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2016年33卷8期

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中英文目录
中英文目录
2016, 10(8): 0-0.
[摘要](425) [PDF 374KB](240)
摘要:
专论
我从农业生态系统科学到农业伦理学的心路历程——为唤醒我国农业伦理学意识而呼吁
任继周
2016, 10(8): 1451-1453. doi:
[摘要](1458) [HTML全文] (374) [PDF 1194KB](630)
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前植物生产层
陇东黄土高原草地与畜粪夏季的温室气体排放
杨晗蕾, 陈先江, 侯扶江
2016, 10(8): 1454-1459. doi:
[摘要](697) [HTML全文] (35) [PDF 1312KB](448)
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采(cai)用静态(tai)箱法测定(ding)了陇东黄土(tu)高原(yuan)天(tian)然草地、栽培草地[紫(zi)花苜蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)地]、撂荒(huang)地、猪粪(fen)(fen)和(he)(he)(he)(he)羊粪(fen)(fen)8月份3种主要(yao)温室(shi)气(qi)体的通(tong)量(liang),甲烷(wan)排(pai)放(fang)量(liang)分(fen)别是(shi)-290.212、-204.18、-180.14、47.84和(he)(he)(he)(he)33.59 mg(dm2)-1,CO2排(pai)放(fang)值分(fen)别是(shi)266.99、418.72、947.31、6 110.63和(he)(he)(he)(he)14 771.80 mg(dm2)-1,N2O排(pai)放(fang)值依次(ci)为-4.87、-2.56、5.31、1 050.55和(he)(he)(he)(he)1 911.76 mg(dm2)-1,温室(shi)气(qi)体排(pai)放(fang)总(zong)量(liang)分(fen)别为-8 395.69、-5 425.62、-2 012.6、568 110.19和(he)(he)(he)(he)310 915.58 mgCO2(dm2)-1。研究区3种草地土(tu)壤表现为碳(tan)汇(hui),天(tian)然草地碳(tan)汇(hui)效应最好,粪(fen)(fen)肥(fei)表现为碳(tan)源(yuan)。猪粪(fen)(fen)和(he)(he)(he)(he)撂荒(huang)地土(tu)壤的3种温室(shi)气(qi)体通(tong)量(liang)均与(yu)7.5 cm土(tu)温线性(xing)相关。猪粪(fen)(fen)和(he)(he)(he)(he)羊粪(fen)(fen)系统(tong)温室(shi)气(qi)体间的排(pai)放(fang)均呈线性(xing)关系。
禁牧对中度退化伊犁绢蒿荒漠草地土壤养分的影响
董乙强, 孙宗玖, 安沙舟, 杨静
2016, 10(8): 1460-1468. doi:
[摘要](739) [HTML全文] (25) [PDF 1495KB](462)
摘要:
为了(le)探究荒漠(mo)(mo)土壤(rang)(rang)理化性(xing)质对禁牧(mu)的(de)响应规律,以(yi)中度退化伊犁绢(juan)蒿(Seriphidium transiliense)荒漠(mo)(mo)草(cao)(cao)地(di)为研究对象,采取野外取样与(yu)室内分(fen)析(xi)相结合(he)的(de)方法(fa),对不同禁牧(mu)年限(0、1、4和11 a)的(de)荒漠(mo)(mo)草(cao)(cao)地(di)土壤(rang)(rang)有(you)机碳(tan)(tan),全(quan)(quan)(quan)量(liang)(liang)和速(su)效(xiao)氮(dan)、磷(lin)(lin)、钾(jia)(jia),pH,土壤(rang)(rang)含(han)(han)水量(liang)(liang),容重(zhong)进行测(ce)定(ding)分(fen)析(xi),探讨草(cao)(cao)地(di)恢(hui)复(fu)演替过程中土壤(rang)(rang)养分(fen)的(de)变(bian)化规律。结果表(biao)明,随着禁牧(mu)年限的(de)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia),土壤(rang)(rang)表(biao)层(ceng)(0-5 cm)有(you)机碳(tan)(tan)、全(quan)(quan)(quan)氮(dan)、全(quan)(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)、全(quan)(quan)(quan)钾(jia)(jia)、速(su)效(xiao)磷(lin)(lin)、速(su)效(xiao)钾(jia)(jia)均呈(cheng)先降后(hou)升的(de)变(bian)化趋(qu)(qu)势(shi);与(yu)对照未禁牧(mu)相比,0-5 cm土壤(rang)(rang)有(you)机碳(tan)(tan)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)降低(di)了(le)11.9%~23.0%,5-10 cm土壤(rang)(rang)全(quan)(quan)(quan)氮(dan)显著降低(di)了(le)31.3%~46.7%;禁牧(mu)11 a后(hou)全(quan)(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)、速(su)效(xiao)钾(jia)(jia)分(fen)别增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)了(le)8.5%,12.0%;全(quan)(quan)(quan)钾(jia)(jia)、碱解氮(dan)、速(su)效(xiao)磷(lin)(lin)无明显变(bian)化趋(qu)(qu)势(shi);土壤(rang)(rang)含(han)(han)水量(liang)(liang)呈(cheng)波动性(xing)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia),容重(zhong)呈(cheng)波动性(xing)下降趋(qu)(qu)势(shi)。
青海省祁连县高寒草甸草原土壤有机碳分布特征
李硕, 姜哲浩, 张德罡, 聂中南, 陈建纲, 胡新振, 陈璐, 袁子茹, 任灵
2016, 10(8): 1469-1475. doi:
[摘要](759) [HTML全文] (26) [PDF 1331KB](446)
摘要:
为(wei)了(le)评价青海省祁(qi)连县高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)草(cao)(cao)甸草(cao)(cao)原有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)碳的(de)分(fen)布(bu)特(te)征(zheng),本研究以(yi)祁(qi)连县海拔(ba)2 963-3 392 m范围内(nei)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)草(cao)(cao)甸草(cao)(cao)原为(wei)研究对象,采(cai)用野外调查取样结合室内(nei)分(fen)析的(de)方法,分(fen)析了(le)祁(qi)连县高(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)草(cao)(cao)甸草(cao)(cao)原0-50 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)碳的(de)分(fen)布(bu)规(gui)律。结果表明(ming),土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)碳含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)随(sui)着(zhe)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层深(shen)度(du)(du)的(de)增加而(er)显著(zhu)减少(P<0.01),表现为(wei)0-10>10-20>20-30>30-40>40-50 cm;土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)碳密度(du)(du)和(he)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)碳储量(liang)(liang)同(tong)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)碳含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)分(fen)布(bu)有(you)(you)(you)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)同(tong)的(de)趋势;土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)碳与(yu)地上生物量(liang)(liang)和(he)植被盖(gai)度(du)(du)呈(cheng)极(ji)显著(zhu)(P<0.01)正相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)关关系,表明(ming)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)碳含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)随(sui)着(zhe)盖(gai)度(du)(du)和(he)地上生物量(liang)(liang)的(de)增加而(er)增加。土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)碳含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)与(yu)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)容重呈(cheng)极(ji)显著(zhu)(P<0.01)负相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)关关系;相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)反(fan),随(sui)着(zhe)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层深(shen)度(du)(du)的(de)增加,土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)含(han)(han)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)逐渐减少,土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)碳含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)与(yu)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)含(han)(han)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)呈(cheng)极(ji)显著(zhu)(P<0.01)正相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)关。
旅游对喀纳斯景区植被和土壤碳、氮、磷化学计量特征的影响
唐高溶, 郑伟, 王祥, 朱亚琼
2016, 10(8): 1476-1485. doi:
[摘要](796) [HTML全文] (46) [PDF 1441KB](374)
摘要:
为(wei)了(le)探究旅游(you)(you)(you)干(gan)(gan)扰(rao)对喀纳(na)斯景(jing)区(qu)(qu)植被(bei)和土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)的(de)(de)(de)碳(C)、氮(N)、磷(P)生态(tai)化学(xue)计量特(te)(te)征的(de)(de)(de)影响,根据喀纳(na)斯景(jing)区(qu)(qu)游(you)(you)(you)客活(huo)动(dong)(dong)离(li)游(you)(you)(you)道的(de)(de)(de)距离(li)远近、景(jing)点(dian)吸引(yin)游(you)(you)(you)客数量、景(jing)点(dian)草(cao)地植被(bei)状况,将(jiang)样(yang)地划(hua)分为(wei)Ⅰ区(qu)(qu)、Ⅱ区(qu)(qu)、Ⅲ区(qu)(qu)和Ⅳ区(qu)(qu)4个区(qu)(qu)域(yu),测定4个不(bu)同旅游(you)(you)(you)干(gan)(gan)扰(rao)强(qiang)(qiang)度区(qu)(qu)域(yu)植被(bei)和土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)的(de)(de)(de)C、N、P含(han)量。结果(guo)表明,随(sui)着旅游(you)(you)(you)干(gan)(gan)扰(rao)强(qiang)(qiang)度的(de)(de)(de)增加(jia),植被(bei)和土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)的(de)(de)(de)C、N、P含(han)量均呈递减的(de)(de)(de)趋势,植被(bei)和土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)的(de)(de)(de)C∶N、C∶P、N∶P值均随(sui)旅游(you)(you)(you)干(gan)(gan)扰(rao)强(qiang)(qiang)度的(de)(de)(de)增加(jia)而(er)增大;在(zai)旅游(you)(you)(you)干(gan)(gan)扰(rao)较强(qiang)(qiang)的(de)(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)域(yu),植物生长(zhang)易受(shou)P限制(zhi),旅游(you)(you)(you)干(gan)(gan)扰(rao)弱的(de)(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)域(yu),植物的(de)(de)(de)生长(zhang)受(shou)N限制(zhi)。对喀纳(na)斯草(cao)地植被(bei)与土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)C、N、P含(han)量及(ji)生态(tai)化学(xue)计量特(te)(te)征进行(xing)动(dong)(dong)态(tai)监测,可以(yi)减轻旅游(you)(you)(you)活(huo)动(dong)(dong)造成的(de)(de)(de)负面影响,有(you)助于喀纳(na)斯景(jing)区(qu)(qu)科学(xue)合理的(de)(de)(de)管理。
封育和添加牛粪对退化亚高山草甸土壤恢复的影响
李永进, 代微然, 杨春勐, 任健, 毕玉芬
2016, 10(8): 1486-1491. doi:
[摘要](682) [HTML全文] (61) [PDF 1380KB](233)
摘要:
为了(le)(le)解封(feng)(feng)育(yu)和(he)(he)添加(jia)(jia)(jia)牛(niu)粪措施对(dui)退(tui)化(hua)草(cao)地土(tu)壤(rang)恢复的(de)(de)影响(xiang),本(ben)研究(jiu)(jiu)以滇西北部(bu)亚(ya)高山草(cao)甸为研究(jiu)(jiu)对(dui)象,进行了(le)(le)延续4年的(de)(de)试验(yan)。结果表明,封(feng)(feng)育(yu)、添加(jia)(jia)(jia)牛(niu)粪均显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)提高了(le)(le)退(tui)化(hua)亚(ya)高山草(cao)甸土(tu)壤(rang)有(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)质(zhi)含(han)量(liang)(P<0.05),且(qie)封(feng)(feng)育(yu)下有(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)质(zhi)含(han)量(liang)高于添加(jia)(jia)(jia)牛(niu)粪处理(li);二者对(dui)土(tu)壤(rang)容重、含(han)水(shui)量(liang)均无显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)影响(xiang)(P>0.05)。封(feng)(feng)育(yu)、添加(jia)(jia)(jia)牛(niu)粪对(dui)土(tu)壤(rang)氮(dan)磷(lin)钾(jia)含(han)量(liang)的(de)(de)作用(yong)有(you)所不同,封(feng)(feng)育(yu)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)提高了(le)(le)0-10 cm土(tu)层(ceng)中全(quan)(quan)氮(dan)、全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)、速(su)效(xiao)钾(jia)的(de)(de)含(han)量(liang)(P<0.05),降低了(le)(le)全(quan)(quan)钾(jia)的(de)(de)含(han)量(liang)(P<0.05);牛(niu)粪处理(li)则显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)降低了(le)(le)0-10 cm土(tu)壤(rang)全(quan)(quan)氮(dan)和(he)(he)速(su)效(xiao)磷(lin)的(de)(de)含(han)量(liang)(P<0.05),对(dui)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)、速(su)效(xiao)钾(jia)的(de)(de)含(han)量(liang)没有(you)明显(xian)(xian)影响(xiang)(P>0.05)。封(feng)(feng)育(yu)和(he)(he)添加(jia)(jia)(jia)牛(niu)粪措施之(zhi)间存(cun)在(zai)互(hu)作效(xiao)应, 共同作用(yong)时对(dui)0-10 cm的(de)(de)全(quan)(quan)氮(dan)、全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)、速(su)效(xiao)磷(lin)的(de)(de)影响(xiang)最大,对(dui)0-30 cm土(tu)壤(rang)的(de)(de)有(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)质(zhi)含(han)量(liang)则存(cun)在(zai)累(lei)积效(xiao)应。另外,全(quan)(quan)氮(dan)、全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)、全(quan)(quan)钾(jia)、速(su)效(xiao)磷(lin)、速(su)效(xiao)钾(jia)在(zai)土(tu)壤(rang)中的(de)(de)分布以0-10 cm为主(zhu),在(zai)0-30 cm土(tu)层(ceng)中从上(shang)往下呈递减趋势。可(ke)见,封(feng)(feng)育(yu)和(he)(he)添加(jia)(jia)(jia)牛(niu)粪均改善了(le)(le)土(tu)壤(rang)的(de)(de)养(yang)分状况,有(you)利(li)于退(tui)化(hua)亚(ya)高山草(cao)甸土(tu)壤(rang)的(de)(de)恢复。
武功山山地草甸主要群落类型高光谱特征
李真真, 郑翔, 牛德奎, 郭晓敏, 谢碧裕, 张学玲
2016, 10(8): 1492-1501. doi:
[摘要](789) [HTML全文] (51) [PDF 1440KB](301)
摘要:
本研究(jiu)以江西省(sheng)武功山金顶风景(jing)区(qu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)五节芒(mang)(Miscanthus floridulus)、野古草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Arundinella hirta)、飘(piao)拂(fu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Fimbristylis wukungshanensis)、中(zhong)(zhong)华苔草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Carex chinensis)、箭竹(zhu)(Sinarundinaria nitida)为(wei)优势物种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)5种主要群(qun)(qun)(qun)落为(wei)研究(jiu)对(dui)象,以美国 SVC HR-768 野外便(bian)携(xie)式地(di)(di)物波谱仪测(ce)定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高光(guang)谱数(shu)(shu)(shu)据(ju)为(wei)基础,利用重(zhong)采样、一(yi)阶微(wei)(wei)分和(he)去(qu)包(bao)络线3种数(shu)(shu)(shu)据(ju)处理方法分别(bie)提取有效(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)光(guang)谱吸收特(te)(te)(te)征(zheng)(zheng)参数(shu)(shu)(shu),以此获得(de)区(qu)分5种草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)群(qun)(qun)(qun)落的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)光(guang)谱特(te)(te)(te)征(zheng)(zheng)。结果(guo)表明,1)5种群(qun)(qun)(qun)落光(guang)谱反射(she)率组间(jian)差(cha)异显著(P<0.05),光(guang)谱反射(she)率表现为(wei)中(zhong)(zhong)华苔草(cao)(cao)(cao)>野古草(cao)(cao)(cao)>五节芒(mang)>箭竹(zhu)>飘(piao)拂(fu)草(cao)(cao)(cao);2)重(zhong)采样处理得(de)到的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特(te)(te)(te)征(zheng)(zheng)参数(shu)(shu)(shu)中(zhong)(zhong)500-600、600-700和(he)1 200-1 300 nm 3个波段的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)波峰(feng)/谷(gu)深度(du)差(cha)别(bie)都最(zui)(zui)明显,一(yi)阶微(wei)(wei)分处理提取的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)红边、黄边和(he)蓝边有关的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特(te)(te)(te)征(zheng)(zheng)参数(shu)(shu)(shu)也能够很(hen)好的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)将5种群(qun)(qun)(qun)落进行分类,而(er)利用连续统去(qu)除(chu)法提取的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特(te)(te)(te)征(zheng)(zheng)参数(shu)(shu)(shu)中(zhong)(zhong),吸收谷(gu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)宽深比差(cha)值(zhi)最(zui)(zui)大可达到92,是区(qu)分5种群(qun)(qun)(qun)落最(zui)(zui)有效(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特(te)(te)(te)征(zheng)(zheng)参数(shu)(shu)(shu);3)波峰(feng)/波谷(gu)对(dui)应的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)波长位置是山地(di)(di)草(cao)(cao)(cao)甸5种主要群(qun)(qun)(qun)落的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)共性参数(shu)(shu)(shu)。
基于MODIS数据的伊犁河谷植被指数变化及其对气候的响应
陈爱京, 肖继东, 曹孟磊
2016, 10(8): 1502-1508. doi:
[摘要](591) [HTML全文] (23) [PDF 1364KB](373)
摘要:
利用2006-2014年(nian)(nian)主要生(sheng)长季(5-9月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue))的(de)(de)MODIS遥感数据,分析了2006-2014年(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)年(nian)(nian)平(ping)均(jun)NDVI和(he)生(sheng)长季月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)NDVI变(bian)化规律。同(tong)时,收集整理(li)同(tong)期(qi)伊犁河谷地区(qu)的(de)(de)气温与(yu)降(jiang)(jiang)水(shui)(shui)(shui)资料,并对NDVI与(yu)当月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)、2个月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)滑(hua)动(dong)(dong)、3个月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)滑(hua)动(dong)(dong)和(he)5个月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)滑(hua)动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)平(ping)均(jun)气温、降(jiang)(jiang)水(shui)(shui)(shui)值进(jin)行了相关性(xing)分析。结果表明,NDVI与(yu)气温、降(jiang)(jiang)水(shui)(shui)(shui)都存在(zai)一(yi)定的(de)(de)相关性(xing),NDVI受当月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)平(ping)均(jun)气温的(de)(de)影响(xiang)最(zui)大;NDVI与(yu)当月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)降(jiang)(jiang)水(shui)(shui)(shui)和(he)滑(hua)动(dong)(dong)平(ping)均(jun)降(jiang)(jiang)水(shui)(shui)(shui)的(de)(de)相关性(xing)都很好,但3个月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)滑(hua)动(dong)(dong)平(ping)均(jun)降(jiang)(jiang)水(shui)(shui)(shui)对NDVI的(de)(de)影响(xiang)最(zui)大,并且通过了0.01的(de)(de)极显著性(xing)检验(yan)。
甘肃黄河三峡湿地资源调查
张燕, 魏祎梅, 魏茂宏, 李琳
2016, 10(8): 1509-1517. doi:
[摘要](675) [HTML全文] (63) [PDF 1445KB](372)
摘要:
湿(shi)(shi)地(di)具有巨(ju)大的(de)环境(jing)调(diao)节功能和生态效益。甘肃(su)黄(huang)(huang)河三(san)峡(xia)湿(shi)(shi)地(di)保(bao)护(hu)区(qu)作为一个(ge)新(xin)近形成的(de)人(ren)(ren)工湿(shi)(shi)地(di),社会各界对其(qi)资源(yuan)状况知之甚(shen)少。通过查(cha)(cha)阅资料和数字化信息,以及资源(yuan)调(diao)查(cha)(cha),初(chu)步查(cha)(cha)明甘肃(su)黄(huang)(huang)河三(san)峡(xia)湿(shi)(shi)地(di)自然保(bao)护(hu)区(qu)拥有丰(feng)富的(de)植(zhi)物(wu)资源(yuan),共有植(zhi)物(wu)252个(ge)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),隶属(shu)于65科181属(shu),其(qi)中湿(shi)(shi)地(di)植(zhi)物(wu)183种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)。动(dong)物(wu)资源(yuan)有兽(shou)类(lei)23种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),鸟类(lei)141余种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),爬(pa)行类(lei)3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),两栖类(lei)4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),鱼类(lei)36种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)。但(dan)由(you)于人(ren)(ren)为活动(dong)等因素导(dao)致该湿(shi)(shi)地(di)群(qun)落退化加剧,已产生巨(ju)大的(de)生态损(sun)失。本文对存在(zai)的(de)放(fang)牧(mu)、开(kai)垦(ken)等问题提(ti)出(chu)建议(yi)。
植物生产层
表达二穗短柄草CBF2基因拟南芥抗旱性分析
张彦妮, 焦孟月, 刘奕佳
2016, 10(8): 1518-1525. doi:
[摘要](699) [HTML全文] (16) [PDF 1637KB](356)
摘要:
以(yi)表达二穗短柄(bing)草(Brachypodium distachyon)CBF2基(ji)因(yin)(yin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)拟(ni)(ni)南(nan)(nan)(nan)芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)为(wei)材料(liao),通过(guo)模拟(ni)(ni)干旱(han)胁(xie)迫(po)分(fen)析其种子(zi)和幼(you)(you)苗(miao)(miao)对甘露醇渗透胁(xie)迫(po)的(de)(de)(de)(de)响应(ying)和成(cheng)(cheng)苗(miao)(miao)对盆栽条件下水分(fen)胁(xie)迫(po)的(de)(de)(de)(de)响应(ying)。结果表明,渗透压为(wei)-0.62 MPa时种子(zi)萌发(fa)(fa)率开始(shi)下降,转基(ji)因(yin)(yin)拟(ni)(ni)南(nan)(nan)(nan)芥种子(zi)萌发(fa)(fa)率略高(gao)(gao)于(yu)野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)拟(ni)(ni)南(nan)(nan)(nan)芥,但(dan)差(cha)异不显著(zhu)(P>0.05)。以(yi)根的(de)(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)长(zhang)量(liang)作为(wei)评价幼(you)(you)苗(miao)(miao)抗旱(han)性(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主要标(biao)准,当渗透压小于(yu)-0.37 MPa时,根长(zhang)增(zeng)长(zhang)量(liang)随着(zhe)胁(xie)迫(po)强度的(de)(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)加而明显减小,转基(ji)因(yin)(yin)株(zhu)(zhu)系根长(zhang)增(zeng)长(zhang)量(liang)始(shi)终显著(zhu)高(gao)(gao)于(yu)野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)型(xing)拟(ni)(ni)南(nan)(nan)(nan)芥(P<0.05)。拟(ni)(ni)南(nan)(nan)(nan)芥成(cheng)(cheng)苗(miao)(miao)干旱(han)胁(xie)迫(po)至25 d,野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)拟(ni)(ni)南(nan)(nan)(nan)芥成(cheng)(cheng)活(huo)率为(wei)11.7%,转基(ji)因(yin)(yin)植株(zhu)(zhu)平均(jun)(jun)成(cheng)(cheng)活(huo)率为(wei)41.6%;随着(zhe)干旱(han)胁(xie)迫(po)时间的(de)(de)(de)(de)延长(zhang),转基(ji)因(yin)(yin)拟(ni)(ni)南(nan)(nan)(nan)芥过(guo)氧化物酶(mei)(mei)、超氧化物歧(qi)化酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)均(jun)(jun)显著(zhu)高(gao)(gao)于(yu)野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)植株(zhu)(zhu),丙二醛(quan)含量(liang)及(ji)相对电导率显著(zhu)低于(yu)野(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)植株(zhu)(zhu)。结果表明,二穗短柄(bing)草CBF2基(ji)因(yin)(yin)提(ti)高(gao)(gao)了拟(ni)(ni)南(nan)(nan)(nan)芥幼(you)(you)苗(miao)(miao)及(ji)成(cheng)(cheng)苗(miao)(miao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)抗旱(han)性(xing)(xing)。
偃麦草EST-SSR标记开发及应用
王瑞晶, 李培英, 张延辉
2016, 10(8): 1526-1535. doi:
[摘要](665) [HTML全文] (28) [PDF 1370KB](382)
摘要:
利用(yong)NCBI数(shu)(shu)据库中偃麦(mai)(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Elytrigia repens)EST序列开(kai)发偃麦(mai)(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)EST-SSR引物,并对(dui)(dui)47份偃麦(mai)(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)资源进(jin)行(xing)遗传(chuan)(chuan)多(duo)样性(xing)(xing)分析,验证所开(kai)发EST-SSR引物在(zai)(zai)偃麦(mai)(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)上的(de)可(ke)应用(yong)性(xing)(xing)。结果显示,在(zai)(zai)27 891条偃麦(mai)(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)EST序列中可(ke)以(yi)搜索到SSR位点1 068个;其中六核(he)苷酸重(zhong)复序列最多(duo),占(zhan)总SSR的(de)53.83%;二(er)、三、四、五、六核(he)苷酸优势重(zhong)复基元及出现频(pin)率分别为AC/TG(2.72%)、CGC/GCG(1.87%)、CGAC/GCTG(5.24%)、CCGCC/GGCGG(0.37%)、CAGCTC/GTCGAG(3.37%)。开(kai)发的(de)105对(dui)(dui)偃麦(mai)(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)EST-SSR引物中有64对(dui)(dui)引物(60.95%)可(ke)以(yi)有效扩增;随机选取18对(dui)(dui)多(duo)态性(xing)(xing)引物对(dui)(dui)47份偃麦(mai)(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)进(jin)行(xing)遗传(chuan)(chuan)多(duo)样性(xing)(xing)分析,其多(duo)态性(xing)(xing)百分率为78.64%,多(duo)态性(xing)(xing)指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)(PIC)为0.22~0.83。以(yi)上结果表(biao)明,开(kai)发的(de)偃麦(mai)(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)EST-SSR标记(ji)是有效的(de),有较高的(de)应用(yong)价值,为偃麦(mai)(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(cao)遗传(chuan)(chuan)多(duo)样性(xing)(xing)、重(zhong)要(yao)性(xing)(xing)状关联(lian)分析研究奠定了基础。
甘农3号和陇东苜蓿高效共生根瘤菌菌株的筛选
潘佳, 范燕, 李荣, 陈利军, 胡小文
2016, 10(8): 1536-1549. doi:
[摘要](600) [HTML全文] (25) [PDF 2234KB](488)
摘要:
本研究结合温室盆(pen)栽(zai)和(he)大田试验,研究了(le)接(jie)(jie)种(zhong)不同(tong)根(gen)瘤(liu)菌(jun)菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)对甘(gan)农3号(Medicago sativa cv. Gannong No.3)和(he)陇(long)(long)东(dong)(dong)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(M. sativa cv. Longdong)幼苗生(sheng)长及结瘤(liu)特性的影响,并进一步分(fen)(fen)析了(le)接(jie)(jie)种(zhong)根(gen)瘤(liu)菌(jun)后(hou)陇(long)(long)东(dong)(dong)苜(mu)(mu)蓿的光合特性及其生(sheng)物(wu)量构成因素的变(bian)化(hua)。结果表明,盆(pen)栽(zai)条件下,甘(gan)农3号接(jie)(jie)种(zhong)17767菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)后(hou),生(sheng)物(wu)量、株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高、分(fen)(fen)枝(zhi)数和(he)叶数分(fen)(fen)别(bie)增长了(le)102%、100%、17%和(he)18%;陇(long)(long)东(dong)(dong)苜(mu)(mu)蓿接(jie)(jie)种(zhong)17625菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)后(hou),生(sheng)物(wu)量、株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高、分(fen)(fen)枝(zhi)数和(he)叶数分(fen)(fen)别(bie)增了(le)187%、48%、80%和(he)47%。而(er)在大田条件下,甘(gan)农3号接(jie)(jie)种(zhong)17650菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)后(hou),生(sheng)物(wu)量和(he)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高分(fen)(fen)别(bie)增长了(le)21%和(he)13%;陇(long)(long)东(dong)(dong)苜(mu)(mu)蓿接(jie)(jie)种(zhong)17574菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)后(hou),生(sheng)物(wu)量和(he)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高分(fen)(fen)别(bie)增长了(le)348%和(he)70%。盆(pen)栽(zai)条件下,相比未接(jie)(jie)种(zhong)处理,接(jie)(jie)种(zhong)6-3、17537、129、17670、17582、17578、17650菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)均不同(tong)程(cheng)度地提高了(le)陇(long)(long)东(dong)(dong)苜(mu)(mu)蓿的水分(fen)(fen)利用效率,仅接(jie)(jie)种(zhong)17578、17582菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)提高了(le)其光合速率。综(zong)合盆(pen)栽(zai)与田间试验,与甘(gan)农3号最(zui)佳(jia)共生(sheng)匹配的根(gen)瘤(liu)菌(jun)菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)为B2;而(er)与陇(long)(long)东(dong)(dong)苜(mu)(mu)蓿最(zui)佳(jia)共生(sheng)匹配的根(gen)瘤(liu)菌(jun)菌(jun)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)为17650。
3种秋眠类型苜蓿对不同CO2浓度的生理响应
翟晓朦, 王铁梅, 关潇, 张晓波
2016, 10(8): 1550-1559. doi:
[摘要](579) [HTML全文] (10) [PDF 1577KB](176)
摘要:
利用(yong)开顶式气室(open-top chamber,OTC)研究了(le)(le)3种秋(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)眠(mian)类(lei)型(xing)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)(秋(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)眠(mian)型(xing)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)Maverick、半(ban)秋(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)眠(mian)型(xing)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)ABI700和(he)(he)(he)极(ji)非秋(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)眠(mian)型(xing)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)UC-1465)在700、550和(he)(he)(he)350 μmol·mol-1(CK)3种CO2浓(nong)度(du)(du)处理下整(zheng)个生育期的生理变(bian)化。结果(guo)表明,整(zheng)个生育期CO2浓(nong)度(du)(du)越高(gao),苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)叶(ye)绿(lv)素(su)和(he)(he)(he)可溶性(xing)糖含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)越高(gao)。700和(he)(he)(he)550 μmol·mol-1处理下,3种秋(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)眠(mian)类(lei)型(xing)的苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)平(ping)均叶(ye)绿(lv)素(su)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)较(jiao)对照(zhao)平(ping)均分(fen)(fen)别(bie)提高(gao)了(le)(le)约11.49%和(he)(he)(he)6.00%,可溶性(xing)糖含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)平(ping)均分(fen)(fen)别(bie)提高(gao)了(le)(le)约52.01%和(he)(he)(he)38.82%。CO2浓(nong)度(du)(du)升(sheng)高(gao)能(neng)够降(jiang)低(di)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)的丙二醛含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang),700和(he)(he)(he)550 μmol·mol-1处理下,丙二醛含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)较(jiao)照(zhao)平(ping)均分(fen)(fen)别(bie)下降(jiang)了(le)(le)约18.20%和(he)(he)(he)17.93%。盛花期时(shi),CO2浓(nong)度(du)(du)升(sheng)高(gao)对脯氨酸合成量(liang)(liang)(liang)有显著(zhu)的正效应(P<0.05),其(qi)余时(shi)间(jian)呈抑制状态。综合来(lai)说,CO2浓(nong)度(du)(du)升(sheng)高(gao)在初花期时(shi)对苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)各生理指标均有显著(zhu)影响(P<0.05)。高(gao)CO2浓(nong)度(du)(du)处理下,极(ji)非秋(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)眠(mian)型(xing)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)UC-1465的叶(ye)绿(lv)素(su)累计合成量(liang)(liang)(liang)高(gao)于(yu)秋(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)眠(mian)型(xing)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)Maverick和(he)(he)(he)半(ban)秋(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)眠(mian)型(xing)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)ABI700,而(er)高(gao)CO2浓(nong)度(du)(du)大(da)大(da)促进了(le)(le)秋(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)眠(mian)型(xing)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)Maverick、半(ban)秋(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)眠(mian)型(xing)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)Maverick合成可溶性(xing)糖、降(jiang)低(di)丙二醛,有利于(yu)增强其(qi)缓解胁迫以(yi)及渗透(tou)调节能(neng)力。
蚕豆植株浸提液对3种牧草种子发芽的影响
许文花, 马向丽, 任健, 文亦芾, 段新慧, 邓彬, 陶勇, 罗富成
2016, 10(8): 1560-1565. doi:
[摘要](709) [HTML全文] (86) [PDF 1340KB](378)
摘要:
为(wei)(wei)分析蚕(can)豆(dou)(dou)(Vicia faba)与(yu)白三叶(Trifolium repens)、紫(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)、多花(hua)(hua)(hua)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(Lolium multiflorum)间的(de)化(hua)感(gan)作(zuo)用(yong),研究了不同浓度(du)(du)(1.0%、0.5%和(he)(he)0.1%)蚕(can)豆(dou)(dou)植株(zhu)水(shui)浸(jin)提液(ye)(ye)对(dui)3种(zhong)植物种(zhong)子发(fa)芽的(de)影(ying)响。结(jie)果表(biao)(biao)明(ming),不同浓度(du)(du)蚕(can)豆(dou)(dou)植株(zhu)浸(jin)提液(ye)(ye)对(dui)白三叶、紫(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)、多花(hua)(hua)(hua)黑(hei)麦(mai)草种(zhong)子的(de)发(fa)芽势和(he)(he)发(fa)芽率都有抑(yi)制(zhi)作(zuo)用(yong),随(sui)着浸(jin)提液(ye)(ye)浓度(du)(du)升高抑(yi)制(zhi)作(zuo)用(yong)增强(qiang);对(dui)发(fa)芽率的(de)抑(yi)制(zhi)效应(ying)表(biao)(biao)现为(wei)(wei)紫(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)大(da)于白三叶和(he)(he)多花(hua)(hua)(hua)黑(hei)麦(mai)草。浓度(du)(du)为(wei)(wei)0.1%、0.5%、1.0%的(de)蚕(can)豆(dou)(dou)植株(zhu)浸(jin)提液(ye)(ye)对(dui)紫(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)发(fa)芽率的(de)化(hua)感(gan)指数(RI)分别为(wei)(wei)-0.63、-4.03和(he)(he)-16.01。蚕(can)豆(dou)(dou)浸(jin)提液(ye)(ye)对(dui)3种(zhong)受(shou)体植物胚根长(zhang)、胚芽长(zhang)和(he)(he)干重都有一定的(de)抑(yi)制(zhi)作(zuo)用(yong)。本(ben)研究表(biao)(biao)明(ming),白三叶、紫(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)(hua)苜蓿(xu)和(he)(he)多花(hua)(hua)(hua)黑(hei)麦(mai)草应(ying)尽可能(neng)远(yuan)离(li)蚕(can)豆(dou)(dou)进行种(zhong)植,以免因化(hua)感(gan)作(zuo)用(yong)使这(zhei)些牧草种(zhong)子的(de)发(fa)芽受(shou)到抑(yi)制(zhi)。
4种豆科牧草种子对绵羊消化道作用的反应
娜丽克斯·, 外里, 王树林, 赵刚, 杨洁晶, 吕艳萍, 鲁为华
2016, 10(8): 1566-1573. doi:
[摘要](640) [HTML全文] (38) [PDF 1402KB](234)
摘要:
以4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)野生豆(dou)科牧草(cao)(cao)苦豆(dou)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(Sophora alopecuroide)、线叶(ye)(ye)野豌(wan)豆(dou)(Vicia tenuifolia)、光果甘草(cao)(cao)(Glycyrrhizae glabrae)、罗(luo)(luo)(luo)马(ma)苜蓿(Medicago romanica)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)为研究(jiu)对象,测(ce)定各种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)在(zai)绵(mian)(mian)羊消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)作用前(qian)后(hou)的形态、生物学特性变化(hua)(hua)以及(ji)在(zai)绵(mian)(mian)羊消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)内的运移和(he)排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)规律(lv)。结果表明,4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)过(guo)程均符合高斯模型,且苦豆(dou)子(zi)(zi)(zi)、线叶(ye)(ye)野豌(wan)豆(dou)、光果甘草(cao)(cao)排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)峰值均出(chu)(chu)现在(zai)饲喂后(hou)24~36 h,罗(luo)(luo)(luo)马(ma)苜蓿种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)峰值则出(chu)(chu)现在(zai)18~30 h。苦豆(dou)子(zi)(zi)(zi)、线叶(ye)(ye)野豌(wan)豆(dou)、光果甘草(cao)(cao)和(he)罗(luo)(luo)(luo)马(ma)苜蓿种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)总回收率分(fen)别为14.513%、4.463%、10.811%、4.608%,在(zai)绵(mian)(mian)羊消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)内的平均滞(zhi)留时间分(fen)别为36.3、29.6、31.2和(he)31.9 h。除(chu)苦豆(dou)子(zi)(zi)(zi)外,其它3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)在(zai)经过(guo)消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)后(hou)单粒重显著降低(P<0.05),4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)后(hou)的形状指数(shu)较经过(guo)消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)前(qian)显著减(jian)小。经过(guo)绵(mian)(mian)羊消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)后(hou)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)皮颜色加深(shen),纹理模糊,出(chu)(chu)现褶皱及(ji)明显侵蚀斑。与经过(guo)消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)前(qian)比较,4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)经过(guo)消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)后(hou)的发(fa)芽(ya)率均有显著提高,其中(zhong)发(fa)芽(ya)率提高效果最明显的时间段在(zai)消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)24~48 h后(hou)。消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)作用可有效打破苦豆(dou)子(zi)(zi)(zi)、线叶(ye)(ye)野豌(wan)豆(dou)、光果甘草(cao)(cao)、罗(luo)(luo)(luo)马(ma)苜蓿种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)的硬实,4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)均可通过(guo)绵(mian)(mian)羊消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)传播。
不同生长条件下内生真菌对多年生黑麦草生理特性的影响
蔺伟虎, 汪建军, 李会强, 张光明, 田沛
2016, 10(8): 1574-1582. doi:
[摘要](637) [HTML全文] (29) [PDF 860KB](301)
摘要:
本研究通过比较带内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(E+)、不带内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(E-)和混合(M)3个(ge)种群(qun)的(de)多(duo)(duo)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)麦草(cao)(Lolium perenne)在(zai)(zai)田间自然条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)和温(wen)室不同(tong)水分处理下(xia)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)理指标的(de)变化(hua),以解释内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)在(zai)(zai)不同(tong)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)下(xia)对(dui)多(duo)(duo)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)麦草(cao)内(nei)部生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)理机(ji)制的(de)影响。结果(guo)表明,在(zai)(zai)温(wen)室条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)下(xia),土壤(rang)含水量(liang)为田间最大持(chi)水量(liang)(field water content,FWC)的(de)15%(干旱)和60%(水淹)时(shi),内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)侵(qin)染显(xian)著(P0.05)提(ti)高了(le)(le)多(duo)(duo)年生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)麦草(cao)总(zong)叶绿(lv)素(su)含量(liang)、可溶性(xing)(xing)(xing)糖含量(liang)、脯氨酸(suan)含量(liang)、超氧化(hua)物(wu)(wu)歧化(hua)酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)和过氧化(hua)氢(qing)酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing),同(tong)时(shi)降低了(le)(le)丙(bing)(bing)二醛(quan)含量(liang)和过氧化(hua)物(wu)(wu)酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing),但在(zai)(zai)水分含量(liang)为45% FWC时(shi),3个(ge)种群(qun)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)理指标并无(wu)显(xian)著差异(P0.05);说明在(zai)(zai)胁迫条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)下(xia),内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)通过提(ti)高保护酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)以增加寄主(zhu)的(de)抗逆性(xing)(xing)(xing)。在(zai)(zai)田间条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)下(xia),黑(hei)麦草(cao)叶绿(lv)素(su)含量(liang)、可溶性(xing)(xing)(xing)糖含量(liang)、脯氨酸(suan)含量(liang)、超氧化(hua)物(wu)(wu)歧化(hua)酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)和过氧化(hua)氢(qing)酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)变化(hua)趋势依(yi)次为E+ME-,丙(bing)(bing)二醛(quan)含量(liang)和过氧化(hua)物(wu)(wu)酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)变化(hua)趋势依(yi)次为E-ME+,表明在(zai)(zai)自然生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)下(xia),内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)仍然通过内(nei)部生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)理机(ji)制的(de)改变促进寄主(zhu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)。
贵州不同生态条件对黔草5号高羊茅生产性能的影响
牟琼, 吴佳海, 王少青, 吴静, 钟理
2016, 10(8): 1583-1588. doi:
[摘要](696) [HTML全文] (44) [PDF 1286KB](376)
摘要:
为探究贵州不同生(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)条(tiao)件对黔(qian)草5号(hao)(hao)高(gao)(gao)(gao)羊(yang)茅(Festuca arundinacea)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)性(xing)能的(de)影响(xiang),本研究分(fen)析了贵州5个生(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)条(tiao)件下(xia)黔(qian)草5号(hao)(hao)与约翰斯顿(dun)高(gao)(gao)(gao)羊(yang)茅(CK)连续两(liang)(liang)年(nian)的(de)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量及其品种抗(kang)逆(ni)性(xing)和营养品质(zhi)的(de)差异。结(jie)果表(biao)明,1)5个试(shi)(shi)点(dian)间(jian),随着海拔(ba)的(de)升高(gao)(gao)(gao),两(liang)(liang)个高(gao)(gao)(gao)羊(yang)茅供试(shi)(shi)品种产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量呈(cheng)下(xia)降(jiang)趋势,海拔(ba)最高(gao)(gao)(gao)的(de)威宁试(shi)(shi)点(dian)极(ji)显(xian)著(P<0.01)或显(xian)著(P<0.05)低于其它试(shi)(shi)点(dian),独山、贵阳两(liang)(liang)个中(zhong)低海拔(ba)试(shi)(shi)点(dian)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量表(biao)现(xian)较(jiao)佳。2)两(liang)(liang)个高(gao)(gao)(gao)羊(yang)茅品种间(jian),黔(qian)草5号(hao)(hao)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量在(zai)各(ge)试(shi)(shi)点(dian)均极(ji)显(xian)著(P<0.01)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于约翰斯顿(dun),表(biao)现(xian)出较(jiao)佳的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)性(xing)能。3)黔(qian)草5号(hao)(hao)的(de)综(zong)合抗(kang)性(xing)优(you)于约翰斯顿(dun),且在(zai)营养品质(zhi)上,粗脂肪(EE)含量极(ji)显(xian)著(P<0.01)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于约翰斯顿(dun)(CK)。因(yin)此(ci),黔(qian)草5号(hao)(hao)因(yin)具有较(jiao)高(gao)(gao)(gao)的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)性(xing)能、品种抗(kang)逆(ni)性(xing)及营养价值,理论上值得大力推广生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)。
镉胁迫对多花黑麦草镉积累特征、生理抗性及超微结构的影响
孙园园, 关萍, 何杉, 石建明
2016, 10(8): 1589-1597. doi:
[摘要](675) [HTML全文] (28) [PDF 1501KB](369)
摘要:
采用(yong)盆(pen)栽试(shi)验的(de)方(fang)法(fa),研究(jiu)镉(Cd)胁(xie)迫(po)对(dui)多(duo)花(hua)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)(Lolium multiflorum)镉积(ji)累(lei)特(te)性(xing)(xing)(xing)、生理抗性(xing)(xing)(xing)及叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片超(chao)微结构(gou)的(de)影响。结果表明,1)在(zai)不同浓度(du)(du)Cd胁(xie)迫(po)下,多(duo)花(hua)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)地上(shang)(shang)部含(han)(han)Cd量(liang)(liang)小于(yu)临界值(100 mg·kg-1),且地上(shang)(shang)部含(han)(han)Cd量(liang)(liang)小于(yu)根(gen)部含(han)(han)Cd量(liang)(liang),此外,转(zhuan)运系数(shu)小于(yu)1。2)低(di)浓度(du)(du)Cd(50 mg·kg-1)胁(xie)迫(po)下的(de)多(duo)花(hua)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿素含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)升(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao),高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)浓度(du)(du)Cd胁(xie)迫(po)抑制其合成。随Cd浓度(du)(du)增加(jia),初始荧(ying)光(guang)强度(du)(du)(F0)逐渐升(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao),最大(da)荧(ying)光(guang)强度(du)(du)(Fm)先(xian)(xian)升(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)后(hou)降(jiang),光(guang)系统(tong)Ⅱ(PSⅡ)最大(da)光(guang)化(hua)学量(liang)(liang)子(zi)(zi)产量(liang)(liang)(Fv/Fm)和(he)PSⅡ的(de)潜在(zai)光(guang)化(hua)学效(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)(Fv/F0)逐渐降(jiang)低(di),光(guang)量(liang)(liang)子(zi)(zi)产量(liang)(liang)(ФPSⅡ)、电子(zi)(zi)传递效(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)(ETR)、光(guang)化(hua)学淬灭(mie)系数(shu)(qP)和(he)非光(guang)化(hua)学淬灭(mie)系数(shu)(qN)均呈(cheng)现先(xian)(xian)升(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)后(hou)降(jiang)的(de)趋(qu)势(shi)。3)过(guo)氧(yang)化(hua)氢酶(mei)(CAT)的(de)活性(xing)(xing)(xing)均表现出先(xian)(xian)降(jiang)后(hou)升(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)再降(jiang)的(de)趋(qu)势(shi),超(chao)氧(yang)化(hua)物歧化(hua)酶(mei)(SOD)的(de)活性(xing)(xing)(xing)呈(cheng)现先(xian)(xian)升(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)后(hou)降(jiang)的(de)趋(qu)势(shi);与(yu)对(dui)照无Cd胁(xie)迫(po)相(xiang)比,过(guo)氧(yang)化(hua)物酶(mei)(POD)的(de)活性(xing)(xing)(xing)大(da)体上(shang)(shang)是升(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)的(de);脯氨酸的(de)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)随Cd胁(xie)迫(po)浓度(du)(du)增加(jia)而逐渐升(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao);Cd胁(xie)迫(po)下多(duo)花(hua)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片丙二醛(MDA)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)升(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)不显著(zhu)(P>0.05),其膜脂过(guo)氧(yang)化(hua)程度(du)(du)不高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)。4)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)浓度(du)(du)Cd(300 mg·kg-1)胁(xie)迫(po)对(dui)多(duo)花(hua)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)肉细胞超(chao)微结构(gou)有所损伤,部分叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿体空洞化(hua),基粒(li)片层(ceng)溶解,线粒(li)体嵴结构(gou)减少,嗜锇粒(li)增多(duo)。研究(jiu)发现,多(duo)花(hua)黑(hei)麦(mai)草(cao)(cao)对(dui)镉胁(xie)迫(po)具有较强的(de)积(ji)累(lei)能(neng)力(li)及抗性(xing)(xing)(xing),可用(yong)于(yu)镉污染土壤的(de)修复。
金沙江干热河谷4种优势草本植物苗期抗旱生理特性
李建查, 熊东红, 奎建蕊, 王春雪, 樊博, 张宝军, 张明忠, 郭敏, 史亮涛
2016, 10(8): 1598-1603. doi:
[摘要](753) [HTML全文] (29) [PDF 1373KB](312)
摘要:
为了明(ming)晰干热河谷优(you)势草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)本植(zhi)物的抗旱(han)生(sheng)理(li)(li)特性(xing),通(tong)过(guo)盆栽模拟(ni)自(zi)然(ran)干旱(han),对(dui)扭黄(huang)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)(Heteropogon contortus)、孔(kong)颖草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Bothriochloa pertusa)、拟(ni)金(jin)(jin)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)(Eulaliopsis binata)和百(bai)喜草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Paspalum natatu)土(tu)(tu)壤水(shui)(shui)(shui)分(fen)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)和植(zhi)株苗期抗旱(han)生(sheng)理(li)(li)性(xing)状进行分(fen)析(xi)。结(jie)果表(biao)明(ming),灌水(shui)(shui)(shui)结(jie)束后(hou),土(tu)(tu)壤水(shui)(shui)(shui)分(fen)均随干旱(han)时(shi)间的增加(jia)明(ming)显(xian)减少(shao),孔(kong)颖草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)土(tu)(tu)壤含(han)(han)(han)水(shui)(shui)(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)明(ming)显(xian)比其它(ta)3种(zhong)植(zhi)株的高。随着土(tu)(tu)壤水(shui)(shui)(shui)分(fen)减少(shao),扭黄(huang)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)和孔(kong)颖草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)含(han)(han)(han)水(shui)(shui)(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)不明(ming)显(xian),灌水(shui)(shui)(shui)停(ting)止30 d时(shi)拟(ni)金(jin)(jin)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)和百(bai)喜草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)含(han)(han)(han)水(shui)(shui)(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)明(ming)显(xian)降低(P<0.05);灌水(shui)(shui)(shui)停(ting)止15 d时(shi)扭黄(huang)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)和孔(kong)颖草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)脯(fu)氨(an)酸含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)增加(jia)(P<0.05),拟(ni)金(jin)(jin)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)和百(bai)喜草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)脯(fu)氨(an)酸含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)不显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P>0.05);扭黄(huang)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)和百(bai)喜草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)叶(ye)(ye)绿素含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)不显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P>0.05),灌水(shui)(shui)(shui)停(ting)止15 d时(shi)孔(kong)颖草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)和拟(ni)金(jin)(jin)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)的叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)叶(ye)(ye)绿素含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)均显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)降低(P<0.05);孔(kong)颖草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)和百(bai)喜草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)丙二(er)醛(quan)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)不显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P>0.05),拟(ni)金(jin)(jin)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)丙二(er)醛(quan)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)增加(jia)(P<0.05)。
铁、锌配施对紫花苜蓿生物量和光合特征的影响
吴冬强, 冯萌, 于成, 李天银, 吴德斌, 郭正刚
2016, 10(8): 1604-1610. doi:
[摘要](657) [HTML全文] (18) [PDF 1305KB](332)
摘要:
微量(liang)(liang)(liang)元(yuan)素对(dui)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)栽培(pei)(pei)草(cao)地维系产量(liang)(liang)(liang)具有重要意(yi)义。本研究采(cai)用大(da)(da)田试验,分析了(le)铁(tie)(tie)(tie)(tie)、锌(xin)配施对(dui)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)栽培(pei)(pei)草(cao)地生物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)光合特征的(de)(de)影(ying)(ying)响。结果(guo)表(biao)明(ming),铁(tie)(tie)(tie)(tie)、锌(xin)以及铁(tie)(tie)(tie)(tie)锌(xin)配施均显著提(ti)高了(le)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)生物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(P<0.05)。铁(tie)(tie)(tie)(tie)对(dui)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)株高影(ying)(ying)响不明(ming)显,但(dan)显著增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)了(le)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)分枝(zhi)数(shu)(P<0.05),紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)地上生物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)幅为(wei)(wei)11.43%~12.89%;锌(xin)对(dui)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)株高没(mei)(mei)有影(ying)(ying)响,但(dan)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)了(le)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)分枝(zhi)数(shu),紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)生物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)幅为(wei)(wei)6.31%~10.77%,且(qie)当锌(xin)肥添加(jia)(jia)量(liang)(liang)(liang)为(wei)(wei)15 kg·hm-2(Z1)时(shi),紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)叶茎(jing)比最大(da)(da);铁(tie)(tie)(tie)(tie)锌(xin)配施既没(mei)(mei)有影(ying)(ying)响紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)株高,也没(mei)(mei)有影(ying)(ying)响紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)分枝(zhi)数(shu),但(dan)改善了(le)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)光合作用,从而增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)了(le)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)生物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang),其中铁(tie)(tie)(tie)(tie)锌(xin)配比为(wei)(wei)F1Z1 (即(ji)Fe和(he)Zn分别为(wei)(wei)9、15 kg·hm-2)时(shi)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)地上生物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)最大(da)(da),较对(dui)照的(de)(de)地上生物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)了(le)28.77%,此(ci)时(shi)叶茎(jing)比也最大(da)(da)。
地下滴灌硅肥对紫花苜蓿生长及品质的影响
张志, 苏德荣, 焦健
2016, 10(8): 1611-1617. doi:
[摘要](694) [HTML全文] (15) [PDF 1309KB](356)
摘要:
为了(le)探讨在(zai)地(di)下滴(di)(di)灌(guan)条件下将(jiang)硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)随水(shui)一体施入土壤(rang)后(hou)硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)对(dui)紫花苜蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)生(sheng)长(zhang)及品质的(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响,设(she)计(ji)了(le)模拟水(shui)硅(gui)(gui)一体化的(de)(de)(de)(de)地(di)下滴(di)(di)灌(guan)装(zhuang)置(zhi),并采用(yong)(yong)苜蓿(xu)盆(pen)栽滴(di)(di)灌(guan)方(fang)法进行研究。设(she)置(zhi)4个硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)水(shui)平(0、0.01、0.02和0.03 g·kg-1,每千克土壤(rang)施用(yong)(yong)SiO2的(de)(de)(de)(de)克数(shu)),每个处(chu)理(li)(li)9次重复。结(jie)果表明(ming),施硅(gui)(gui)的(de)(de)(de)(de)植(zhi)株(zhu)(zhu)生(sheng)长(zhang)指标要显著好于不(bu)施硅(gui)(gui)的(de)(de)(de)(de)植(zhi)株(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05)。试验观测的(de)(de)(de)(de)两(liang)个茬次的(de)(de)(de)(de)苜蓿(xu),施硅(gui)(gui)的(de)(de)(de)(de)处(chu)理(li)(li)植(zhi)株(zhu)(zhu)相比(bi)于不(bu)施硅(gui)(gui)对(dui)照,其产量、叶面积、鲜(xian)干比(bi)、节间距、节间数(shu)等指标均有显著的(de)(de)(de)(de)提高(P<0.05)。不(bu)同茬次对(dui)比(bi),施硅(gui)(gui)处(chu)理(li)(li)对(dui)于苜蓿(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)促(cu)进作用(yong)(yong)在(zai)生(sheng)长(zhang)初期(qi)要大于生(sheng)长(zhang)后(hou)期(qi)。施用(yong)(yong)硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)对(dui)苜蓿(xu)营养(yang)指标的(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响不(bu)明(ming)显,施硅(gui)(gui)量为0.02 g·kg-1的(de)(de)(de)(de)处(chu)理(li)(li)相比(bi)对(dui)照组粗蛋(dan)白(bai)含量最(zui)高,纤维素(su)含量最(zui)低,并且(qie)0.02 g·kg-1处(chu)理(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)植(zhi)株(zhu)(zhu)有较高的(de)(de)(de)(de)相对(dui)饲喂价值。所以,通(tong)过(guo)滴(di)(di)灌(guan)方(fang)式水(shui)肥(fei)(fei)一体施用(yong)(yong)硅(gui)(gui)肥(fei)(fei)可(ke)以促(cu)进紫花苜蓿(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)长(zhang)。
青藏高原东北缘高寒草甸珠芽蓼斑块植被构成和种间关联
魏斌, 王莹, 关士琪, 高红娟, 孔杨云, 于应文
2016, 10(8): 1618-1624. doi:
[摘要](613) [HTML全文] (32) [PDF 1360KB](461)
摘要:
群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)构成和(he)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)系反映植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)(qun)(qun)和(he)群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)分(fen)布格局上的(de)(de)(de)互作关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)系。通过(guo)对(dui)(dui)(dui)珠(zhu)(zhu)芽(ya)蓼(liao)(Polygonum viviparum)斑(ban)块(kuai)及(ji)(ji)其(qi)对(dui)(dui)(dui)照区域群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)重要值、物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)多样(yang)性指数(shu)(shu)(shu)、生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量构成及(ji)(ji)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)联(lian)Jaccard指数(shu)(shu)(shu)和(he)Spearman秩相关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)进(jin)行分(fen)析,揭示高寒草(cao)甸(dian)演(yan)替过(guo)程中的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)态学机制。结果表明,珠(zhu)(zhu)芽(ya)蓼(liao)斑(ban)块(kuai)的(de)(de)(de)样(yang)方物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)数(shu)(shu)(shu)显(xian)(xian)著高于(yu)对(dui)(dui)(dui)照(P<0.05),二者(zhe)类(lei)群(qun)(qun)(qun)生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量与(yu)(yu)其(qi)重要值构成变化规律(lv)类(lei)似(si)。珠(zhu)(zhu)芽(ya)蓼(liao)斑(ban)块(kuai)的(de)(de)(de)植(zhi)被构成以杂类(lei)草(cao)和(he)禾草(cao)为(wei)主,其(qi)占绿色生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量的(de)(de)(de)60.9%和(he)22.1%,且珠(zhu)(zhu)芽(ya)蓼(liao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)(qun)(qun)约(yue)占绿色生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量的(de)(de)(de)1/3;而(er)对(dui)(dui)(dui)照则以禾草(cao)和(he)杂类(lei)草(cao)为(wei)主,分(fen)别(bie)(bie)占绿色生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量的(de)(de)(de)53.3%和(he)27.1%。珠(zhu)(zhu)芽(ya)蓼(liao)斑(ban)块(kuai)及(ji)(ji)对(dui)(dui)(dui)照群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)中,显(xian)(xian)著关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)联(lian)的(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)对(dui)(dui)(dui)数(shu)(shu)(shu)分(fen)别(bie)(bie)占各自总(zong)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)对(dui)(dui)(dui)数(shu)(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)(de)16.4%和(he)33.0%,多数(shu)(shu)(shu)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)对(dui)(dui)(dui)的(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)联(lian)结较松散(san),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)对(dui)(dui)(dui)间(jian)独立性较强,二者(zhe)正相关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)与(yu)(yu)负相关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)对(dui)(dui)(dui)数(shu)(shu)(shu)比(bi)分(fen)别(bie)(bie)为(wei)0.83和(he)1.40。珠(zhu)(zhu)芽(ya)蓼(liao)斑(ban)块(kuai)群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)处于(yu)稳定阶段,珠(zhu)(zhu)芽(ya)蓼(liao)斑(ban)块(kuai)的(de)(de)(de)形成,能(neng)增强高寒草(cao)甸(dian)的(de)(de)(de)群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)(luo)稳定性。
放牧对青海湖北岸高寒草原植物群落特征的影响
宋磊, 董全民, 李世雄, 王彦龙, 郑伟, 侯宪宽
2016, 10(8): 1625-1632. doi:
[摘要](615) [HTML全文] (13) [PDF 1343KB](373)
摘要:
基(ji)于青海湖北岸高寒草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)原连续3年放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)控制试验,研究了暖(nuan)季和冷(leng)季放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)植(zhi)物(wu)群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)特征的(de)(de)变化。结果(guo)表(biao)明,暖(nuan)季和冷(leng)季放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)地(di)上生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)均随放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)强度(du)的(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)加呈现(xian)下降趋(qu)势(shi),禾本(ben)科(ke)地(di)上生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)的(de)(de)变化趋(qu)势(shi)基(ji)本(ben)与群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)地(di)上生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)的(de)(de)一致(zhi);中(zhong)度(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)对暖(nuan)季放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)植(zhi)被的(de)(de)影(ying)响程度(du)高于冷(leng)季放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di);围栏封育(yu)区和冷(leng)季重度(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)的(de)(de)优势(shi)种均为紫花针茅(mao)(Stipa purpurea)和矮嵩(song)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Kobresia humilis),暖(nuan)季放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)各放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)小区和冷(leng)季放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)轻度(du)和中(zhong)度(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)处理优势(shi)种均为紫花针茅(mao)和披(pi)针叶黄华(Thermopsis lanceolata);随放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)强度(du)的(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)加,暖(nuan)季放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)物(wu)种多(duo)样(yang)性(xing)(xing)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)和均匀(yun)度(du)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)表(biao)现(xian)出(chu)先(xian)降低后增(zeng)(zeng)加的(de)(de)趋(qu)势(shi),冷(leng)季放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)群(qun)(qun)(qun)落(luo)物(wu)种多(duo)样(yang)性(xing)(xing)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)和均匀(yun)度(du)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)表(biao)现(xian)出(chu)增(zeng)(zeng)加的(de)(de)趋(qu)势(shi),但是多(duo)样(yang)性(xing)(xing)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)在暖(nuan)、冷(leng)季放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)均以重度(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)区最高。
动物生产层
松针多糖对肉鸡生产性能和免疫功能的影响
吕梦云, 胡耀, 陈伟, 欧阳克蕙, 黎雄, 熊小文, 温庆琪
2016, 10(8): 1633-1639. doi:
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摘要:
本研(yan)究旨在探讨松(song)针多(duo)糖对(dui)(dui)肉鸡(ji)生长性能(neng)(neng)和免(mian)(mian)疫功能(neng)(neng)的影(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)。选取(qu)240只1日(ri)龄的815肉鸡(ji),随机(ji)分为4个(ge)处理,每个(ge)处理4个(ge)重(zhong)复,每个(ge)重(zhong)复15只鸡(ji),分别在基础饲粮中(zhong)添加0(对(dui)(dui)照)、0.05%、0.10%和0.15%的松(song)针多(duo)糖提(ti)取(qu)物(wu)。试验期(qi)为42 d,测定处理组(zu)生长性能(neng)(neng)、免(mian)(mian)疫器官(guan)指(zhi)标(biao)、血清免(mian)(mian)疫指(zhi)标(biao)。结(jie)果显示,在生长前期(qi)(1-21 d),松(song)针多(duo)糖对(dui)(dui)肉鸡(ji)的生产性能(neng)(neng)没(mei)有影(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(P>0.05),0.05%多(duo)糖组(zu)白细胞介素(su)2的浓度(du)极显著(zhu)高于对(dui)(dui)照组(zu)(P<0.01),对(dui)(dui)肿瘤(liu)坏死因子(zi)、胸腺(xian)(xian)素(su)及免(mian)(mian)疫器官(guan)指(zhi)标(biao)影(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)不显著(zhu)(P>0.05)。在生长后期(qi)(22-42 d),0.10%多(duo)糖组(zu)平均(jun)(jun)日(ri)增重(zhong)显著(zhu)高于对(dui)(dui)照组(zu)(P<0.05),对(dui)(dui)平均(jun)(jun)体重(zhong)及料重(zhong)比无显著(zhu)影(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)(P>0.05),0.05%多(duo)糖组(zu)肿瘤(liu)坏死因子(zi)浓度(du)显著(zhu)高于对(dui)(dui)照组(zu)(P<0.05),而对(dui)(dui)白细胞介素(su)2、胸腺(xian)(xian)素(su)及免(mian)(mian)疫器官(guan)指(zhi)标(biao)影(ying)(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)不显著(zhu)(P>0.05)。结(jie)果表明,饲粮中(zhong)添加适量(liang)的松(song)针多(duo)糖在一定程度(du)上(shang)可以提(ti)高肉鸡(ji)的免(mian)(mian)疫功能(neng)(neng)和生产性能(neng)(neng),0.10%的松(song)针多(duo)糖添加量(liang)较为适宜。
后生物生产层
造纸废水对湿地芦苇纤维素含量的影响
侯萌萌, 苏芳莉, 何雨泽, 路天慧
2016, 10(8): 1640-1647. doi:
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摘要:
芦(lu)(lu)苇(Phragmites australis)是较好的(de)(de)造(zao)(zao)纸材料,其(qi)纤(xian)(xian)(xian)维(wei)(wei)素(su)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)高低直(zhi)接影(ying)响(xiang)造(zao)(zao)纸的(de)(de)价值,纤(xian)(xian)(xian)维(wei)(wei)素(su)越(yue)高,制(zhi)浆、漂白工艺越(yue)简单,成纸紧度(du)、透明度(du)越(yue)高。为(wei)(wei)(wei)研(yan)究造(zao)(zao)纸废水(shui)灌溉(gai)对芦(lu)(lu)苇纤(xian)(xian)(xian)维(wei)(wei)素(su)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)作用效果,以灌溉(gai)造(zao)(zao)纸废水(shui)的(de)(de)芦(lu)(lu)苇茎和(he)叶为(wei)(wei)(wei)试验对象,测定不同(tong)(tong)灌溉(gai)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)和(he)不同(tong)(tong)浓(nong)(nong)度(du)废水(shui)下(xia)芦(lu)(lu)苇茎和(he)叶的(de)(de)纤(xian)(xian)(xian)维(wei)(wei)素(su)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)。结果表(biao)(biao)明,1)灌溉(gai)300 mg·L-1浓(nong)(nong)度(du)废水(shui)对芦(lu)(lu)苇纤(xian)(xian)(xian)维(wei)(wei)素(su)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)影(ying)响(xiang)最大,出(chu)苗(miao)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)芦(lu)(lu)苇茎纤(xian)(xian)(xian)维(wei)(wei)素(su)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)表(biao)(biao)现(xian)为(wei)(wei)(wei):300 mg·L-1(36.39%)>175 mg·L-1(35.39%)>50 mg·L-1(34.73%)>0(33.45%);2)在快(kuai)速(su)生长(zhang)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)灌溉(gai)废水(shui)最利于芦(lu)(lu)苇纤(xian)(xian)(xian)维(wei)(wei)素(su)的(de)(de)积(ji)累,如浓(nong)(nong)度(du)为(wei)(wei)(wei)300 mg·L-1时(shi)芦(lu)(lu)苇茎纤(xian)(xian)(xian)维(wei)(wei)素(su)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)变化(hua)量(liang)(liang)表(biao)(biao)现(xian)为(wei)(wei)(wei)快(kuai)速(su)生长(zhang)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(11.75%)>抽穗(sui)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(9.64%)>成熟期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(9.6%)>展叶期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(7.68%)>出(chu)苗(miao)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(3.64%);3)芦(lu)(lu)苇纤(xian)(xian)(xian)维(wei)(wei)素(su)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)总体表(biao)(biao)现(xian)为(wei)(wei)(wei)茎>叶,如在出(chu)苗(miao)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)灌溉(gai)浓(nong)(nong)度(du)为(wei)(wei)(wei)300 mg·L-1的(de)(de)废水(shui),芦(lu)(lu)苇纤(xian)(xian)(xian)维(wei)(wei)素(su)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)表(biao)(biao)现(xian)为(wei)(wei)(wei)茎(33.45%)>叶(22.11%);4)废水(shui)浓(nong)(nong)度(du)(X)对芦(lu)(lu)苇纤(xian)(xian)(xian)维(wei)(wei)素(su)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(Y)有显著(zhu)影(ying)响(xiang)(P<0.05),二者的(de)(de)回归方程分别为(wei)(wei)(wei)Y茎=0.012X+0.379 8,Y叶=0.008X+0.249 2。
欧宝体育