了豌(wan)豆(dou)蚜(Acyrthosiphon pisum)取食后(hou)(hou)(hou)苜(mu)蓿(xu)体内防御(yu)性(xing)(xing)酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)、营(ying)养物质(zhi)含量的动态变化(hua)(hua)。结(jie)果表明(ming),豌(wan)豆(dou)蚜为(wei)害(hai)7 d后(hou)(hou)(hou),与低抗(kang)品(pin)种(zhong)(惊喜、WL343HQ和(he)德(de)宝(bao))相比(bi),抗(kang)虫品(pin)种(zhong)(三(san)得利、MF4020、皇(huang)(huang)后(hou)(hou)(hou)、皇(huang)(huang)冠和(he)SR4030)的苜(mu)蓿(xu)幼苗苯丙氨(an)酸(suan)解氨(an)酶(mei)(mei)(PAL)、超氧(yang)(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)物歧(qi)化(hua)(hua)酶(mei)(mei)(SOD)、过(guo)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)物酶(mei)(mei)(POD)及(ji)可(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)糖活(huo)性(xing)(xing)变化(hua)(hua)总(zong)体上(shang)显著增高(P0.01),多酚氧(yang)(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)酶(mei)(mei)(PPO)和(he)过(guo)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)氢酶(mei)(mei)(CAT)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)变化(hua)(hua)显著降低(P0.01),中抗(kang)品(pin)种(zhong)(柏(bo)拉图、甘农(nong)4号(hao)(hao)、先行者和(he)中苜(mu)3号(hao)(hao))介(jie)于其间,可(ke)溶(rong)(rong)性(xing)(xing)蛋(dan)白(bai)质(zhi)含量变化(hua)(hua)量无明(ming)显规律。
提孜那甫河流域冬季牲畜宿营地环境特征遥感分析
陈蜀江, 李琪, 黄铁成, 贾翔, 张展赫, 陈孟禹
2016, 10(1): 153-163. doi:
[摘要](518) [HTML全文] (14) [PDF 1705KB](271)
摘要:
冬季牲(sheng)(sheng)畜(chu)(chu)宿营地(di)(di)是游牧(mu)(mu)过(guo)程(cheng)中牲(sheng)(sheng)畜(chu)(chu)和(he)人共同(tong)休憩的(de)场所。以(yi)提孜那甫(fu)河(he)流(liu)域为研究(jiu)(jiu)区(qu),通过(guo)解(jie)译Landsat8 OLI影(ying)像(xiang),提取冬季牲(sheng)(sheng)畜(chu)(chu)宿营地(di)(di)地(di)(di)理信息,探究(jiu)(jiu)山区(qu)冬牧(mu)(mu)场的(de)优劣及牧(mu)(mu)民(min)的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)生(sheng)(sheng)存条(tiao)件。结果(guo)表明(ming),研究(jiu)(jiu)区(qu)冬季牲(sheng)(sheng)畜(chu)(chu)宿营地(di)(di)共708处(chu),平(ping)均(jun)面(mian)积9 543 m2,多分布在(zai)海拔较(jiao)高的(de)山脊(ji),坡度平(ping)缓(huan),坡向向南或西,草(cao)地(di)(di)类型以(yi)合头(tou)草(cao)(Sympegma regelii)荒(huang)漠与高山绢(juan)蒿(Seriphidium rhodanthum)草(cao)原化荒(huang)漠为主;冬季牲(sheng)(sheng)畜(chu)(chu)宿营地(di)(di)积雪时长较(jiao)短,融雪不易保存,距(ju)离水(shui)(shui)源水(shui)(shui)平(ping)距(ju)离和(he)高差均(jun)较(jiao)大,取水(shui)(shui)困难;冬季牲(sheng)(sheng)畜(chu)(chu)宿营地(di)(di)生(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)条(tiao)件艰苦,冬季温度较(jiao)低(di),燃料(liao)匮(kui)乏(fa),距(ju)离居民(min)点(dian)路途遥(yao)远,道路崎岖难行,大部分地(di)(di)区(qu)无(wu)通讯信号覆盖。
后生物生产层
草畜产品安全溯源管理模式初探
石福于, 王虎成
2016, 10(1): 164-170. doi:
[摘要](484) [HTML全文] (14) [PDF 566KB](375)
摘要:
频发的(de)(de)(de)食(shi)品(pin)安(an)(an)全(quan)问(wen)题(ti),使得(de)草(cao)(cao)畜(chu)(chu)产品(pin)安(an)(an)全(quan)问(wen)题(ti)备受人们关(guan)注。溯(su)(su)(su)源(yuan)管理技(ji)术是保障食(shi)品(pin)安(an)(an)全(quan)的(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)手(shou)段之一,且电子(zi)(zi)(zi)信息编(bian)码技(ji)术和(he)稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)同(tong)位(wei)(wei)素(su)技(ji)术已在很多领域得(de)到(dao)应用(yong)(yong),但在我国草(cao)(cao)畜(chu)(chu)产品(pin)中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)应用(yong)(yong)范(fan)围较小。本研究在基于电子(zi)(zi)(zi)信息编(bian)码技(ji)术及(ji)稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)同(tong)位(wei)(wei)素(su)溯(su)(su)(su)源(yuan)技(ji)术在国内外研究应用(yong)(yong)现状的(de)(de)(de)综合分(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)基础之上,初(chu)步(bu)建(jian)立(li)了(le)以(yi)产地地理编(bian)码为(wei)主线,连接生产、加工、销售3个环节,形成一套完整(zheng)的(de)(de)(de)草(cao)(cao)畜(chu)(chu)产品(pin)安(an)(an)全(quan)电子(zi)(zi)(zi)信息编(bian)码技(ji)术;并(bing)且通过(guo)测(ce)定(ding)(ding)同(tong)位(wei)(wei)素(su)标记过(guo)的(de)(de)(de)元素(su)(δ2H、δ13C、δ15N、δ16O、δ32S、δ86Sr等)从牧草(cao)(cao)、饮水到(dao)组织中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)含量,建(jian)立(li)稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)同(tong)位(wei)(wei)素(su)数据库,通过(guo)分(fen)(fen)(fen)子(zi)(zi)(zi)生物学(xue)技(ji)术,分(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)草(cao)(cao)畜(chu)(chu)产品(pin)中(zhong)各同(tong)位(wei)(wei)素(su)之间的(de)(de)(de)相关(guan)性,经(jing)过(guo)数理统计分(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi),辨(bian)识影响畜(chu)(chu)产品(pin)的(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)因子(zi)(zi)(zi)。基于食(shi)品(pin)溯(su)(su)(su)源(yuan)管理原(yuan)理,初(chu)步(bu)建(jian)立(li)的(de)(de)(de)草(cao)(cao)畜(chu)(chu)产品(pin)生产全(quan)覆盖(gai)和(he)供(gong)应全(quan)过(guo)程的(de)(de)(de)追(zhui)踪体系,将为(wei)实现草(cao)(cao)畜(chu)(chu)产品(pin)安(an)(an)全(quan)控制和(he)有(you)效追(zhui)踪提(ti)供(gong)参考模式(shi)。
欧宝体育