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中英文目录
中英文目录
2016, 10(7): 0-0.
[摘要](401) [PDF 363KB](334)
摘要:
前植物生产层
草地生物土壤结皮
马洁, 陈先江, 侯扶江
2016, 10(7): 1243-1252. doi:
[摘要](236) [HTML全文] (2) [PDF 1375KB](545)
摘要:
生(sheng)物土壤(rang)结(jie)(jie)皮是(shi)由隐花(hua)植(zhi)物与土壤(rang)中的(de)细菌、真菌以(yi)(yi)(yi)及土壤(rang)颗粒结(jie)(jie)合形(xing)成的(de)复杂生(sheng)物覆(fu)盖(gai)体(ti),它(ta)们(men)广(guang)泛(fan)分布于(yu)世界上各草(cao)地(di)类组中,在(zai)改(gai)善(shan)生(sheng)态(tai)环境和防治草(cao)地(di)退(tui)化方(fang)(fang)面起到了积极的(de)作用(yong)。多年来,国(guo)内(nei)外学(xue)者就相(xiang)关问(wen)题(ti)开展了大量的(de)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu),但(dan)总体(ti)来说(shuo),主(zhu)要研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)仍集中在(zai)对其功(gong)能和作用(yong)的(de)认知方(fang)(fang)面,而对全球变化背景下生(sheng)物土壤(rang)结(jie)(jie)皮的(de)演变以(yi)(yi)(yi)及它(ta)们(men)维护生(sheng)态(tai)系统稳定性机理方(fang)(fang)面的(de)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)还十(shi)分欠(qian)缺。本(ben)文(wen)综(zong)述(shu)了国(guo)内(nei)外该领(ling)域的(de)现有研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)成果,讨论了目前研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)的(de)不足以(yi)(yi)(yi)及未(wei)来的(de)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)方(fang)(fang)向,以(yi)(yi)(yi)期促进生(sheng)物土壤(rang)结(jie)(jie)皮相(xiang)关研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu),加深对草(cao)地(di)生(sheng)态(tai)系统土壤(rang)演替过(guo)程的(de)认识。
撂荒地亚硝酸还原酶基因nirK和nirS丰度动态
呼和, 陈先江, 程云湘
2016, 10(7): 1253-1259. doi:
[摘要](1154) [HTML全文] (274) [PDF 1287KB](412)
摘要:
使(shi)用荧光定量PCR法测定亚硝(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)酸(suan)还原(yuan)(yuan)酶基(ji)因(yin)(nirK和nirS)遗传特异性片(pian)段,研究了草原(yuan)(yuan)撂(liao)荒(huang)地土壤(rang)反(fan)硝(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)化(hua)微(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)物丰(feng)(feng)(feng)度(du)(du)(du)随着撂(liao)荒(huang)时间的变化(hua)。结果(guo)表明(ming),轻度(du)(du)(du)放(fang)牧(mu)草原(yuan)(yuan)和3种(zhong)(zhong)不同撂(liao)荒(huang)时间地的土壤(rang)中nirK基(ji)因(yin)型(xing)反(fan)硝(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)化(hua)微(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)物丰(feng)(feng)(feng)度(du)(du)(du)都显(xian)著(zhu)高于(yu)nirS基(ji)因(yin)型(xing)反(fan)硝(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)化(hua)微(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)物丰(feng)(feng)(feng)度(du)(du)(du)(P<0.05)。土壤(rang)nirK及(ji)nirS基(ji)因(yin)型(xing)反(fan)硝(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)化(hua)微(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)物丰(feng)(feng)(feng)度(du)(du)(du)撂(liao)荒(huang)地和轻度(du)(du)(du)放(fang)牧(mu)地之间均有(you)显(xian)著(zhu)差异(P<0.05),但(dan)3种(zhong)(zhong)撂(liao)荒(huang)地均未发生(sheng)(sheng)显(xian)著(zhu)变化(hua)(P>0.05)。此外,这两种(zhong)(zhong)基(ji)因(yin)型(xing)反(fan)硝(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)化(hua)微(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)物丰(feng)(feng)(feng)度(du)(du)(du)之间有(you)极显(xian)著(zhu)线性负相关(guan)关(guan)系(P<0.001)。以(yi)上结果(guo)说(shuo)明(ming),nirK和nirS基(ji)因(yin)型(xing)反(fan)硝(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)化(hua)微(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)物对环境(jing)因(yin)子的响应(ying)有(you)差异。
放牧对天山北坡山地草原生态系统土壤δ15N的影响
2016, 10(7): 1260-1266. doi:
[摘要](715) [HTML全文] (38) [PDF 1279KB](332)
摘要:
测定(ding)了天(tian)山(shan)(shan)(shan)北坡(po)山(shan)(shan)(shan)地(di)草(cao)(cao)原优(you)势植(zhi)物(wu)种针(zhen)茅(mao)(Stipa capillata)、羊(yang)茅(mao)(Festuca ovina)、短柱苔(tai)草(cao)(cao)(Carex turkestanica)、博(bo)乐绢(juan)蒿(Seriphidium borotalense)根(gen)际(ji)0-10 cm土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)和(he)非根(gen)际(ji)10-20、20-30 cm土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)稳(wen)定(ding)性N同(tong)(tong)位素和(he)全氮含量,通过对(dui)比放(fang)牧(mu)和(he)围封草(cao)(cao)地(di)优(you)势植(zhi)物(wu)根(gen)际(ji)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)δ15N的(de)(de)(de)变(bian)化,分(fen)析不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)利用(yong)方式对(dui)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)植(zhi)物(wu)根(gen)际(ji)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)和(he)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)深度土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)δ15N的(de)(de)(de)影(ying)(ying)响(xiang)。结(jie)果表明,天(tian)山(shan)(shan)(shan)北坡(po)山(shan)(shan)(shan)地(di)草(cao)(cao)原生态(tai)系统土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)δ15N值(zhi)在2.25‰~16.03‰变(bian)化,放(fang)牧(mu)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)降低了表层(ceng)0-10 cm土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)δ15N值(zhi);放(fang)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)地(di)0-30 cm土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)δ15N值(zhi)(7.14‰±0.67‰)整(zheng)体上比围封(6.95‰±0.34‰)增(zeng)加了2.8%,但差异不(bu)(bu)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P>0.05)。放(fang)牧(mu)和(he)围封条件下天(tian)山(shan)(shan)(shan)北坡(po)山(shan)(shan)(shan)地(di)草(cao)(cao)原土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)δ15N值(zhi)均随着土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)深度的(de)(de)(de)加深而显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)增(zeng)加(P<0.05),且土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)δ15N值(zhi)与土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)全氮含量呈显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)的(de)(de)(de)负相(xiang)关(P<0.05)。放(fang)牧(mu)对(dui)天(tian)山(shan)(shan)(shan)北坡(po)山(shan)(shan)(shan)地(di)草(cao)(cao)原不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)植(zhi)物(wu)种根(gen)际(ji)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)δ15N的(de)(de)(de)影(ying)(ying)响(xiang)程度不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong),放(fang)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)地(di)的(de)(de)(de)针(zhen)茅(mao)和(he)羊(yang)茅(mao)0-30 cm土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)δ15N分(fen)别比围封草(cao)(cao)地(di)的(de)(de)(de)高17%和(he)53%,但放(fang)牧(mu)降低了短柱苔(tai)草(cao)(cao)和(he)博(bo)乐绢(juan)蒿0-30 cm土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)δ15N,且对(dui)短柱苔(tai)草(cao)(cao)的(de)(de)(de)降低作用(yong)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)。
新疆盐生植物芦苇根围AM真菌的空间分布特征
李桂真, 陈志超, 李新川, 盛建东, 黄长福, 金俊香
2016, 10(7): 1267-1274. doi:
[摘要](588) [HTML全文] (16) [PDF 1437KB](347)
摘要:
为了揭示新疆(jiang)盐(yan)生(sheng)(sheng)植物根(gen)围AM真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)的空(kong)间分(fen)布特征,本(ben)研(yan)究以新疆(jiang)北疆(jiang)3个(ge)(ge)典型区域的盐(yan)生(sheng)(sheng)植物芦苇(Phragmites australis)为研(yan)究对象,分(fen)别(bie)在(zai)0-10、10-20、20-30、30-40和(he)(he)40-50 cm 5个(ge)(ge)土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)采(cai)集根(gen)围土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)样品(pin),研(yan)究AM真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)的空(kong)间分(fen)布及其土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)因(yin)子(zi)的相关性。结(jie)果表明,盐(yan)碱化是AM真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)在(zai)盐(yan)碱土(tu)(tu)中(zhong)(zhong)空(kong)间分(fen)布的重要限(xian)制因(yin)子(zi),但AM真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)可与芦苇共生(sheng)(sheng),AM真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)各项(xiang)指标在(zai)盐(yan)渍地中(zhong)(zhong)的分(fen)布具有(you)显(xian)著(zhu)的空(kong)间特征。AM真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)侵(qin)染率(lv)、侵(qin)染强度(du)在(zai)3个(ge)(ge)样地间存(cun)在(zai)显(xian)著(zhu)差异(P<0.05),并随(sui)土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)加(jia)深呈降低(di)趋势,其最(zui)大值(zhi)均(jun)出现(xian)在(zai)0-10 cm土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng);孢子(zi)密(mi)度(du)随(sui)土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)深度(du)增加(jia)而(er)降低(di),最(zui)高值(zhi)出现(xian)在(zai)0-20 cm土(tu)(tu)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng);孢子(zi)密(mi)度(du)与土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)pH、电导率(lv)、速(su)效K呈极(ji)显(xian)著(zhu)负相关(P<0.01);AM真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)侵(qin)染率(lv)、侵(qin)染强度(du)、菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)丝丰度(du)、丛枝(zhi)丰度(du)与速(su)效K、速(su)效P呈极(ji)显(xian)著(zhu)正(zheng)相关(P<0.01),侵(qin)染强度(du)、菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)丝丰度(du)和(he)(he)丛枝(zhi)丰度(du)与有(you)机质呈极(ji)显(xian)著(zhu)负相关(P<0.01)。本(ben)研(yan)究结(jie)果对利用盐(yan)生(sheng)(sheng)植物AM真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)资源(yuan),促进盐(yan)渍化草(cao)地植被(bei)恢(hui)复(fu)和(he)(he)生(sheng)(sheng)态重建方(fang)面具有(you)一定的价值(zhi)。
PEG胁迫下新疆地区狗牙根种子的萌发特性
段敏敏, 孙宗玖, 李培英
2016, 10(7): 1275-1284. doi:
[摘要](760) [HTML全文] (41) [PDF 1546KB](435)
摘要:
为(wei)了(le)解(jie)狗(gou)牙(ya)根(gen)(gen)(gen)(Cynodon dactylon)种质芽(ya)(ya)期(qi)抗(kang)(kang)旱(han)性强弱(ruo),并(bing)(bing)筛选出适宜鉴定抗(kang)(kang)旱(han)性的(de)(de)PEG浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du),分(fen)(fen)别(bie)对(dui)6份(fen)狗(gou)牙(ya)根(gen)(gen)(gen)种子在0、7.5%、15.0%、22.5%、30.0% PEG(质量比(bi)(bi))胁迫下的(de)(de)发(fa)芽(ya)(ya)率、发(fa)芽(ya)(ya)势、发(fa)芽(ya)(ya)指数、胚(pei)芽(ya)(ya)长(zhang)、胚(pei)根(gen)(gen)(gen)长(zhang)、根(gen)(gen)(gen)芽(ya)(ya)比(bi)(bi)、苗重进行测定,并(bing)(bing)采用隶(li)属函(han)数法对(dui)其(qi)抗(kang)(kang)旱(han)性进行了(le)综(zong)合评价。结(jie)果表明,随着(zhe)干旱(han)胁迫的(de)(de)增加,狗(gou)牙(ya)根(gen)(gen)(gen)种质的(de)(de)发(fa)芽(ya)(ya)势、发(fa)芽(ya)(ya)率、发(fa)芽(ya)(ya)指数均显著(zhu)降低(di)(P<0.05),且不同(tong)指标出现(xian)显著(zhu)降低(di)的(de)(de)PEG浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du)并(bing)(bing)不一致;高浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du)PEG抑制(zhi)了(le)狗(gou)牙(ya)根(gen)(gen)(gen)种质的(de)(de)胚(pei)芽(ya)(ya)长(zhang)、胚(pei)根(gen)(gen)(gen)长(zhang)、根(gen)(gen)(gen)芽(ya)(ya)比(bi)(bi)、幼苗重(P<0.05),而低(di)浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du)对(dui)其(qi)影响不显著(zhu)(P>0.05);15%的(de)(de)PEG可作为(wei)狗(gou)牙(ya)根(gen)(gen)(gen)芽(ya)(ya)期(qi)抗(kang)(kang)旱(han)鉴定的(de)(de)最适处理浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du);隶(li)属函(han)数综(zong)合分(fen)(fen)析认为(wei),6份(fen)狗(gou)牙(ya)根(gen)(gen)(gen)的(de)(de)抗(kang)(kang)旱(han)性由(you)强到弱(ruo)依次为(wei)Cd016>Cd043>Cd047>Cd002>Cd034>Cd013。
钾素改善干旱胁迫下早熟禾的形态及相关生长指标
李静静, 李炜, 陈雅君, 尹慧, 李艳侠
2016, 10(7): 1285-1290. doi:
[摘要](587) [HTML全文] (40) [PDF 1258KB](437)
摘要:
本研究采用不同(tong)浓(nong)度(du)钾(jia)素(su)营养处理(li)(li)的(de)(de)方法,在干(gan)旱(han)(han)(han)条(tiao)件下(xia),研究草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)早(zao)熟(shu)禾(he)(Poa pratensis)形态及生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)相(xiang)关指标与(yu)抗(kang)旱(han)(han)(han)性间的(de)(de)关系,为(wei)草(cao)(cao)坪草(cao)(cao)早(zao)熟(shu)禾(he)在生(sheng)(sheng)产中的(de)(de)利用及提(ti)高其抗(kang)旱(han)(han)(han)能力(li)提(ti)供理(li)(li)论依据(ju)和指导。结果表明(ming)(ming),适(shi)当(dang)的(de)(de)供给钾(jia)素(su)可(ke)以改善干(gan)旱(han)(han)(han)胁迫引起的(de)(de)叶片(pian)形态改变(bian),从而提(ti)高草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)早(zao)熟(shu)禾(he)的(de)(de)抗(kang)旱(han)(han)(han)能力(li)。在干(gan)旱(han)(han)(han)胁迫下(xia),草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)早(zao)熟(shu)禾(he)叶片(pian)形态、色泽及生(sheng)(sheng)物量在钾(jia)素(su)浓(nong)度(du)为(wei)0.15~0.30 g·kg-1时有所改善和提(ti)高,其中0.30 g·kg-1钾(jia)素(su)浓(nong)度(du)的(de)(de)处理(li)(li)效果最好,可(ke)明(ming)(ming)显(xian)提(ti)高早(zao)熟(shu)禾(he)植(zhi)株的(de)(de)抗(kang)旱(han)(han)(han)性。
干旱半干旱区裸露边坡适宜喷播的绿化基质筛选
刘铁军, 卢建男, 张哲乾, 马莉, 王丹妮, 张琼, 刘金荣
2016, 10(7): 1291-1296. doi:
[摘要](566) [HTML全文] (20) [PDF 1295KB](345)
摘要:
甘肃黄土(tu)高原干(gan)旱半干(gan)旱区(qu)裸(luo)露边坡年均降(jiang)水(shui)(shui)量(liang)少、气(qi)候干(gan)燥、蒸发(fa)强(qiang)烈,导致边坡绿(lv)化(hua)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)存在出苗难和成(cheng)活率低等诸多问(wen)题(ti)。本研究(jiu)以干(gan)旱半干(gan)旱区(qu)裸(luo)露边坡为(wei)研究(jiu)对(dui)象,通(tong)过 L9(34)正交试(shi)验,研究(jiu)生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)肥(fei)、保水(shui)(shui)剂、草(cao)炭土(tu)、土(tu)壤(rang)、秸(jie)秆、速(su)效(xiao)(xiao)肥(fei)6种喷播(bo)绿(lv)化(hua)基质在不同用量(liang)和比例组合下的理化(hua)性(xing)质,及(ji)其对(dui)边坡水(shui)(shui)分(fen)蒸发(fa)量(liang)、植(zhi)(zhi)被盖(gai)度(du)、地上(shang)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)量(liang)的影(ying)响,以期筛选出适宜的喷播(bo)绿(lv)化(hua)基质配方(fang)。结果(guo)表明(ming),草(cao)炭土(tu):土(tu)壤(rang):秸(jie)秆比例为(wei) 40:45:15 ,嗜盐碱微生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)菌肥(fei)500 g·m-2、保水(shui)(shui)剂1 g·m-2、速(su)效(xiao)(xiao)肥(fei)25 g·m-2可(ke)有(you)效(xiao)(xiao)减小水(shui)(shui)分(fen)蒸发(fa)量(liang),提高植(zhi)(zhi)被盖(gai)度(du)和地上(shang)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)量(liang),对(dui)黄土(tu)高原裸(luo)露边坡植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)长最(zui)为(wei)有(you)利。
紫花苜蓿病毒病症状类型及病原检测
周其宇, 梁巧兰, 韩亮
2016, 10(7): 1297-1305. doi:
[摘要](750) [HTML全文] (44) [PDF 1486KB](340)
摘要:
本研究(jiu)为(wei)了(le)探明甘肃省(sheng)兰(lan)州(zhou)市(shi)紫花(hua)苜(mu)蓿(Medicago sativa)侵(qin)(qin)染(ran)病(bing)毒(du)(du)病(bing)的症状类(lei)型、病(bing)原(yuan)种(zhong)(zhong)类(lei)以(yi)及寄主(zhu)范围,进行了(le)田间(jian)调(diao)查和室内酶联(lian)免(mian)疫(yi)检测(ce)。田间(jian)调(diao)查确定(ding)了(le)苜(mu)蓿病(bing)毒(du)(du)病(bing)在兰(lan)州(zhou)市(shi)安宁(ning)区和皋(gao)兰(lan)县(xian)以(yi)及白(bai)银市(shi)景(jing)泰县(xian)均(jun)有发生,其中景(jing)泰县(xian)的发病(bing)率和病(bing)情指数均(jun)最(zui)高,分(fen)别(bie)为(wei)43.33%和26.08;共采样90份(fen),检查30份(fen),检查比例为(wei)30%。检测(ce)到的病(bing)原(yuan)有苜(mu)蓿花(hua)叶(ye)病(bing)毒(du)(du)(AMV)、白(bai)三叶(ye)草花(hua)叶(ye)病(bing)毒(du)(du)(WCMV)、菜豆黄花(hua)叶(ye)病(bing)毒(du)(du)(BYMV)和豇豆花(hua)叶(ye)病(bing)毒(du)(du)(CPMV)4种(zhong)(zhong),检出率分(fen)别(bie)为(wei)100.00%、50.00%、75.00%和75.00%,且(qie)存在复合侵(qin)(qin)染(ran)现象,复合侵(qin)(qin)染(ran)率达(da)50.00%;寄主(zhu)范围测(ce)定(ding)供试植物(wu)(wu)共6科(ke)17属18种(zhong)(zhong),经测(ce)定(ding),AMV可(ke)以(yi)侵(qin)(qin)染(ran)6科(ke)15种(zhong)(zhong)植物(wu)(wu),WCMV可(ke)以(yi)侵(qin)(qin)染(ran)4科(ke)8种(zhong)(zhong)植物(wu)(wu),BYMV和CPMV可(ke)以(yi)侵(qin)(qin)染(ran)3科(ke)7种(zhong)(zhong)植物(wu)(wu),4种(zhong)(zhong)病(bing)毒(du)(du)可(ke)复合侵(qin)(qin)染(ran)6科(ke)14种(zhong)(zhong)植物(wu)(wu)。
甲基托布津对醉马草种带内生真菌的灭菌活性
李娜娜, 赵玉凤, 夏超, 钟睿, 张兴旭
2016, 10(7): 1306-1314. doi:
[摘要](564) [HTML全文] (27) [PDF 1532KB](380)
摘要:
以中国西北天(tian)然草(cao)(cao)原的常见有(you)毒植物——醉(zui)马草(cao)(cao)(Achnatherum inebrians)为研究(jiu)材料,进行(xing)了内吸(xi)式杀菌(jun)(jun)剂(ji)——70%甲(jia)(jia)基(ji)托(tuo)布津(jin)(thiophanate methyl)对(dui)醉(zui)马草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)传(chuan)内生真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)灭菌(jun)(jun)活性(xing)及种(zhong)子(zi)萌(meng)发和幼(you)(you)苗(miao)生长(zhang)影响(xiang)的研究(jiu)。结果表明,100倍甲(jia)(jia)基(ji)托(tuo)布津(jin)可100%杀灭醉(zui)马草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)传(chuan)内生真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun),但该处理会(hui)显(xian)著降低(P<0.05)醉(zui)马草(cao)(cao)幼(you)(you)苗(miao)的发芽(ya)指数(shu),而对(dui)其(qi)它测量指标不(bu)造(zao)成(cheng)(cheng)显(xian)著影响(xiang)(P>0.05);其(qi)次(ci)为200倍药(yao)剂(ji)浸(jin)泡处理6 h,内生真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)杀灭率仅为61.2%,该处理种(zhong)子(zi)发芽(ya)和幼(you)(you)苗(miao)生长(zhang)与100倍药(yao)剂(ji)处理相比差异(yi)显(xian)著 (P<0.05)。因此,若(ruo)不(bu)考虑对(dui)种(zhong)子(zi)发芽(ya)指数(shu)造(zao)成(cheng)(cheng)的影响(xiang),甲(jia)(jia)基(ji)托(tuo)布津(jin)稀释100倍、浸(jin)种(zhong)2 h为剔除醉(zui)马草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)传(chuan)内生真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)的最佳方法。
甘草内生真菌多样性及群落结构
赵翀, 廖萍, 张瀚能, 杨雅琳, 张琴, 李艳宾, 张利莉, 赵珂, 张小平
2016, 10(7): 1315-1323. doi:
[摘要](588) [HTML全文] (45) [PDF 1346KB](392)
摘要:
以新(xin)疆(jiang)塔里木(mu)盆(pen)地(di)的(de)(de)光果(guo)(guo)(guo)甘(gan)草(cao)(Glycyrrhiza glabra)和胀(zhang)果(guo)(guo)(guo)甘(gan)草(cao)(G. inflate)为研究(jiu)对象,采用(yong)(yong)变性(xing)(xing)梯度凝胶电泳(PCR-DGGE)技术(shu)研究(jiu)甘(gan)草(cao)内(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)的(de)(de)多(duo)(duo)样(yang)(yang)性(xing)(xing)及(ji)群落(luo)结(jie)构。结(jie)果(guo)(guo)(guo)显示,光果(guo)(guo)(guo)甘(gan)草(cao)和胀(zhang)果(guo)(guo)(guo)甘(gan)草(cao)间及(ji)同一种类不同组(zu)织间的(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)多(duo)(duo)样(yang)(yang)性(xing)(xing)和群落(luo)结(jie)构均存(cun)在明显差(cha)异。其(qi)中,胀(zhang)果(guo)(guo)(guo)甘(gan)草(cao)根(gen)(B1)的(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)多(duo)(duo)样(yang)(yang)性(xing)(xing)最(zui)丰(feng)(feng)富,光果(guo)(guo)(guo)甘(gan)草(cao)果(guo)(guo)(guo)(L4)的(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)多(duo)(duo)样(yang)(yang)性(xing)(xing)最(zui)差(cha)。对DGGE条带进(jin)行回收测序,共获(huo)得(de)25条序列,归于枝顶(ding)孢属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(Acremonium)、绿(lv)僵菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(Metarhizium)、绿(lv)僵虫(chong)草(cao)属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(Metacordyceps)、镰刀菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(Fusarium)、链格孢属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(Alternaria)、枝孢属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(Cladosporium)、锤舌菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(Leotiomycetes)、链格孢属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(Alternaria)、帚枝霉(mei)属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(Sarocladium)、假裸囊菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(Pseudogymnoascus)、曲(qu)霉(mei)属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(Aspergillus)11个真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu),其(qi)中链格孢属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)为优(you)势(shi)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)属(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu),占(zhan)总数(shu)的(de)(de)32%。甘(gan)草(cao)根(gen)、茎(jing)、叶、果(guo)(guo)(guo)、皮组(zu)织的(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)存(cun)在丰(feng)(feng)富的(de)(de)多(duo)(duo)样(yang)(yang)性(xing)(xing),其(qi)中根(gen)与茎(jing)组(zu)织多(duo)(duo)样(yang)(yang)性(xing)(xing)最(zui)丰(feng)(feng)富。研究(jiu)结(jie)果(guo)(guo)(guo)表明,新(xin)疆(jiang)塔里木(mu)盆(pen)地(di)药用(yong)(yong)植物(wu)甘(gan)草(cao)蕴藏(zang)着丰(feng)(feng)富的(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)资源(yuan),可(ke)作(zuo)为一种较理想的(de)(de)分离内(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)的(de)(de)植物(wu)来源(yuan)。
“狼毒净”对狼毒的防效
景美玲, 马玉寿, 王宏生, 李世雄, 李苗, 王彦龙, 张金旭
2016, 10(7): 1324-1334. doi:
[摘要](595) [HTML全文] (30) [PDF 1297KB](252)
摘要:
近(jin)年(nian)来青海(hai)省海(hai)北州祁连县境内黑河(he)源区(qu)狼(lang)毒(du)(Stellera chamaejasme)成倍增长,对家(jia)畜的(de)毒(du)害(hai)日(ri)益(yi)严重,为此,于2013年(nian)7月选用750、900、1 050 mL·hm-2 3种不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)剂(ji)量的(de)“狼(lang)毒(du)净(jing)”进行了化(hua)学防除(chu)草地狼(lang)毒(du)的(de)试(shi)验研究。结(jie)果表明,施药当年(nian),不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)剂(ji)量的(de) “狼(lang)毒(du)净(jing)”均(jun)使狼(lang)毒(du)在草地群落(luo)中失(shi)去优(you)势地位(wei),并对狼(lang)毒(du)的(de)株高、盖度、地上生物(wu)(wu)量有一定的(de)抑制作用。单(dan)子叶植物(wu)(wu)产量提高,但差异不(bu)(bu)显著(zhu)(P>0.05),双(shuang)子叶植物(wu)(wu)产量显著(zhu)降低(P<0.05)。施用1 050 mL·hm-2剂(ji)量的(de)“狼(lang)毒(du)净(jing)”对狼(lang)毒(du)的(de)防效达到(dao)94.92%,效果最好。
植物生产层
芦竹愈伤组织诱导及再生体系的建立
阳宴清, 王咏, 朱美兰, 卢运海
2016, 10(7): 1332-1341. doi:
[摘要](592) [HTML全文] (34) [PDF 1720KB](343)
摘要:
本(ben)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)首(shou)先对(dui)芦(lu)(lu)(lu)竹(Arundo donax)的(de)侧枝茎(jing)(jing)尖(jian)及(ji)带(dai)(dai)腋(ye)芽幼(you)茎(jing)(jing)段(duan)进(jin)行了(le)根诱(you)导(dao)(dao)并产(chan)生(sheng)无菌(jun)(jun)苗,然(ran)后对(dui)芦(lu)(lu)(lu)竹的(de)幼(you)叶(ye)段(duan)、无菌(jun)(jun)苗叶(ye)段(duan)、根段(duan)、无菌(jun)(jun)苗茎(jing)(jing)段(duan)、带(dai)(dai)腋(ye)芽幼(you)茎(jing)(jing)段(duan)5种(zhong)外植体进(jin)行了(le)愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)组(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)的(de)诱(you)导(dao)(dao)试(shi)验,建立(li)从愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)组(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)到再(zai)生(sheng)植株的(de)培养体系。结果(guo)表(biao)明,MS+0.2 mg·L-1 NAA+1.0 mg·L-1 KT既可(ke)以促进(jin)侧枝茎(jing)(jing)尖(jian)及(ji)带(dai)(dai)腋(ye)芽幼(you)茎(jing)(jing)段(duan)根系的(de)发(fa)育(yu),也能促进(jin)二者芽的(de)生(sheng)长,从而(er)产(chan)生(sheng)无菌(jun)(jun)苗。在(zai)(zai)MS+1.0 mg·L-12,4-D+0.1 mg·L-1KT培养基(ji)(ji)上(shang)(shang),幼(you)叶(ye)段(duan)和(he)无菌(jun)(jun)苗叶(ye)段(duan)都没能产(chan)生(sheng)愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang),少数(shu)根段(duan)产(chan)生(sheng)了(le)愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)但量(liang)很少,多(duo)数(shu)的(de)无菌(jun)(jun)苗茎(jing)(jing)段(duan)都能产(chan)生(sheng)愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)但量(liang)相(xiang)对(dui)较少;而(er)带(dai)(dai)腋(ye)芽幼(you)茎(jing)(jing)段(duan)则可(ke)以在(zai)(zai)腋(ye)芽基(ji)(ji)座部位(wei)诱(you)导(dao)(dao)出大量(liang)的(de)愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)组(zu)织(zhi)(zhi),经(jing)过(guo)继代(dai)(dai)增殖(zhi)可(ke)形成质地松软的(de)乳(ru)白色愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang),放置(zhi)于MS+0.5 mg·L-1 KT+1.0 mg·L-16-BA培养基(ji)(ji)上(shang)(shang)可(ke)同(tong)时(shi)分化出大量(liang)的(de)根和(he)芽来(lai),显示(shi)了(le)芦(lu)(lu)(lu)竹的(de)愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)组(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)具有很强的(de)分化和(he)再(zai)生(sheng)能力,也表(biao)明在(zai)(zai)芦(lu)(lu)(lu)竹上(shang)(shang)可(ke)以通过(guo)愈(yu)(yu)伤(shang)组(zu)织(zhi)(zhi)的(de)诱(you)导(dao)(dao)、分化及(ji)植株再(zai)生(sheng)这(zhei)一技术(shu)(shu)体系来(lai)大大提高其(qi)繁(fan)殖(zhi)系数(shu)。本(ben)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)可(ke)以为优良芦(lu)(lu)(lu)竹品种(zhong)的(de)快(kuai)繁(fan)以及(ji)在(zai)(zai)芦(lu)(lu)(lu)竹上(shang)(shang)开展现代(dai)(dai)生(sheng)物技术(shu)(shu)的(de)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)和(he)应(ying)用提供初步的(de)技术(shu)(shu)基(ji)(ji)础。
模拟复合盐碱胁迫对芒幼苗生理特性的影响
何淼, 王欢, 徐鹏飞, 刘长乐, 周蕴薇
2016, 10(7): 1342-1352. doi:
[摘要](1205) [HTML全文] (11) [PDF 1423KB](328)
摘要:
土(tu)壤(rang)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)碱(jian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)在(zai)(zai)(zai)世(shi)界范(fan)(fan)围内(nei)普遍(bian)存在(zai)(zai)(zai),日益(yi)(yi)严重的(de)(de)(de)(de)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)碱(jian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)威胁着植物(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)长(zhang)发(fa)育,致使植物(wu)(wu)(wu)种类(lei)减少。芒(mang)(mang)(Miscanthus sinensis)作(zuo)为(wei)能(neng)源植物(wu)(wu)(wu)具有良好的(de)(de)(de)(de)经济效益(yi)(yi)和生(sheng)态效益(yi)(yi),本研究(jiu)模拟(ni)我国东(dong)北大庆盐(yan)(yan)(yan)碱(jian)地的(de)(de)(de)(de)低(di)(4.147 5、8.295 0 g·L-1)、中(12.442 5 g·L-1)、高(gao)(16.590 0、20.737 5 g·L-1)浓(nong)度(du)(du)土(tu)壤(rang)环(huan)境(jing),以引种自辽宁省本溪阿(a)家(jia)岭的(de)(de)(de)(de)芒(mang)(mang)为(wei)研究(jiu)对象,对其幼(you)苗(miao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)各(ge)项(xiang)生(sheng)理(li)(li)指标进(jin)行研究(jiu)。结果发(fa)现(xian),芒(mang)(mang)幼(you)苗(miao)在(zai)(zai)(zai)受(shou)到(dao)复(fu)合(he)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)碱(jian)胁迫处(chu)理(li)(li)时(shi),未胁迫对照(zhao)组各(ge)指标随时(shi)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)延长(zhang)变化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)不大;低(di)浓(nong)度(du)(du)处(chu)理(li)(li)时(shi)芒(mang)(mang)幼(you)苗(miao)体内(nei)叶绿素(su)含(han)量随着胁迫时(shi)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)延长(zhang)呈(cheng)(cheng)现(xian)出(chu)先升(sheng)高(gao)后降(jiang)低(di)的(de)(de)(de)(de)趋(qu)势,中、高(gao)浓(nong)度(du)(du)处(chu)理(li)(li)时(shi)则(ze)不断(duan)降(jiang)低(di);而相对电导率和丙二醛(quan)(MDA)含(han)量则(ze)不断(duan)升(sheng)高(gao);超氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)物(wu)(wu)(wu)歧化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)酶(mei)(SOD)、过氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)物(wu)(wu)(wu)酶(mei)(POD)、过氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)氢(qing)酶(mei)(CAT)、抗(kang)坏(huai)血酸过氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)物(wu)(wu)(wu)酶(mei)(APX)、谷胱甘肽还原酶(mei)(GR)活性(xing)和抗(kang)坏(huai)血酸(ASA)、谷胱甘肽(GSH)含(han)量以及根(gen)活力一般在(zai)(zai)(zai)低(di)浓(nong)度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)复(fu)合(he)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)碱(jian)处(chu)理(li)(li)时(shi)缓慢升(sheng)高(gao),高(gao)浓(nong)度(du)(du)处(chu)理(li)(li)时(shi)则(ze)呈(cheng)(cheng)现(xian)出(chu)先升(sheng)高(gao)后降(jiang)低(di)的(de)(de)(de)(de)趋(qu)势。本研究(jiu)基本界定了芒(mang)(mang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)复(fu)合(he)盐(yan)(yan)(yan)碱(jian)耐受(shou)范(fan)(fan)围,可(ke)以为(wei)今后芒(mang)(mang)类(lei)能(neng)源植物(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)耐盐(yan)(yan)(yan)碱(jian)性(xing)筛(shai)选和在(zai)(zai)(zai)园林中的(de)(de)(de)(de)应用提供理(li)(li)论依(yi)据。
温度对醉马草内生真菌共生体幼苗生长和生物碱产量的影响
万志文, 曹莹, 陈振江, 李春杰
2016, 10(7): 1353-1360. doi:
[摘要](548) [HTML全文] (19) [PDF 1295KB](326)
摘要:
研究(jiu)了不同温(wen)度(8 ℃/5 ℃、15 ℃/12 ℃、22 ℃/15 ℃、28 ℃/25 ℃、35 ℃/28 ℃)处(chu)(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)对醉(zui)马草(cao)内生(sheng)(sheng)真菌共(gong)生(sheng)(sheng)体幼苗(miao)的(de)形态指标、叶绿(lv)素(su)、可(ke)溶性糖以(yi)及麦(mai)角(jiao)酰胺和(he)麦(mai)角(jiao)新碱含(han)量(liang)的(de)影响,以(yi)期明(ming)确共(gong)生(sheng)(sheng)体幼苗(miao)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)和(he)产碱的(de)最(zui)适温(wen)度。结果(guo)表明(ming),株高(gao)、根长(zhang)(zhang)和(he)生(sheng)(sheng)物量(liang)均在(zai)22 ℃/15 ℃处(chu)(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)下(xia)达(da)到(dao)(dao)最(zui)大(da)(da),其(qi)中株高(gao)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)其(qi)它(ta)4个处(chu)(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li),根长(zhang)(zhang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)28 ℃/25 ℃和(he)35 ℃/28 ℃处(chu)(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li),生(sheng)(sheng)物量(liang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)8 ℃/5 ℃、28 ℃/25 ℃和(he)35 ℃/28 ℃处(chu)(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li),分蘖在(zai)15 ℃/12 ℃处(chu)(chu)(chu)达(da)到(dao)(dao)最(zui)大(da)(da),显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)8 ℃/5 ℃、28 ℃/25 ℃和(he)35 ℃/28 ℃处(chu)(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)。叶绿(lv)素(su)在(zai)22 ℃/15 ℃处(chu)(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)下(xia)达(da)到(dao)(dao)最(zui)大(da)(da),显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)8 ℃/5 ℃、15 ℃/12 ℃和(he)35 ℃/28 ℃处(chu)(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)。可(ke)溶性糖在(zai)5个温(wen)度处(chu)(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)下(xia)差异不显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P>0.05)。在(zai)处(chu)(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)时间为15 d时,麦(mai)角(jiao)酰胺和(he)麦(mai)角(jiao)新碱含(han)量(liang)均在(zai)22 ℃/15 ℃处(chu)(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)下(xia)达(da)到(dao)(dao)最(zui)大(da)(da)。综上(shang)所述,最(zui)适宜(yi)共(gong)生(sheng)(sheng)体幼苗(miao)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)、麦(mai)角(jiao)酰胺和(he)麦(mai)角(jiao)新碱积累的(de)处(chu)(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)温(wen)度是22 ℃/15 ℃。
新选饲草高粱恢复系农艺性状配合力效应分析
吕鑫, 平俊爱, 张福耀, 杜志宏, 李慧明, 杨婷婷, 牛皓, 姚琳
2016, 10(7): 1361-1366. doi:
[摘要](530) [HTML全文] (11) [PDF 1248KB](364)
摘要:
利用5个(ge)(ge)高(gao)(gao)粱(Sorghum bicolor)不(bu)育系和6个(ge)(ge)饲草(cao)高(gao)(gao)粱恢复系(IS722为对(dui)照(zhao))为材料组(zu)配(pei)(pei)置30个(ge)(ge)杂(za)(za)交(jiao)(jiao)组(zu)合(he),采用不(bu)完(wan)全双列杂(za)(za)交(jiao)(jiao)(NCⅡ)设(she)计法对(dui)其生物产量(liang)、株高(gao)(gao)、茎粗、分蘖和干(gan)重5个(ge)(ge)主要农艺(yi)性(xing)状数据进行了(le)遗(yi)(yi)传力(li)(li)(li)估(gu)算(suan)和配(pei)(pei)合(he)力(li)(li)(li)分析。结果(guo)表(biao)(biao)明,所有饲草(cao)高(gao)(gao)粱恢复系中(zhong),只有安(an)微草(cao)3和053423-2在(zai)5个(ge)(ge)性(xing)状上(shang)的(de)一般(ban)配(pei)(pei)合(he)力(li)(li)(li)都表(biao)(biao)现出正向效(xiao)应(ying)(ying),尤其在(zai)生物产量(liang)等性(xing)状上(shang)表(biao)(biao)现出较(jiao)(jiao)好的(de)一般(ban)配(pei)(pei)合(he)力(li)(li)(li)。TX623A/053423-2、SX14A/053423-2和SX14A/(MamaMama/BMR)-1等9个(ge)(ge)组(zu)合(he)的(de)生物产量(liang)特殊(shu)配(pei)(pei)合(he)力(li)(li)(li)效(xiao)应(ying)(ying)值高(gao)(gao)于对(dui)照(zhao)IS722,表(biao)(biao)现出较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)(gao)的(de)特殊(shu)配(pei)(pei)合(he)力(li)(li)(li)。(MamaMama/BMR)-1的(de)株高(gao)(gao)和干(gan)重效(xiao)应(ying)(ying)值均位(wei)居第1位(wei),表(biao)(biao)现出较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)(gao)的(de)一般(ban)配(pei)(pei)合(he)力(li)(li)(li)。V4A/健宝-8-2、HC356A/安(an)徽草(cao)3、SX14A/皖系3SM3-1、SX7A/安(an)徽草(cao)3和V4A/(MamaMama/BMR)-1在(zai)产量(liang)性(xing)状上(shang)表(biao)(biao)现出较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)(gao)的(de)特殊(shu)配(pei)(pei)合(he)力(li)(li)(li),是(shi)(shi)较(jiao)(jiao)好的(de)杂(za)(za)交(jiao)(jiao)模式(shi)。5个(ge)(ge)农艺(yi)性(xing)状的(de)遗(yi)(yi)传是(shi)(shi)受加(jia)(jia)(jia)性(xing)和非加(jia)(jia)(jia)性(xing)效(xiao)应(ying)(ying)双重影(ying)响(xiang),占主导地(di)位(wei)的(de)是(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)性(xing)效(xiao)应(ying)(ying)。综合(he)而(er)言,(MamaMama/BMR)-1和053423-2表(biao)(biao)现出的(de)一般(ban)配(pei)(pei)合(he)力(li)(li)(li)突出,安(an)徽草(cao)3的(de)特殊(shu)配(pei)(pei)合(he)力(li)(li)(li)表(biao)(biao)现较(jiao)(jiao)好,都是(shi)(shi)选育出的(de)优(you)良亲本恢复系。本研(yan)究对(dui)饲草(cao)高(gao)(gao)粱恢复系配(pei)(pei)合(he)力(li)(li)(li)和遗(yi)(yi)传力(li)(li)(li)进行了(le)估(gu)算(suan),对(dui)了(le)解(jie)饲草(cao)高(gao)(gao)粱恢复系主要性(xing)状的(de)配(pei)(pei)合(he)力(li)(li)(li),及为杂(za)(za)交(jiao)(jiao)育种选择优(you)良亲本和最优(you)杂(za)(za)交(jiao)(jiao)组(zu)合(he)提(ti)供依据。
甘肃省高寒牧区小黑麦新品系的生产性能
宋谦, 田新会, 杜文华
2016, 10(7): 1367-1374. doi:
[摘要](585) [HTML全文] (22) [PDF 1312KB](292)
摘要:
通过研究小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(×Triticosecale Wittmack)新(xin)品(pin)系(P2、P4)在(zai)甘肃省高寒(han)牧(mu)区(肃南、合作、玛(ma)曲(qu))的草(cao)产量(liang)及营(ying)养价值(zhi)(zhi),以筛选适宜(yi)种(zhong)植(zhi)区域,以石(shi)大(da)(da)1号(hao)(hao)和(he)(he)中(zhong)饲(si)(si)1048为对照品(pin)种(zhong)。结果表明,不同试(shi)点(dian)间、小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)麦(mai)材(cai)料间和(he)(he)材(cai)料×试(shi)点(dian)交互(hu)作用间的草(cao)产量(liang)和(he)(he)营(ying)养价值(zhi)(zhi)均有显著差(cha)异(P<0.05)。4个小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)麦(mai)材(cai)料在(zai)3个试(shi)点(dian)的干草(cao)产量(liang)表现为P2(14.42 t·hm-2)>P4(11.72 t·hm-2)>中(zhong)饲(si)(si)1048小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(10.03 t·hm-2)>石(shi)大(da)(da)1号(hao)(hao)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(9.70 t·hm-2),粗蛋白总含(han)量(liang)为P2(13.31%)>P4(12.17%)>中(zhong)饲(si)(si)1048小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(8.37%)>石(shi)大(da)(da)1号(hao)(hao)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(7.40%),中(zhong)性洗剂纤维(wei)总含(han)量(liang)为P2(61.65%)<中(zhong)饲(si)(si)1048小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(63.82%)< P4(64.89%)<石(shi)大(da)(da)1号(hao)(hao)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(68.14%),酸(suan)性洗剂纤维(wei)总含(han)量(liang)为P2(41.97%)<中(zhong)饲(si)(si)1048小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(42.15%)<P4(43.35%)<石(shi)大(da)(da)1号(hao)(hao)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(45.06%)。综合分析,小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)麦(mai)新(xin)品(pin)系P2高产优质(zhi),最(zui)适宜(yi)在(zai)甘肃省高寒(han)牧(mu)区种(zhong)植(zhi)。
燕麦幼苗对低温胁迫的响应
柏晓玲, 周青平, 陈有军, 田莉华, 陈仕勇, 肖雪君
2016, 10(7): 1375-1382. doi:
[摘要](568) [HTML全文] (26) [PDF 1535KB](385)
摘要:
在(zai)0、12、36、60 h不同时间梯度下(xia),对7个(ge)(ge)燕(yan)麦(Avena sativa)品种(zhong)(青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)引(yin)1号(hao)(hao)(hao)、青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)引(yin)2 号(hao)(hao)(hao)、青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)引(yin)3号(hao)(hao)(hao)莜(you)麦、青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)海甜(tian)燕(yan)麦、青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)海444、青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)燕(yan)1号(hao)(hao)(hao)和(he)(he)林纳)进行连续低(di)温(wen)(wen)(5 ℃)胁(xie)(xie)(xie)迫(po),比(bi)较其抗寒(han)能力。结果表(biao)明,与低(di)温(wen)(wen)胁(xie)(xie)(xie)迫(po)前(0 h)相(xiang)比(bi),低(di)温(wen)(wen)处理后(12、36和(he)(he)60 h)7个(ge)(ge)燕(yan)麦品种(zhong)幼苗叶片丙(bing)二(er)醛、脯氨酸含(han)量和(he)(he)超(chao)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)物歧化(hua)(hua)(hua)酶、过(guo)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)物酶活(huo)性均(jun)显著(zhu)增加(jia)(P<0.05);各燕(yan)麦品种(zhong)幼苗叶片丙(bing)二(er)醛、脯氨酸含(han)量和(he)(he)过(guo)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)物酶、超(chao)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)物歧化(hua)(hua)(hua)酶活(huo)性在(zai)低(di)温(wen)(wen)胁(xie)(xie)(xie)迫(po)初期(0-12 h)显著(zhu)增加(jia)(P<0.05)并(bing)达到(dao)最大值;随着低(di)温(wen)(wen)胁(xie)(xie)(xie)迫(po)时间延长,其含(han)量开始下(xia)降。7个(ge)(ge)燕(yan)麦品种(zhong)抗寒(han)能力依(yi)次表(biao)现为(wei)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)引(yin)3号(hao)(hao)(hao)莜(you)麦>青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)海甜(tian)燕(yan)麦>青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)引(yin)2号(hao)(hao)(hao)>林纳>青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)燕(yan)1号(hao)(hao)(hao)>青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)海444>青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)引(yin)1号(hao)(hao)(hao)。
羊草功能性状和地上生物量对氮素添加的响应
宋彦涛, 李强, 王平, 周道玮, 乌云娜
2016, 10(7): 1383-1390. doi:
[摘要](774) [HTML全文] (48) [PDF 1311KB](359)
摘要:
植(zhi)物(wu)功能性(xing)(xing)状(zhuang)对(dui)资源变化(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)(de)适应策略是生(sheng)态(tai)学(xue)研究(jiu)(jiu)的(de)(de)(de)基(ji)本问题(ti)之一。本研究(jiu)(jiu)在(zai)不同氮添加梯度处(chu)理下(xia),测定了羊(yang)草(Leymus chinensis)的(de)(de)(de)11个功能性(xing)(xing)状(zhuang)和(he)地(di)(di)上(shang)生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)变化(hua)(hua)。结果表明(ming),氮添加显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)影响羊(yang)草的(de)(de)(de)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)叶(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)a和(he)b含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)类胡萝卜(bu)素(su)(su)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)氮含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)干(gan)物(wu)质(zhi)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)比(bi)根长(zhang)(zhang)(P<0.05),而(er)对(dui)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)磷含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、比(bi)叶(ye)(ye)面(mian)积(ji)、叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)厚度、比(bi)茎重和(he)植(zhi)株(zhu)高(gao)度没有(you)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)作(zuo)用(P>0.05);叶(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)a和(he)b含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、类胡萝卜(bu)素(su)(su)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)氮含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)干(gan)物(wu)质(zhi)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、比(bi)茎重和(he)比(bi)根长(zhang)(zhang)之间有(you)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)的(de)(de)(de)相关(guan)(guan)关(guan)(guan)系(P<0.05),比(bi)叶(ye)(ye)面(mian)积(ji)、叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)厚度和(he)植(zhi)株(zhu)高(gao)度与其它功能性(xing)(xing)状(zhuang)的(de)(de)(de)相关(guan)(guan)性(xing)(xing)不显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P>0.05);20 g·m-2的(de)(de)(de)氮添加处(chu)理下(xia),羊(yang)草地(di)(di)上(shang)生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)最高(gao);羊(yang)草地(di)(di)上(shang)生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)随(sui)叶(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)a和(he)b含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、类胡萝卜(bu)素(su)(su)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)氮磷含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、株(zhu)高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)增大而(er)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)升高(gao)(P<0.05),随(sui)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)干(gan)物(wu)质(zhi)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、比(bi)茎重的(de)(de)(de)增大而(er)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)降低(P<0.05)。
黄土丘陵区不同管理方式下草地优势种群的生态位
张伟, 何俊皓, 郝文芳
2016, 10(7): 1391-1402. doi:
[摘要](795) [HTML全文] (9) [PDF 1354KB](373)
摘要:
以吴(wu)起县杨(yang)青川流域草(cao)地(di)为研究对(dui)(dui)(dui)象,对(dui)(dui)(dui)封育(Enclosure)、放牧(mu)(mu)(Grazing)、施(shi)肥(Fertilization)、刈割(ge)(Clipping)、灭(mie)(mie)鼠(Deratization)5种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)方(fang)(fang)(fang)式(shi)的(de)草(cao)地(di)群(qun)落(luo)进行调查,并(bing)运用Levins生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)(wei)宽(kuan)度和(he)Pianka生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)(wei)重(zhong)叠指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)对(dui)(dui)(dui)5种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)方(fang)(fang)(fang)式(shi)下主(zhu)要(yao)植物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)(wei)特征进行分(fen)析。结果表明(ming),达(da)乌(wu)里(li)胡枝子(zi)(Lespedeza davurica)、铁杆蒿(Artemisia sacrorum)、赖草(cao)(Leymus secalinus)、猪(zhu)毛蒿(Artemisia scoparia)和(he)硬质早熟禾(Poa sphondylodes)的(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)总(zong)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)(wei)宽(kuan)度较大(da),封育>放牧(mu)(mu)>施(shi)肥>刈割(ge)>灭(mie)(mie)鼠管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)模式(shi)下,生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)(wei)宽(kuan)度最大(da)的(de)分(fen)别是达(da)乌(wu)里(li)胡枝子(zi)、赖草(cao)、紫(zi)花地(di)丁(Viola philippica)、达(da)乌(wu)里(li)胡枝子(zi)和(he)猪(zhu)毛蒿,生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)(wei)宽(kuan)度值大(da)于(yu)(yu)4的(de)物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)数(shu)分(fen)别为6、6、3、4和(he)3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)。不同(tong)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)方(fang)(fang)(fang)式(shi)下各(ge)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)对(dui)(dui)(dui)间(jian)的(de)重(zhong)叠指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)平(ping)均值由(you)大(da)到小依(yi)次封育>放牧(mu)(mu)>施(shi)肥>刈割(ge)>灭(mie)(mie)鼠。施(shi)肥管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)中(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)间(jian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)(wei)宽(kuan)度与生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)(wei)重(zhong)叠之间(jian)存(cun)在线(xian)性关系,其它管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)方(fang)(fang)(fang)式(shi)中(zhong)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)(wei)宽(kuan)度与生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)(wei)重(zhong)叠之间(jian)不存(cun)在线(xian)性关系。生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)(wei)分(fen)析表明(ming),封育和(he)放牧(mu)(mu)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)下种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)间(jian)对(dui)(dui)(dui)资源的(de)需(xu)求趋于(yu)(yu)相同(tong),彼此间(jian)通过(guo)竞(jing)(jing)(jing)争共存(cun),有利(li)于(yu)(yu)群(qun)落(luo)演(yan)替,草(cao)地(di)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)系统逐(zhu)渐得(de)到恢复,施(shi)肥、刈割(ge)、灭(mie)(mie)鼠管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)使群(qun)落(luo)物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)竞(jing)(jing)(jing)争排(pai)序发(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)变(bian)化(hua),破坏了草(cao)地(di)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)系统原(yuan)有的(de)竞(jing)(jing)(jing)争机制,导致群(qun)落(luo)向简单群(qun)落(luo)演(yan)替。从牧(mu)(mu)草(cao)发(fa)展角(jiao)度出发(fa),封育、施(shi)肥和(he)刈割(ge)有利(li)于(yu)(yu)优质牧(mu)(mu)草(cao)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)。
季节性放牧对草地植物多样性与功能群特征的影响
刘玉, 刘振恒, 邓蕾, 武高林
2016, 10(7): 1403-1409. doi:
[摘要](1449) [HTML全文] (176) [PDF 1290KB](487)
摘要:
针对放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)对高(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)生(sheng)态系(xi)统的(de)(de)(de)影响,通过比(bi)较暖(nuan)(nuan)(nuan)(nuan)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(6月(yue)(yue)-10月(yue)(yue))和(he)(he)(he)(he)冷(leng)(leng)(leng)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(11月(yue)(yue)-翌年(nian)5月(yue)(yue))下典型高(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)物(wu)(wu)种多(duo)样性和(he)(he)(he)(he)功能群(qun)特(te)征的(de)(de)(de)变化,分(fen)析了高(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)植物(wu)(wu)群(qun)落(luo)对季(ji)(ji)节性放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)的(de)(de)(de)响应(ying)机制。结(jie)果表明,暖(nuan)(nuan)(nuan)(nuan)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)中(zhong)物(wu)(wu)种多(duo)样性指(zhi)数为(wei)(wei)1.92,均匀度(du)指(zhi)数为(wei)(wei)0.78,明显高(gao)于(yu)(yu)冷(leng)(leng)(leng)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)1.81和(he)(he)(he)(he)0.74,而(er)冷(leng)(leng)(leng)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)丰(feng)富(fu)度(du)指(zhi)数为(wei)(wei)17.45,高(gao)于(yu)(yu)暖(nuan)(nuan)(nuan)(nuan)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)16.45。冷(leng)(leng)(leng)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)上生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)为(wei)(wei)246.61 g·m-2,莎草(cao)(cao)(cao)类(lei)和(he)(he)(he)(he)豆科(ke)类(lei)功能群(qun)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)比(bi)例分(fen)别为(wei)(wei)66.85%和(he)(he)(he)(he)15.86%,其值均高(gao)于(yu)(yu)暖(nuan)(nuan)(nuan)(nuan)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)。暖(nuan)(nuan)(nuan)(nuan)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)植物(wu)(wu)总密度(du)为(wei)(wei)2 064株·m-2,明显高(gao)于(yu)(yu)冷(leng)(leng)(leng)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)1 394株·m-2。合(he)理的(de)(de)(de)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)强度(du)下,暖(nuan)(nuan)(nuan)(nuan)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)相比(bi)冷(leng)(leng)(leng)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)有利于(yu)(yu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)群(qun)落(luo)物(wu)(wu)种多(duo)样性和(he)(he)(he)(he)均匀度(du)的(de)(de)(de)维持,但冷(leng)(leng)(leng)季(ji)(ji)放(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)有利于(yu)(yu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)群(qun)落(luo)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)上生(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)积累(lei)。
动物生产层
温湿度对亚洲小车蝗飞行能力及主要能源物质利用的影响
高书晶, 韩海斌, 王宁, 徐林波, 刘爱萍, 特木尔
2016, 10(7): 1410-1417. doi:
[摘要](630) [HTML全文] (24) [PDF 1303KB](321)
摘要:
本(ben)研究采用昆虫(chong)飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)数据微机采集系统(飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)磨)吊飞(fei)方法,测定(ding)了温(wen)(wen)、湿(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)对(dui)10日龄亚(ya)洲(zhou)小(xiao)车(che)(che)(che)蝗(huang)(Oedaleus asiaticus)雌雄成(cheng)虫(chong)的(de)(de)(de)飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)力(li)及主(zhu)要能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)物(wu)(wu)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)利用的(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)。结果表明(ming),在(zai)环(huan)境温(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)为28 ℃、相对(dui)湿(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(RH)为60%时,10日龄亚(ya)洲(zhou)小(xiao)车(che)(che)(che)蝗(huang)成(cheng)虫(chong)表现出最(zui)(zui)(zui)优的(de)(de)(de)飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)力(li),单个个体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)最(zui)(zui)(zui)大(da)飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)时间、最(zui)(zui)(zui)大(da)飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)距离和(he)最(zui)(zui)(zui)大(da)飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)速度(du)(du)(du)(du)分别(bie)可达1.62 h、9.87 km和(he)2.03 km·h-1。在(zai)温(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)16 ℃以下或(huo)28 ℃以上,其(qi)飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)力(li)明(ming)显(xian)(xian)降(jiang)低。在(zai)40%~80%RH时,成(cheng)虫(chong)均(jun)能(neng)(neng)进行(xing)(xing)正常的(de)(de)(de)飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)活动。环(huan)境温(wen)(wen)、湿(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)会显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)影响(xiang)亚(ya)洲(zhou)小(xiao)车(che)(che)(che)蝗(huang)成(cheng)虫(chong)飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)物(wu)(wu)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)消(xiao)耗情况(P<0.05)。在(zai)最(zui)(zui)(zui)适(shi)的(de)(de)(de)温(wen)(wen)、湿(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)条(tiao)件(jian)下,小(xiao)车(che)(che)(che)蝗(huang)飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)所需的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)物(wu)(wu)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(甘油(you)三(san)(san)酯(zhi))最(zui)(zui)(zui)少,其(qi)飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)单位距离消(xiao)耗的(de)(de)(de)甘油(you)三(san)(san)酯(zhi)也(ye)最(zui)(zui)(zui)低,能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)利用效(xiao)率最(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)。较(jiao)高(gao)或(huo)较(jiao)低的(de)(de)(de)温(wen)(wen)、湿(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)条(tiao)件(jian),能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)物(wu)(wu)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)消(xiao)耗都显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)高(gao)于最(zui)(zui)(zui)适(shi)条(tiao)件(jian)。飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)物(wu)(wu)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)利用效(xiao)率的(de)(de)(de)不同(tong)是导(dao)致其(qi)在(zai)不同(tong)温(wen)(wen)、湿(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)下飞(fei)行(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)力(li)产生差异的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要原因之一。
多异瓢虫捕食豌豆蚜功能对3种杀虫剂亚致死剂量的响应
杨巧燕, 陈威, 孙小玲, 刘长仲
2016, 10(7): 1418-1425. doi:
[摘要](987) [HTML全文] (8) [PDF 1338KB](285)
摘要:
为了明(ming)确杀虫(chong)(chong)剂(ji)(ji)亚(ya)致(zhi)(zhi)死(si)(si)剂(ji)(ji)量(liang)(liang)对多异瓢(piao)虫(chong)(chong)(Hippodamia variegate)捕(bu)(bu)(bu)食(shi)功能的影响,为害虫(chong)(chong)综合防治(zhi)中有(you)效(xiao)协调(diao)化学(xue)防治(zhi)和(he)(he)(he)生物防治(zhi)间的相(xiang)互关(guan)系提供一定的理论参考,本(ben)研究采用(yong)胃毒(du)和(he)(he)(he)触杀两种(zhong)受(shou)药方(fang)式,分析了吡(bi)虫(chong)(chong)啉、阿(a)维菌(jun)素(su)和(he)(he)(he)高效(xiao)氯氰(qing)菊(ju)酯(zhi)3种(zhong)杀虫(chong)(chong)剂(ji)(ji)的亚(ya)致(zhi)(zhi)死(si)(si)剂(ji)(ji)量(liang)(liang)对多异瓢(piao)虫(chong)(chong)捕(bu)(bu)(bu)食(shi)量(liang)(liang)、捕(bu)(bu)(bu)食(shi)功能反应模(mo)型(xing)(xing)(xing)、捕(bu)(bu)(bu)食(shi)速率以及寻(xun)找效(xiao)应的影响。结(jie)(jie)果表明(ming),3种(zhong)杀虫(chong)(chong)剂(ji)(ji)亚(ya)致(zhi)(zhi)死(si)(si)剂(ji)(ji)量(liang)(liang)对多异瓢(piao)虫(chong)(chong)捕(bu)(bu)(bu)食(shi)作(zuo)用(yong)的影响大(da)小依次为高效(xiao)氯氰(qing)菊(ju)酯(zhi)>阿(a)维菌(jun)素(su)>吡(bi)虫(chong)(chong)啉。在杀虫(chong)(chong)剂(ji)(ji)亚(ya)致(zhi)(zhi)死(si)(si)剂(ji)(ji)量(liang)(liang)下(xia),多异瓢(piao)虫(chong)(chong)捕(bu)(bu)(bu)食(shi)功能反应模(mo)型(xing)(xing)(xing)的结(jie)(jie)构(gou)没(mei)有(you)变化,还(hai)是典(dian)型(xing)(xing)(xing)的Holling-Ⅱ型(xing)(xing)(xing),但模(mo)型(xing)(xing)(xing)参数发(fa)生了改变。其中,瞬时攻击率下(xia)降(jiang)6.01%~25.81%,处理猎物时间延长17.32%~71.82%,最(zui)大(da)理论捕(bu)(bu)(bu)食(shi)量(liang)(liang)降(jiang)低14.75%~41.80%。此外,捕(bu)(bu)(bu)食(shi)量(liang)(liang)、捕(bu)(bu)(bu)食(shi)速率和(he)(he)(he)寻(xun)找效(xiao)应也有(you)不同程(cheng)度(du)的下(xia)降(jiang),分别降(jiang)低6.71%~37.36%、9.81%~29.45%和(he)(he)(he)29.58%~7.85%。以上结(jie)(jie)果表明(ming),3种(zhong)杀虫(chong)(chong)剂(ji)(ji)亚(ya)致(zhi)(zhi)死(si)(si)剂(ji)(ji)量(liang)(liang)对多异瓢(piao)虫(chong)(chong)捕(bu)(bu)(bu)食(shi)功能均有(you)抑制作(zuo)用(yong)。
后生物生产层
含水量对燕麦及燕麦+箭筈豌豆裹包青贮品质的影响
琚泽亮, 赵桂琴, 覃方锉, 焦婷
2016, 10(7): 1426-1433. doi:
[摘要](671) [HTML全文] (25) [PDF 1311KB](367)
摘要:
为了探讨含(han)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)对(dui)燕(yan)麦(mai)(mai)(Avena sativa)以及燕(yan)麦(mai)(mai)+箭(jian)筈(gua)(gua)(gua)豌(wan)(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(Vicia sativa)混(hun)合(6:4)后裹(guo)包(bao)青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)发(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)品质(zhi)(zhi)的(de)影响(xiang),设45%~50%(A1)和(he)(he)(he)(he)65%~70%(A2)两个含(han)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang),以单贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(CK)和(he)(he)(he)(he)与(yu)箭(jian)筈(gua)(gua)(gua)豌(wan)(wan)(wan)豆(dou)混(hun)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)燕(yan)麦(mai)(mai)(H)为原(yuan)料(liao),研究采用捆裹(guo)法青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)40、80和(he)(he)(he)(he)120 d的(de)发(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)品质(zhi)(zhi)和(he)(he)(he)(he)养(yang)分含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang),分析原(yuan)料(liao)含(han)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)对(dui)两种(zhong)原(yuan)料(liao)裹(guo)包(bao)青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)料(liao)品质(zhi)(zhi)的(de)影响(xiang)。结果表明,含(han)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)及单、混(hun)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)对(dui)燕(yan)麦(mai)(mai)青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)发(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)品质(zhi)(zhi)的(de)影响(xiang)极(ji)(ji)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.01)。A2含(han)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)下各处理(li)(li)的(de)粗(cu)蛋白、乳(ru)酸和(he)(he)(he)(he)水(shui)溶(rong)性糖含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)比(bi)较稳定,pH值(zhi)和(he)(he)(he)(he)氨态氮含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05)降低,青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)效果较优。A1含(han)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)下粗(cu)蛋白含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)下降幅度远(yuan)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)A2;A2H处理(li)(li)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05)降低了青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)料(liao)的(de)pH,同时(shi)(shi)其(qi)乳(ru)酸含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)在青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)40、80和(he)(he)(he)(he)120 d时(shi)(shi)一(yi)直(zhi)保(bao)持最(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao)值(zhi),120 d时(shi)(shi)仍高(gao)(gao)(gao)达(da)0.82%,比(bi)最(zui)低的(de)A1CK(0.50%)高(gao)(gao)(gao)64.00%。燕(yan)麦(mai)(mai)与(yu)箭(jian)筈(gua)(gua)(gua)豌(wan)(wan)(wan)豆(dou)混(hun)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)可显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)改(gai)善青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)发(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)品质(zhi)(zhi),效果优于(yu)(yu)(yu)单播(bo)燕(yan)麦(mai)(mai)。青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)40 d时(shi)(shi),钙(gai)、磷(lin)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)以A2H为最(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(1.34%和(he)(he)(he)(he)0.24%),A1H次之(1.16%和(he)(he)(he)(he)0.23%),极(ji)(ji)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.01)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)对(dui)照(zhao)。青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)80 d时(shi)(shi),A1H和(he)(he)(he)(he)A2H处理(li)(li)粗(cu)蛋白含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)比(bi)对(dui)照(zhao)分别高(gao)(gao)(gao)出31.94%和(he)(he)(he)(he)14.70%。综上所述,在青(qing)(qing)(qing)藏高(gao)(gao)(gao)原(yuan)高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒地区,燕(yan)麦(mai)(mai)与(yu)箭(jian)筈(gua)(gua)(gua)豌(wan)(wan)(wan)豆(dou)混(hun)播(bo)(6:4),在箭(jian)筈(gua)(gua)(gua)豌(wan)(wan)(wan)豆(dou)盛花(hua)期(qi)、燕(yan)麦(mai)(mai)灌浆期(qi)刈割,在65%~70%含(han)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)下裹(guo)包(bao)青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)可获得优质(zhi)(zhi)青(qing)(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)料(liao)。
新《种子法》对我国草品种审定制度的影响
齐晓, 李曼莉, 孙启忠
2016, 10(7): 1434-1439. doi:
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摘要:
品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)审(shen)定是品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)管理的(de)核心(xin)。因新《种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子法》颁(ban)布实施,农作(zuo)物品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)审(shen)定制度(du)较以往(wang)出现(xian)了较大变化。本文通过(guo)梳理、解(jie)读新《种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子法》中欧(ou)宝体育(yu)农作(zuo)物品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)审(shen)定的(de)条(tiao)款和现(xian)行法律涉及草(cao)(cao)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)审(shen)定的(de)规定,为草(cao)(cao)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)育(yu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)者答(da)疑解(jie)惑,明确草(cao)(cao)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)必须经(jing)审(shen)定才能推(tui)广的(de)规定仍然有效。笔(bi)者借鉴(jian)农作(zuo)物品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)审(shen)定制度(du)改革的(de)思(si)路,对草(cao)(cao)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)审(shen)定制度(du)的(de)完善提(ti)出了建议。
禁牧休牧监管立法的分析与探讨
王政
2016, 10(7): 1440-1446. doi:
[摘要](586) [HTML全文] (22) [PDF 1227KB](417)
摘要:
禁牧休牧已(yi)成为保(bao)护(hu)和培育(yu)生态植(zhi)被(bei)的(de)一种主要方(fang)式,是遏制草原荒漠化的(de)有效手(shou)段。相(xiang)对于(yu)禁牧休牧的(de)制度需求,其(qi)监管立法却(que)存在诸多问题需要完善,本文从立法层级、监管体制、法律责任等方(fang)面分析了禁牧休牧监管立法中存在的(de)问题,着重论述其(qi)完善途径,并提出了相(xiang)应的(de)立法建(jian)议。
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