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青藏高原高寒草原区工程迹地面积对其恢复过程中土壤水分和养分含量变化的影响
刘彤, 毛亮, 庞晓攀, 金少红, 张静, 郭正刚
2017, 11(11): 2175-2182. doi:
[摘要](665) [HTML全文] (40) [PDF 583KB](422)
摘要:
工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面积(ji)(ji)严重影响(xiang)着青藏(zang)高(gao)(gao)(gao)原(yuan)(yuan)受损天(tian)(tian)(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan)的(de)恢(hui)复程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)度。本(ben)研究测(ce)定了历经18年恢(hui)复期的(de)不(bu)(bu)同面积(ji)(ji)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(55、156、254、583 m2)的(de)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)水(shui)分(fen)(fen)(fen)、有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)质(zhi)和(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)养(yang)(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang),以(yi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)附(fu)近的(de)青藏(zang)苔草(cao)(cao)(Carex moorcroftii)+紫(zi)花针茅(Stipa purpurea)天(tian)(tian)(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan)作为对(dui)照,揭示工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面积(ji)(ji)对(dui)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)持(chi)水(shui)力(li)、养(yang)(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)潜(qian)力(li)和(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)养(yang)(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)供给能(neng)力(li)恢(hui)复程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)度的(de)影响(xiang)。结果表明,工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面积(ji)(ji)小(xiao)于254 m2时(shi),0-20 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)与天(tian)(tian)(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)差(cha)(cha)异(yi)不(bu)(bu)显著(zhu)(P>0.05),但(dan)(dan)当(dang)其增(zeng)(zeng)至583 m2时(shi),土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)却显著(zhu)低(di)(di)(di)于天(tian)(tian)(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan)(P<0.05);工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面积(ji)(ji)小(xiao)于254 m2时(shi),0-10 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)质(zhi)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)显著(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于天(tian)(tian)(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan),10-20 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)质(zhi)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)却显著(zhu)低(di)(di)(di)于天(tian)(tian)(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan),但(dan)(dan)它们均显著(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面积(ji)(ji)为583 m2时(shi)的(de)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)质(zhi)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(P<0.05);工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)为55 m2时(shi),其土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全氮含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)和(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)天(tian)(tian)(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan)差(cha)(cha)异(yi)不(bu)(bu)显著(zhu)(P>0.05),但(dan)(dan)当(dang)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面积(ji)(ji)大(da)于156 m2时(shi),土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全氮、铵态氮和(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)硝态氮含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)均显著(zhu)低(di)(di)(di)于天(tian)(tian)(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan)(P<0.05),且(qie)随(sui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面积(ji)(ji)增(zeng)(zeng)加,降(jiang)(jiang)低(di)(di)(di)幅度逐渐增(zeng)(zeng)加;0-10 cm土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)层全磷含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)随(sui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面积(ji)(ji)增(zeng)(zeng)加先增(zeng)(zeng)加后(hou)(hou)降(jiang)(jiang)低(di)(di)(di)(P<0.05),在156和(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)254 m2时(shi)较高(gao)(gao)(gao);土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)速(su)(su)效磷含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)却先降(jiang)(jiang)低(di)(di)(di)后(hou)(hou)增(zeng)(zeng)加,在156和(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)254 m2时(shi)较低(di)(di)(di)。土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全钾(jia)(jia)(jia)和(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)速(su)(su)效钾(jia)(jia)(jia)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)随(sui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面积(ji)(ji)增(zeng)(zeng)加先升高(gao)(gao)(gao)后(hou)(hou)降(jiang)(jiang)低(di)(di)(di),均以(yi)254 m2时(shi)最(zui)大(da),当(dang)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面积(ji)(ji)大(da)于254 m2时(shi),土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全钾(jia)(jia)(jia)和(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)速(su)(su)效钾(jia)(jia)(jia)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)低(di)(di)(di)于天(tian)(tian)(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan),当(dang)其小(xiao)于254 m2时(shi)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全钾(jia)(jia)(jia)和(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)速(su)(su)效钾(jia)(jia)(jia)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于天(tian)(tian)(tian)然(ran)(ran)草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)(yuan)。土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)、养(yang)(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)潜(qian)质(zhi)和(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)养(yang)(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)含(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)对(dui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面积(ji)(ji)响(xiang)应的(de)结果表明,工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)迹(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面积(ji)(ji)小(xiao)于254 m2时(shi)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)持(chi)水(shui)量(liang)(liang)、养(yang)(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)潜(qian)力(li)和(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)(he)养(yang)(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)供给力(li)基(ji)本(ben)得到恢(hui)复。
武功山草甸不同海拔对土壤和植物凋落物磷含量的影响
刘倩, 郑翔, 邓邦良, 郑利亚, 黄立君, 王书丽, 张令, 郭晓敏
2017, 11(11): 2183-2190. doi:
[摘要](725) [HTML全文] (57) [PDF 701KB](178)
摘要:
以江西省武(wu)(wu)功山(shan)海(hai)拔(ba)(ba)(ba)1 600~1 900 m的(de)(de)(de)山(shan)地(di)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)为对象,对不同海(hai)拔(ba)(ba)(ba)下,凋(diao)(diao)落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)、土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)、土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)有效磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)的(de)(de)(de)空间(jian)分(fen)布特征(zheng)以及相互之(zhi)(zhi)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)相关(guan)性(xing)进(jin)行分(fen)析。结(jie)果(guo)表明(ming),不同海(hai)拔(ba)(ba)(ba)梯(ti)(ti)(ti)度下凋(diao)(diao)落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)、土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)、土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)有效磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)分(fen)别是0.50~3.53、0.28~1.29、0.19~17.47 mg·kg-1。土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)的(de)(de)(de)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)随(sui)着(zhe)海(hai)拔(ba)(ba)(ba)的(de)(de)(de)逐渐增(zeng)加(jia),呈现(xian)出“U”型的(de)(de)(de)分(fen)布规律,在海(hai)拔(ba)(ba)(ba)1 700~1 800 m处含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)较(jiao)低(di)。不同物(wu)(wu)(wu)种(zhong)之(zhi)(zhi)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)具有明(ming)显(xian)(xian)差异,芒(Miscanthus sinensis)、中华苔草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Carex chinensis)、毛秆(gan)野(ye)古草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Arundinella hirta)和(he)(he)武(wu)(wu)功山(shan)飘拂草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Fimbristylis wukungshanensis)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)分(fen)别是4.21、1.34、1.03、1.28 g·kg-1,芒的(de)(de)(de)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高于中华苔草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)、毛秆(gan)野(ye)古草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)和(he)(he)武(wu)(wu)功山(shan)飘拂草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(P<0.05)。相关(guan)性(xing)分(fen)析表明(ming),海(hai)拔(ba)(ba)(ba)梯(ti)(ti)(ti)度与土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)之(zhi)(zhi)间(jian)存在极(ji)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)相关(guan)性(xing)(P<0.01),凋(diao)(diao)落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)与土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)有效磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)正(zheng)相关(guan),凋(diao)(diao)落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)随(sui)着(zhe)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)有效磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)的(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)加(jia)而增(zeng)加(jia);凋(diao)(diao)落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)与土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)相关(guan)性(xing)不显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(P>0.05)。说(shuo)明(ming)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)供磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)能力的(de)(de)(de)指标通过土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)有效磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)反映,其含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)高低(di)主(zhu)要由凋(diao)(diao)落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)之(zhi)(zhi)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)转化(hua)方向及分(fen)布状况(kuang)决定,一(yi)般认为,凋(diao)(diao)落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)与土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)有效磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)的(de)(de)(de)相关(guan)性(xing)越(yue)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu),凋(diao)(diao)落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)全(quan)(quan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)的(de)(de)(de)相对有效性(xing)就(jiu)越(yue)高。本研究结(jie)果(guo)有助于进(jin)一(yi)步了解(jie)武(wu)(wu)功山(shan)山(shan)地(di)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)不同海(hai)拔(ba)(ba)(ba)梯(ti)(ti)(ti)度对土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)与凋(diao)(diao)落(luo)(luo)(luo)(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)(lin)含(han)(han)(han)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)影响,同时也(ye)为山(shan)地(di)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)的(de)(de)(de)植被恢(hui)复及可持续(xu)经营提(ti)供理论(lun)依据。
黄土高原不同粮草种植模式土壤碳氮及土壤酶活性
谢泽宇, 罗珠珠, 李玲玲, 蔡立群, 张仁陟, 牛伊宁, 赵靖静
2017, 11(11): 2191-2199. doi:
[摘要](685) [HTML全文] (35) [PDF 561KB](212)
摘要:
通过在(zai)陇中黄土(tu)(tu)高(gao)原半(ban)干旱区(qu)对苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)-作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)物轮作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)地进行长期定(ding)位(wei)试(shi)验,探(tan)讨(tao)不同(tong)种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)模式(shi)(shi)对土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)碳氮(dan)形态及其相(xiang)关酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)影响。6种(zhong)(zhong)种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)模式(shi)(shi)分(fen)别(bie)为(wei)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)-苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)、苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)-休(xiu)闲(xian)、苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)-小麦(Triticum aestivum)、苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)-玉米(Zea mays)、苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)-马铃薯(shu)(Solanum tuberosum)和苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)-谷子(Setaria italica)。结(jie)果表明(ming),苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)-作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)物种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)模式(shi)(shi)不利于土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)总有机碳的(de)积(ji)累(lei),而苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)翻耕后保(bao)持(chi)休(xiu)闲(xian)则可维(wei)持(chi)较高(gao)的(de)有机碳含量;与(yu)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)连作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)相(xiang)比(bi),苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)-作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)物种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)模式(shi)(shi)的(de)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有机碳降低(di)了(le)(le)1.60%~23.11%,全氮(dan)含量增加(jia)了(le)(le)3.81%~21.83%。不同(tong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)物对土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)养(yang)分(fen)吸收(shou)利用状况不同(tong),进而引起土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)发(fa)生(sheng)变化。与(yu)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)连作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)相(xiang)比(bi),苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)粮(liang)食作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)物种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)模式(shi)(shi)在(zai)降低(di)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)过氧化氢酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)和蛋白(bai)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)同(tong)时,提高(gao)了(le)(le)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)硝酸(suan)还原酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing);其中土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)过氧化氢酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)和蛋白(bai)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)分(fen)别(bie)降低(di)了(le)(le)5.20%~12.30%和15.03%~43.43%,硝酸(suan)还原酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)提高(gao)了(le)(le)1.26%~28.79%。苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)连作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)和苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)-粮(liang)食作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)物种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)模式(shi)(shi)间的(de)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)脲酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)无(wu)显著差异(P>0.05),但均高(gao)于苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)-休(xiu)闲(xian)处理(li)。相(xiang)关性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)分(fen)析(xi)结(jie)果表明(ming),土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)脲酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)(huo)(huo)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)与(yu)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有机碳、全氮(dan)含量呈显著正相(xiang)关(P<0.05),可作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)衡量土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)肥力(li)的(de)指标。
贺兰山西坡草地土壤碳特征及潜在退化损失分析
张宝林, 江世高, 张春萍, 李旭东, 特木其勒图, 庄光辉, 赵建, 牛得草
2017, 11(11): 2200-2210. doi:
[摘要](646) [HTML全文] (33) [PDF 635KB](178)
摘要:
本(ben)研究(jiu)分析了(le)干旱区贺兰山西坡山前草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)碳(tan)的分布(bu)特征(zheng)及其与(yu)气候、植(zhi)被和(he)(he)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)因(yin)子的关系,并探讨了(le)潜(qian)在(zai)退(tui)化(hua)(hua)状态下土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)碳(tan)的变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua)特点(dian)。结果表明,随着海(hai)拔(ba)的增(zeng)加,土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)碳(tan)含(han)量和(he)(he)密度(du)逐(zhu)渐增(zeng)加,表现为(wei)山地(di)(di)草(cao)(cao)(cao)原>荒漠(mo)草(cao)(cao)(cao)原>草(cao)(cao)(cao)原化(hua)(hua)荒漠(mo);而土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)无(wu)(wu)机(ji)碳(tan)、全(quan)碳(tan)含(han)量和(he)(he)密度(du)随海(hai)拔(ba)增(zeng)加先(xian)逐(zhu)渐增(zeng)加随后有(you)(you)(you)所(suo)降低(di)。偏(pian)相(xiang)关及逐(zhu)步回归分析表明,土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)碳(tan)含(han)量与(yu)全(quan)氮(dan)显(xian)著(zhu)相(xiang)关,而影响(xiang)(xiang)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)无(wu)(wu)机(ji)碳(tan)含(han)量的因(yin)素(su)因(yin)土(tu)(tu)层不同而有(you)(you)(you)所(suo)差异(yi),土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)无(wu)(wu)机(ji)碳(tan)与(yu)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)容(rong)重显(xian)著(zhu)相(xiang)关,且(qie)受年降水(shui)量和(he)(he)年均温因(yin)子的共同影响(xiang)(xiang)。土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)碳(tan)密度(du)受土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)碳(tan)含(han)量的影响(xiang)(xiang)大于土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)容(rong)重。另外(wai),当各高海(hai)拔(ba)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)群落(luo)潜(qian)在(zai)退(tui)化(hua)(hua)为(wei)低(di)海(hai)拔(ba)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)群落(luo)时,土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)碳(tan)含(han)量及密度(du)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua)较大,呈减少趋(qu)势(shi),无(wu)(wu)机(ji)碳(tan)和(he)(he)全(quan)碳(tan)表现不一致(zhi),但当草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)类型发(fa)生改变(bian)(bian)时,两指标减少幅(fu)度(du)较大。上述结果表明,草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)退(tui)化(hua)(hua)对土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)碳(tan)和(he)(he)无(wu)(wu)机(ji)碳(tan)影响(xiang)(xiang)显(xian)著(zhu),且(qie)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)无(wu)(wu)机(ji)碳(tan)受土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)母质的影响(xiang)(xiang)也(ye)强烈。
沧州盐碱地紫花苜蓿根际促生细菌的筛选
吴星月, 姚红丽, 王北南, 鲍雪银, 刘朋飞, 刘忠宽, 曹卫东, 刘晓云
2017, 11(11): 2211-2217. doi:
[摘要](602) [HTML全文] (19) [PDF 534KB](181)
摘要:
本(ben)研(yan)究以(yi)河北省沧州黄骅市紫(zi)花苜蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)为(wei)研(yan)究对(dui)象(xiang),对(dui)采自黄骅地区常郭乡赵子(zi)札村(cun)、羊二庄镇张八寨村(cun)及(ji)旧城(cheng)镇云庄村(cun)等10个(ge)地点的紫(zi)花苜蓿(xu)根(gen)际(ji)土(tu)壤进(jin)(jin)行细菌(jun)(jun)(jun)分(fen)(fen)离纯化和培(pei)养,获得134株根(gen)际(ji)细菌(jun)(jun)(jun)。进(jin)(jin)而将其(qi)接种(zhong)到紫(zi)花苜蓿(xu)植(zhi)物(wu)种(zhong)苗,培(pei)养60 d后,比较(jiao)分(fen)(fen)析(xi)了(le)接种(zhong)不同根(gen)际(ji)促(cu)生(sheng)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)对(dui)植(zhi)物(wu)生(sheng)长(zhang)的促(cu)生(sheng)影响,选择了(le)30株促(cu)生(sheng)细菌(jun)(jun)(jun)优良菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株,并且对(dui)30株细菌(jun)(jun)(jun)菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株进(jin)(jin)行了(le)溶(rong)(rong)磷(lin)(lin)能力和分(fen)(fen)泌生(sheng)长(zhang)素(su)(su)能力的测定。结果表明(ming),菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株EF2对(dui)植(zhi)物(wu)干重增(zeng)重影响最(zui)为(wei)显(xian)著(P<0.05),其(qi)溶(rong)(rong)解有(you)机(ji)磷(lin)(lin)和无(wu)机(ji)磷(lin)(lin)能力也最(zui)强(qiang);菌(jun)(jun)(jun)株LF13分(fen)(fen)泌生(sheng)长(zhang)素(su)(su)的能力最(zui)强(qiang),其(qi)对(dui)株高(gao)的影响较(jiao)为(wei)明(ming)显(xian)。研(yan)究最(zui)终(zhong)初步筛(shai)选出9株溶(rong)(rong)磷(lin)(lin)能力和分(fen)(fen)泌生(sheng)长(zhang)素(su)(su)能力较(jiao)强(qiang)并能促(cu)进(jin)(jin)紫(zi)花苜蓿(xu)显(xian)著生(sheng)长(zhang)的根(gen)际(ji)细菌(jun)(jun)(jun)。
甘肃省岷县马铃薯窖藏干腐病鉴定及药剂筛选
陈书珍, 陈泰祥, 季绪霞, 杨成德, 陈秀蓉
2017, 11(11): 2218-2225. doi:
[摘要](603) [HTML全文] (19) [PDF 1767KB](160)
摘要:
通过对(dui)甘肃省岷(min)县马铃(ling)(ling)薯(shu)(Solanum tuberosum)窖藏(zang)干腐(fu)病的(de)病原(yuan)形态(tai)学鉴定,明确了(le)其(qi)主(zhu)要病原(yuan)有(you)7种,分别是木(mu)贼(zei)镰(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)孢(bao)菌(jun)(jun)(Fusarium equiseti)、茄腐(fu)镰(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)孢(bao)菌(jun)(jun)(F. solani)、三(san)线镰(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)孢(bao)菌(jun)(jun)(F. tricinctum)和尖孢(bao)镰(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)孢(bao)菌(jun)(jun)(F. oxysporum)及3个(ge)待定种Fusarium spp.,其(qi)中茄腐(fu)镰(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)孢(bao)和木(mu)贼(zei)镰(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)孢(bao)菌(jun)(jun)为主(zhu)要病原(yuan),分离(li)频率分别为41.67%和28.57%,且(qie)尖孢(bao)镰(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)孢(bao)菌(jun)(jun)和木(mu)贼(zei)镰(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)孢(bao)菌(jun)(jun)引起(qi)马铃(ling)(ling)薯(shu)干腐(fu)病属(shu)甘肃省首次报道。在窖藏(zang)期间使(shi)用32.5%苯(ben)醚甲环唑·嘧(mi)菌(jun)(jun)酯浓度为1.25~2.50 g·L-1喷(pen)施,防效为71.01%~81.84%,生物农药枯草芽(ya)孢(bao)杆(gan)菌(jun)(jun)B2浓度为100 g·L-1喷(pen)施,防效为79.71%,该研究(jiu)结果为岷(min)县马铃(ling)(ling)薯(shu)干腐(fu)病的(de)诊(zhen)断和防治提供了(le)依据。
尖叶石竹种子的EMS和60Co-γ诱变
龚束芳, 刘恩慧, 姜童童, 周爱民, 王金刚
2017, 11(11): 2226-2234. doi:
[摘要](593) [HTML全文] (73) [PDF 2666KB](163)
摘要:
为(wei)了(le)(le)(le)获得更多尖(jian)叶(ye)石竹(Dianthus spiculifolius)新品(pin)种,本(ben)研(yan)究(jiu)利用EMS和60Co-γ射(she)线(xian)对尖(jian)叶(ye)石竹种子进行了(le)(le)(le)诱(you)变(bian)(bian)(bian)处(chu)(chu)理。结果显示,处(chu)(chu)理时间为(wei)16 h时,1.0%的EMS浓度接近诱(you)变(bian)(bian)(bian)的半致(zhi)死剂(ji)(ji)量,变(bian)(bian)(bian)异(yi)率达(da)到7.0%。当(dang)剂(ji)(ji)量率为(wei)0.1 Gy·min-1时,300 Gy的60Co-γ射(she)线(xian)接近诱(you)变(bian)(bian)(bian)的半致(zhi)死剂(ji)(ji)量,变(bian)(bian)(bian)异(yi)率达(da)到4.2%。通(tong)过(guo)表型观察共获得了(le)(le)(le)1 038株(zhu)M1代变(bian)(bian)(bian)异(yi)植株(zhu),其中,EMS诱(you)变(bian)(bian)(bian)处(chu)(chu)理获得了(le)(le)(le)95株(zhu),60Co-γ射(she)线(xian)诱(you)变(bian)(bian)(bian)处(chu)(chu)理获得了(le)(le)(le)943株(zhu)。本(ben)研(yan)究(jiu)为(wei)丰(feng)富尖(jian)叶(ye)石竹种质资(zi)源提(ti)供了(le)(le)(le)帮助,而且为(wei)石竹属其他(ta)植物的诱(you)变(bian)(bian)(bian)研(yan)究(jiu)提(ti)供了(le)(le)(le)技术参考。
葡萄风信子花青素3-O-葡糖基转移酶基因的克隆及其表达分析
杜灵娟, 陈凯利, 刘雅莉
2017, 11(11): 2235-2244. doi:
[摘要](692) [HTML全文] (56) [PDF 2329KB](163)
摘要:
花(hua)青(qing)(qing)(qing)素3-O-葡糖基(ji)(ji)(ji)转移酶(3GT)是花(hua)青(qing)(qing)(qing)素苷合成最(zui)(zui)后一(yi)(yi)步的(de)(de)(de)关(guan)键酶,可把不(bu)稳定的(de)(de)(de)花(hua)青(qing)(qing)(qing)素催(cui)化成花(hua)青(qing)(qing)(qing)素苷。本(ben)研究(jiu)利用PCR技术从蓝色(se)(se)葡萄风信(xin)子‘亚(ya)(ya)(ya)美尼(ni)亚(ya)(ya)(ya)’(Muscari armeniacum)中(zhong)克隆到一(yi)(yi)个(ge)3GT基(ji)(ji)(ji)因(Ma3GT),Ma3GT cDNA全长(zhang)1 377 bp,编(bian)码458个(ge)氨基(ji)(ji)(ji)酸,与其他(ta)植(zhi)物的(de)(de)(de)3GT蛋白序列相似性达(da)(da)(da)55%~64%。进(jin)化分析表(biao)(biao)(biao)明,Ma3GT与单(dan)子叶(ye)植(zhi)物3GT聚为一(yi)(yi)类,与小(xiao)苍兰(Freesia hybrida)、荷兰鸢尾(wei)(Iris hollandica)3GT亲缘关(guan)系最(zui)(zui)近。荧(ying)光定量PCR分析发(fa)(fa)现(xian),Ma3GT在(zai)(zai)‘亚(ya)(ya)(ya)美尼(ni)亚(ya)(ya)(ya)’花(hua)(S4)中(zhong)高表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)(da)(da),在(zai)(zai)叶(ye)片(pian)中(zhong)微量表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)(da)(da),根和鳞(lin)茎中(zhong)几乎不(bu)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)(da)(da),在(zai)(zai)‘白丽人(ren)’及‘粉日(ri)出(chu)’各个(ge)组织中(zhong)均(jun)不(bu)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)(da)(da)。在(zai)(zai)‘亚(ya)(ya)(ya)美尼(ni)亚(ya)(ya)(ya)’中(zhong),Ma3GT的(de)(de)(de)转录(lu)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)(da)(da)受(shou)花(hua)发(fa)(fa)育调(diao)控,开花(hua)早期(S1)几乎不(bu)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)(da)(da),随着花(hua)发(fa)(fa)育表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)(da)(da)量逐渐增加,至(zhi)完全开放的(de)(de)(de)时期(S4)达(da)(da)(da)到最(zui)(zui)高峰。此外,Ma3GT在(zai)(zai)不(bu)同(tong)品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)花(hua)中(zhong)转录(lu)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)(da)(da)不(bu)同(tong),在(zai)(zai)蓝色(se)(se)品种(zhong)‘亚(ya)(ya)(ya)美尼(ni)亚(ya)(ya)(ya)’中(zhong)高表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)(da)(da),而在(zai)(zai)白色(se)(se)品种(zhong)‘白丽人(ren)’和粉色(se)(se)品种(zhong)‘粉日(ri)出(chu)’中(zhong)几乎不(bu)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)(da)(da)。本(ben)研究(jiu)为进(jin)一(yi)(yi)步研究(jiu)Ma3GT基(ji)(ji)(ji)因在(zai)(zai)葡萄风信(xin)子花(hua)瓣呈色(se)(se)中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)功能及其花(hua)色(se)(se)分子育种(zhong)提供基(ji)(ji)(ji)因资源(yuan)和依据。
千日红无菌苗生长及试管开花诱导
张宵娟, 邓光华, 连芳青, 邹娜, 黄颖融, 周树军
2017, 11(11): 2245-2253. doi:
[摘要](617) [HTML全文] (14) [PDF 1035KB](139)
摘要:
为(wei)进一步(bu)探究(jiu)千(qian)日(ri)红(hong)(Gomphrena globosa)无菌(jun)苗生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)和(he)(he)试(shi)管(guan)(guan)开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)(hua)诱导(dao)(dao)机制(zhi)(zhi),在(zai)组培(pei)条件下,以带顶(ding)芽的千(qian)日(ri)红(hong)茎段为(wei)对象,研究(jiu)培(pei)养(yang)基中(zhong)(zhong)蔗(zhe)(zhe)糖含(han)量(liang)、外源激素(su)(su)(su)(su)种类(细胞分裂(lie)素(su)(su)(su)(su)BA和(he)(he)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)素(su)(su)(su)(su)NAA)及浓(nong)度(du)、生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)素(su)(su)(su)(su)运输抑(yi)制(zhi)(zhi)剂(TIBA和(he)(he)NPA)对氮诱导(dao)(dao)的千(qian)日(ri)红(hong)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)和(he)(he)试(shi)管(guan)(guan)开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)(hua)的影(ying)响(xiang)。结(jie)果(guo)表明(ming),蔗(zhe)(zhe)糖是(shi)千(qian)日(ri)红(hong)无菌(jun)苗生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)和(he)(he)开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)(hua)诱导(dao)(dao)最(zui)关键的因素(su)(su)(su)(su),在(zai)不含(han)蔗(zhe)(zhe)糖的培(pei)养(yang)基中(zhong)(zhong),开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)(hua)率为(wei)0且(qie)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)根较(jiao)少(shao);随蔗(zhe)(zhe)糖含(han)量(liang)的增加开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)(hua)率逐渐提高,并在(zai)80 g·L-1时达(da)最(zui)大(da)(da)(80.72%);而(er)根系长(zhang)度(du)和(he)(he)数(shu)量(liang)及植株(zhu)长(zhang)势在(zai)蔗(zhe)(zhe)糖含(han)量(liang)为(wei)20~40 g·L-1时较(jiao)好。BA对无菌(jun)苗生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)和(he)(he)开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)(hua)的诱导(dao)(dao)效应(ying)大(da)(da)于NAA,当(dang)BA浓(nong)度(du)为(wei)1.0 mg·L-1时,开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)(hua)率达(da)最(zui)大(da)(da)值(zhi)60.14%,此时无菌(jun)苗长(zhang)势也较(jiao)好;而(er)NAA对各(ge)指(zhi)(zhi)标均无显(xian)著性影(ying)响(xiang)。TIBA明(ming)显(xian)降低了千(qian)日(ri)红(hong)试(shi)管(guan)(guan)开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)(hua)率并且(qie)显(xian)著抑(yi)制(zhi)(zhi)根系的生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang),而(er)且(qie)在(zai)同(tong)等条件下对开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)(hua)率和(he)(he)各(ge)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)指(zhi)(zhi)标的抑(yi)制(zhi)(zhi)效应(ying)大(da)(da)于NPA。综上所述,氮诱导(dao)(dao)千(qian)日(ri)红(hong)离体开(kai)(kai)花(hua)(hua)(hua)和(he)(he)正常生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)过程中(zhong)(zhong)蔗(zhe)(zhe)糖是(shi)不可缺少(shao)的,并且(qie)受外源细胞分裂(lie)素(su)(su)(su)(su)的影(ying)响(xiang)和(he)(he)体内激素(su)(su)(su)(su)的调(diao)控(kong)。
北细辛悬浮培养体系的建立及优化
刘思妤, 杨悦, 王鹰, 王丽娟, 吴秀菊
2017, 11(11): 2254-2260. doi:
[摘要](669) [HTML全文] (44) [PDF 1252KB](163)
摘要:
以北(bei)细(xi)(xi)辛(xin)(xin)(Asarum heterotropoides)幼嫩(nen)叶柄诱导的愈伤组(zu)织为(wei)(wei)材料,初(chu)步建(jian)立悬浮(fu)(fu)培养(yang)(yang)体系,同时探讨接(jie)种(zhong)(zhong)量、光照(zhao)、培养(yang)(yang)液量、转速、蔗糖(tang)浓度、激素配比等因素对(dui)细(xi)(xi)胞生物量的影响。结果表明,100 mL的1/2MS液体培养(yang)(yang)基中,2 g愈伤组(zu)织是(shi)最适接(jie)种(zhong)(zhong)量,蔗糖(tang)浓度为(wei)(wei)30 g·L-1,摇床转速150 r·min-1,0.6 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.3 mg·L-1 NAA,全天光照(zhao)培养(yang)(yang)时细(xi)(xi)胞生长(zhang)量最大。北(bei)细(xi)(xi)辛(xin)(xin)悬浮(fu)(fu)细(xi)(xi)胞生长(zhang)曲线(xian)大致为(wei)(wei)“S”型,悬浮(fu)(fu)细(xi)(xi)胞的最佳收(shou)获周(zhou)期为(wei)(wei)15 d。经悬浮(fu)(fu)培养(yang)(yang)后(hou)可(ke)快速获得(de)细(xi)(xi)胞团及多种(zhong)(zhong)形态的单细(xi)(xi)胞,可(ke)为(wei)(wei)北(bei)细(xi)(xi)辛(xin)(xin)悬浮(fu)(fu)细(xi)(xi)胞的大规模(mo)生产提供依据,并进一步提升(sheng)北(bei)细(xi)(xi)辛(xin)(xin)的应用(yong)价(jia)值(zhi)。
55份不同生态型假俭草的耐盐性评价
刘一明, 郇恒福, 丁西朋, 陈志坚, 李欣勇, 刘攀道, 冯宇, 王志勇, 白昌军, 刘国道
2017, 11(11): 2261-2271. doi:
[摘要](673) [HTML全文] (31) [PDF 743KB](195)
摘要:
本研究采用(yong)(yong)水(shui)培的方法,在(zai)(zai)200 mmol·L-1 NaCl胁迫下对(dui)55份假(jia)(jia)俭草(Eremochloa ophiuroides)生态(tai)型进行耐(nai)盐性评价。盐处(chu)理18 d 后(hou)对(dui)目测质量(liang)(TQ)、枯叶率(lv)(WLR)、相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)生长量(liang)(ΔW)、叶绿素(Chl)含(han)(han)量(liang)和相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)含(han)(han)水(shui)量(liang)(RWC)进行测定。结果(guo)表明(ming),55份假(jia)(jia)俭草生态(tai)型间耐(nai)盐能(neng)力存在(zai)(zai)显著差异;与(yu)对(dui)照相(xiang)(xiang)比,盐处(chu)理18 d后(hou)55份假(jia)(jia)俭草生态(tai)型及‘翠绿1号’品种的TQ、ΔW、Chl含(han)(han)量(liang)及RWC都(dou)(dou)显著降低(P<0.05),WLR都(dou)(dou)显著上升(P<0.05);相(xiang)(xiang)关(guan)(guan)分(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)表明(ming),WLR与(yu)RWC及TQ显著负相(xiang)(xiang)关(guan)(guan),相(xiang)(xiang)关(guan)(guan)系数(shu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)别(bie)为(wei)-0.85及-0.73,而(er)RWC与(yu)TQ显著正相(xiang)(xiang)关(guan)(guan),相(xiang)(xiang)关(guan)(guan)系数(shu)为(wei)0.70。通(tong)过主成分(fen)(fen)(fen)分(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi),提取到(dao)3个主成分(fen)(fen)(fen),可以解释总变异的91.79%。隶属函(han)数(shu)法耐(nai)盐能(neng)力排序及聚(ju)类分(fen)(fen)(fen)析(xi)表明(ming),CP52、CP15、CP51及CP49的耐(nai)盐性最强,这些假(jia)(jia)俭草生态(tai)型有望在(zai)(zai)滨海盐碱土的草坪绿化(hua)中(zhong)应用(yong)(yong)。
娄底市草坪杂草种类、分布及危害
曾永贤, 金晨钟, 向国红, 刘泽发, 石琪涵, 彭友林
2017, 11(11): 2272-2278. doi:
[摘要](739) [HTML全文] (91) [PDF 510KB](173)
摘要:
为探究娄底市(shi)草(cao)坪杂草(cao)种类、分(fen)布及(ji)危(wei)害状况,通过野(ye)外调(diao)查(cha)、查(cha)阅植(zhi)物(wu)标本信(xin)息和文献资料,应用统(tong)计方法分(fen)析重要值等(deng)指标,确定娄底市(shi)草(cao)坪常见杂草(cao)有68种,隶属(shu)28科58属(shu),以菊科、禾本科、伞形科为优势科;一年蓬(Erigeron annuus)、看麦娘(Alopecurus aequalis)、白茅(mao)(Imperata cylindrica)等(deng)13种杂草(cao)为杂草(cao)优势种,应列为主要防控(kong)对象。本研究为娄底市(shi)草(cao)坪杂草(cao)的防控(kong)与综合(he)利用提供了重要资料,也可为其他(ta)地区杂草(cao)的类似(si)研究参考。
植物生产层
香豆素对苏丹草种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响
王婧怡, 姚丹丹, 徐军, 邬彩霞, 赵国琦, 华晨岚
2017, 11(11): 2279-2288. doi:
[摘要](719) [HTML全文] (41) [PDF 3076KB](170)
摘要:
香(xiang)(xiang)豆(dou)(dou)素(su)为黄花草(cao)木樨(Melilotus officinalis)水(shui)浸提(ti)液(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主效化感物(wu)质,能(neng)抑制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)多(duo)种(zhong)杂(za)草(cao)种(zhong)子的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)萌发(fa)和(he)(he)(he)幼(you)苗(miao)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)。为探明香(xiang)(xiang)豆(dou)(dou)素(su)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)化感抑草(cao)作用(yong)(yong)机理(li),本(ben)研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)采用(yong)(yong)室内(nei)培养(yang)、生(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)检测的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)方法,研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)了(le)简单香(xiang)(xiang)豆(dou)(dou)素(su)水(shui)溶(rong)液(ye)对(dui)苏(su)(su)(su)丹草(cao)(Sorghum sudanense)种(zhong)子萌发(fa)及(ji)其幼(you)苗(miao)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)和(he)(he)(he)生(sheng)(sheng)理(li)生(sheng)(sheng)化指标的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响,并(bing)采用(yong)(yong)透射电镜观(guan)察(cha)了(le)苏(su)(su)(su)丹草(cao)幼(you)苗(miao)根和(he)(he)(he)茎(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)超微(wei)组(zu)织结构。结果表(biao)明,20~100 μg·mL-1香(xiang)(xiang)豆(dou)(dou)素(su)水(shui)溶(rong)液(ye)能(neng)够(gou)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)抑制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)早期苏(su)(su)(su)丹草(cao)种(zhong)子的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)萌发(fa) (P<0.05),且随(sui)浓(nong)度升(sheng)高(gao)(gao)抑制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)作用(yong)(yong)增强,能(neng)够(gou)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)抑制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)苏(su)(su)(su)丹草(cao)根伸(shen)长(zhang),随(sui)处(chu)理(li)时(shi)(shi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)延长(zhang)和(he)(he)(he)浓(nong)度的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)升(sheng)高(gao)(gao)其抑制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)作用(yong)(yong)也增强,根变粗(cu)扭(niu)曲(qu),而对(dui)茎(jing)长(zhang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响存在(zai)(zai)浓(nong)度效应(ying)和(he)(he)(he)时(shi)(shi)间效应(ying),在(zai)(zai)4 d时(shi)(shi),20~100 μg·mL-1浓(nong)度的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)香(xiang)(xiang)豆(dou)(dou)素(su)水(shui)溶(rong)液(ye)均促(cu)进(jin)茎(jing)长(zhang),6和(he)(he)(he)8 d则表(biao)现为低(di)浓(nong)度促(cu)进(jin)、高(gao)(gao)浓(nong)度抑制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi);与加蒸馏水(shui)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)对(dui)照组(zu)相比,100 μg·mL-1香(xiang)(xiang)豆(dou)(dou)素(su)溶(rong)液(ye)处(chu)理(li)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05)提(ti)高(gao)(gao)了(le)过氧(yang)化氢酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(CAT)活(huo)性,并(bing)降低(di)了(le)超氧(yang)化物(wu)歧化酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(SOD)活(huo)性,对(dui)过氧(yang)化物(wu)酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(POD)抑制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)作用(yong)(yong)表(biao)现为先降低(di)后升(sheng)高(gao)(gao);香(xiang)(xiang)豆(dou)(dou)素(su)处(chu)理(li)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05)提(ti)高(gao)(gao)了(le)可(ke)溶(rong)性糖的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)含量(liang),同时(shi)(shi)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05)降低(di)了(le)叶绿素(su)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)含量(liang);在(zai)(zai)香(xiang)(xiang)豆(dou)(dou)素(su)处(chu)理(li)下(xia)(xia),淀(dian)粉含量(liang)先降低(di)后升(sheng)高(gao)(gao),吲哚乙酸氧(yang)化酶(mei)(mei)(mei)(IAAO)活(huo)性仅在(zai)(zai)第4天(tian)时(shi)(shi)低(di)于(yu)对(dui)照组(zu)。香(xiang)(xiang)豆(dou)(dou)素(su)水(shui)溶(rong)液(ye)破坏(huai)(huai)了(le)苏(su)(su)(su)丹草(cao)根细(xi)胞的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)超微(wei)结构,出(chu)现液(ye)泡(pao)体(ti)积(ji)变大(da),细(xi)胞器数(shu)量(liang)和(he)(he)(he)种(zhong)类(lei)减少的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)现象,细(xi)胞核(he)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)核(he)膜发(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)明显(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)歪曲(qu),细(xi)胞核(he)变小甚至(zhi)消失;香(xiang)(xiang)豆(dou)(dou)素(su)水(shui)溶(rong)液(ye)处(chu)理(li)下(xia)(xia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)苏(su)(su)(su)丹草(cao)幼(you)苗(miao)叶绿体(ti)内(nei)淀(dian)粉粒数(shu)目(mu)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05)增加,体(ti)积(ji)变大(da)。以上结果显(xian)(xian)示,100 μg·mL-1的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)香(xiang)(xiang)豆(dou)(dou)素(su)水(shui)溶(rong)液(ye)可(ke)以通过改变苏(su)(su)(su)丹草(cao)抗氧(yang)化酶(mei)(mei)(mei)系(xi)统、增加渗透调节物(wu)质、降低(di)叶绿素(su)含量(liang)、影(ying)响酶(mei)(mei)(mei)活(huo)性以及(ji)破坏(huai)(huai)细(xi)胞超微(wei)结构等途径调节苏(su)(su)(su)丹草(cao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)。
抗裂荚箭筈豌豆荚果发育动态及其腹缝线结构
董德珂, 韩云华, 李东华, 王彦荣, 刘志鹏
2017, 11(11): 2289-2294. doi:
[摘要](907) [HTML全文] (115) [PDF 1144KB](162)
摘要:
易(yi)裂荚(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)箭筈(gua)(gua)豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)(dou)(Vicia sativa)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)荚(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)果(guo)开(kai)裂主要是(shi)由(you)离(li)层(ceng)和细(xi)胞(bao)失水产生的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)械拉力导致的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),但是(shi)在抗(kang)(kang)(kang)裂荚(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)箭筈(gua)(gua)豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)(dou)中的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)组(zu)织结构尚不明确(que)。该研究(jiu)以抗(kang)(kang)(kang)裂荚(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)135号箭筈(gua)(gua)豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)(dou)(V. sativa subsp. sativa No.135)为对(dui)(dui)象(xiang),对(dui)(dui)其(qi)荚(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)果(guo)在发(fa)(fa)育过程(cheng)中的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形态特征、水分含量(liang)、发(fa)(fa)芽(ya)率(lv)(lv)及(ji)腹(fu)缝线横截面解(jie)剖(pou)结构等的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)动态变(bian)(bian)化(hua)进行观察分析,以探讨抗(kang)(kang)(kang)裂荚(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)箭筈(gua)(gua)豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)(dou)荚(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)果(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)抗(kang)(kang)(kang)裂机(ji)理,以及(ji)为生产中确(que)定其(qi)种子收获的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)适宜时(shi)间(jian)提供理论依据。结果(guo)显示,1)135号箭筈(gua)(gua)豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)(dou)约在盛花后(hou)26 d荚(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)果(guo)变(bian)(bian)为棕黑(hei)色(se),荚(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)果(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)小、干(gan)重已(yi)经达到最大(da)值(zhi),含水量(liang)较低(di),发(fa)(fa)芽(ya)率(lv)(lv)较高且硬实率(lv)(lv)较低(di)。2)135号箭筈(gua)(gua)豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)(dou)腹(fu)缝线处(chu)夹在两个维(wei)(wei)管(guan)束之间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)薄(bo)壁细(xi)胞(bao)没(mei)有分化(hua)成(cheng)离(li)层(ceng),而是(shi)分化(hua)成(cheng)与维(wei)(wei)管(guan)束细(xi)胞(bao)一样的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)厚壁细(xi)胞(bao),将两个维(wei)(wei)管(guan)束连接起来,形成(cheng)由(you)厚壁细(xi)胞(bao)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)整体。综上所(suo)述,盛花后(hou)26 d荚(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)果(guo)变(bian)(bian)为棕黑(hei)色(se)时(shi)是(shi)135号箭筈(gua)(gua)豌(wan)(wan)豆(dou)(dou)(dou)(dou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)适宜收获时(shi)间(jian),离(li)层(ceng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)丢失和分化(hua)形成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)厚壁细(xi)胞(bao)是(shi)其(qi)荚(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)果(guo)抗(kang)(kang)(kang)裂的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主要原因。
IAA改善PEG处理下白三叶幼苗叶片抗氧化保护和渗透调节能力
李亚萍, 彭燕
2017, 11(11): 2295-2302. doi:
[摘要](727) [HTML全文] (52) [PDF 743KB](186)
摘要:
以‘Pixie’白(bai)三(san)(san)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(Trifolium repens cv. ‘Pixie’)为试材,通过(guo)(guo)(guo)PEG(聚乙二(er)醇(chun)-6000)模拟干(gan)旱(han)(han)胁迫,研究植(zhi)物(wu)生(sheng)长素(su)(IAA)对(dui)(dui)白(bai)三(san)(san)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)幼(you)(you)苗抗旱(han)(han)性(xing)的影响。结(jie)果表明(ming),1 μmol·L-1 IAA能够显著(P<0.05)提(ti)高15% PEG(-0.3 MPa)干(gan)旱(han)(han)胁迫下(xia)白(bai)三(san)(san)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)幼(you)(you)苗的抗旱(han)(han)性(xing);外(wai)(wai)源(yuan)IAA不(bu)同(tong)程度地(di)提(ti)高了(le)(le)白(bai)三(san)(san)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)幼(you)(you)苗叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)超(chao)(chao)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)物(wu)歧化(hua)(hua)(hua)酶、过(guo)(guo)(guo)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)物(wu)酶、过(guo)(guo)(guo)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)氢(qing)酶和(he)抗坏血酸(suan)过(guo)(guo)(guo)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)物(wu)酶活性(xing),以及还原型ASA和(he)GSH的含(han)量,降(jiang)低相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)电导率(lv)、丙二(er)醛、超(chao)(chao)氧阴离(li)子和(he)过(guo)(guo)(guo)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)氢(qing)含(han)量,有效(xiao)缓解了(le)(le)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)膜质(zhi)损(sun)(sun)伤和(he)氧胁迫伤害;外(wai)(wai)源(yuan)IAA亦可显著提(ti)高白(bai)三(san)(san)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)总(zong)氨基酸(suan)和(he)游离(li)脯氨酸(suan)含(han)量,有效(xiao)降(jiang)低了(le)(le)渗透势,提(ti)高叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)含(han)水量。相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)似地(di),干(gan)旱(han)(han)条件下(xia)外(wai)(wai)源(yuan)1 μmol·L-1 IAA提(ti)高了(le)(le)离(li)体叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)含(han)水量并(bing)有效(xiao)缓解了(le)(le)膜质(zhi)损(sun)(sun)伤,但60 μmol·L-1极(ji)性(xing)运输抑(yi)制剂(NPA)以及60 μmol·L-1合(he)成抑(yi)制剂(L-AOPP)不(bu)同(tong)程度地(di)加(jia)剧(ju)了(le)(le)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)失(shi)水和(he)膜质(zhi)损(sun)(sun)伤。以上结(jie)果表明(ming):1 μmol·L-1IAA通过(guo)(guo)(guo)提(ti)高干(gan)旱(han)(han)胁迫下(xia)白(bai)三(san)(san)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)抗氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)保护能力和(he)渗透调(diao)节能力,改善了(le)(le)白(bai)三(san)(san)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)幼(you)(you)苗的抗旱(han)(han)性(xing)。
根瘤菌拌种量对库布齐沙地紫花苜蓿生长的影响
刘若慈, 王铁梅, 苏德荣, 吕世海, 叶生星, 陈俊翰
2017, 11(11): 2303-2308. doi:
[摘要](633) [HTML全文] (32) [PDF 518KB](139)
摘要:
在内(nei)蒙古(gu)库布齐沙地研究了根(gen)(gen)瘤(liu)(liu)菌(jun)(jun)拌(ban)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)比(bi)例对紫(zi)花苜蓿(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)生长和(he)(he)结(jie)瘤(liu)(liu)的(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响。紫(zi)花苜蓿(xu)(xu)品种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)为“4010”,按(an)根(gen)(gen)瘤(liu)(liu)菌(jun)(jun)与苜蓿(xu)(xu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子的(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)比(bi),设(she)0、10、20 g·kg-1 3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)处理(li),测定株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)、根(gen)(gen)瘤(liu)(liu)数(shu)随时(shi)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)变化和(he)(he)两(liang)茬的(de)(de)(de)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)(he)营养含量(liang)(liang)(liang)。结(jie)果表明(ming),根(gen)(gen)瘤(liu)(liu)菌(jun)(jun)拌(ban)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)对苜蓿(xu)(xu)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)、根(gen)(gen)瘤(liu)(liu)、产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)以及(ji)第1茬的(de)(de)(de)茎叶比(bi)和(he)(he)营养含量(liang)(liang)(liang)均有(you)(you)显著影(ying)响(P<0.05)。经(jing)拌(ban)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)处理(li)的(de)(de)(de)根(gen)(gen)瘤(liu)(liu)数(shu)比(bi)不拌(ban)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)对照组(zu)多14倍。20 g·kg-1拌(ban)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)时(shi)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)和(he)(he)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)最高(gao)(gao),株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)比(bi)不拌(ban)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)高(gao)(gao)6.8 cm;两(liang)茬干草总产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)比(bi)不拌(ban)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)高(gao)(gao)1.79 t·hm-2;10 g·kg-1拌(ban)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)使第1茬的(de)(de)(de)茎叶比(bi)减(jian)小、粗(cu)蛋白含量(liang)(liang)(liang)增加、酸(suan)性(xing)洗(xi)涤纤(xian)维(wei)和(he)(he)中(zhong)性(xing)洗(xi)涤纤(xian)维(wei)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)减(jian)少。产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)(he)营养没有(you)(you)同时(shi)达到最佳(jia)水平,在实际应用(yong)中(zhong),还应连同生产(chan)成本等因素综合考虑,选择最佳(jia)根(gen)(gen)瘤(liu)(liu)菌(jun)(jun)用(yong)量(liang)(liang)(liang)。
干旱-复水对菊芋苗期根、茎、叶形态特征的影响
朱铁霞, 王琳, 高阳, 王伟东, 高凯
2017, 11(11): 2309-2315. doi:
[摘要](531) [HTML全文] (11) [PDF 549KB](154)
摘要:
通过(guo)盆栽试验研(yan)究干(gan)(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)-复(fu)水(shui)(shui)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)(Helianthus tuberosus)苗期根(gen)(gen)(gen)、茎(jing)(jing)(jing)、叶(ye)(ye)、茎(jing)(jing)(jing)叶(ye)(ye)比、根(gen)(gen)(gen)冠比和(he)物质积累量(liang)的(de)影响(xiang),探讨菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)苗期干(gan)(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)适(shi)应(ying)机制,干(gan)(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)半(ban)干(gan)(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)地(di)区菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)栽培管理(li)(li)提供参考。结果表明:干(gan)(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)-复(fu)水(shui)(shui)处(chu)理(li)(li)菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)根(gen)(gen)(gen)、茎(jing)(jing)(jing)、叶(ye)(ye)生物量(liang)和(he)总生物量(liang)均(jun)低于(yu)(yu)(yu)正常水(shui)(shui)分管理(li)(li);干(gan)(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)-复(fu)水(shui)(shui)增加了主根(gen)(gen)(gen)和(he)须(xu)根(gen)(gen)(gen)的(de)直径;干(gan)(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)-复(fu)水(shui)(shui)过(guo)程中除复(fu)水(shui)(shui)第(di)16天(tian)(tian)(tian)外,处(chu)理(li)(li)须(xu)根(gen)(gen)(gen)长(zhang)度(du)均(jun)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)照;处(chu)理(li)(li)前期主根(gen)(gen)(gen)长(zhang)度(du)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)照,后期主根(gen)(gen)(gen)长(zhang)度(du)低于(yu)(yu)(yu)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)照;干(gan)(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)-复(fu)水(shui)(shui)处(chu)理(li)(li)提高(gao)了菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)平均(jun)叶(ye)(ye)面(mian)积,降低了叶(ye)(ye)片数量(liang),抑(yi)制新叶(ye)(ye)片的(de)形成(cheng);干(gan)(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)胁(xie)迫第(di)2天(tian)(tian)(tian)测定的(de)茎(jing)(jing)(jing)叶(ye)(ye)比对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)照高(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)处(chu)理(li)(li),而其他取样时间处(chu)理(li)(li)均(jun)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)照;干(gan)(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)-复(fu)水(shui)(shui)过(guo)程中菊(ju)(ju)芋(yu)根(gen)(gen)(gen)冠比胁(xie)迫第(di)2天(tian)(tian)(tian)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)照,胁(xie)迫第(di)4天(tian)(tian)(tian)、第(di)8天(tian)(tian)(tian)和(he)复(fu)水(shui)(shui)第(di)8天(tian)(tian)(tian)处(chu)理(li)(li)根(gen)(gen)(gen)冠比低于(yu)(yu)(yu)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)照,复(fu)水(shui)(shui)第(di)16天(tian)(tian)(tian)处(chu)理(li)(li)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)(yu)对(dui)(dui)(dui)(dui)照。
氮素水平对不同氮效率基因型苎麻根系性状的影响
陈继康, 谭龙涛, 喻春明, 朱爱国, 陈平, 王延周, 朱涛涛, 熊和平
2017, 11(11): 2316-2324. doi:
[摘要](604) [HTML全文] (18) [PDF 582KB](158)
摘要:
根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)是苎(zhu)(zhu)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)(Boehmeria nivea)吸(xi)收(shou)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)素(su)(su)的(de)(de)(de)主要器(qi)官(guan),开展苎(zhu)(zhu)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)对(dui)(dui)(dui)不同(tong)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)素(su)(su)水(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)的(de)(de)(de)响(xiang)(xiang)应(ying)(ying)研(yan)究(jiu)对(dui)(dui)(dui)其(qi)品种改(gai)良和农艺调控(kong)具有(you)重要意(yi)义。针对(dui)(dui)(dui)以往研(yan)究(jiu)的(de)(de)(de)不足,本研(yan)究(jiu)设置了(le)0、6、9、12和15 mmol·L-1氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)素(su)(su)水(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)处理进(jin)行(xing)盆栽试验,分(fen)析了(le)不同(tong)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)效率(lv)(lv)苎(zhu)(zhu)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)性(xing)状对(dui)(dui)(dui)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)素(su)(su)水(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)的(de)(de)(de)响(xiang)(xiang)应(ying)(ying)特征,及(ji)其(qi)与氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)素(su)(su)利用(yong)效率(lv)(lv)的(de)(de)(de)关(guan)系(xi)(xi)。结(jie)果表明,增(zeng)施(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)素(su)(su)可显(xian)(xian)著提(ti)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)苎(zhu)(zhu)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)总(zong)吸(xi)收(shou)面(mian)(mian)积(ji)、活(huo)跃吸(xi)收(shou)面(mian)(mian)积(ji)及(ji)比(bi)表面(mian)(mian)积(ji)(P<0.05),但对(dui)(dui)(dui)根(gen)(gen)长(zhang)(zhang)影(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)不显(xian)(xian)著(P>0.05)。增(zeng)施(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)肥可显(xian)(xian)著促(cu)进(jin)苎(zhu)(zhu)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)体积(ji)与活(huo)力(li)的(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)长(zhang)(zhang),其(qi)中氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)效基因(yin)型苎(zhu)(zhu)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)H2000-03根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)体积(ji)在12 mmol·L-1处理时(shi)(shi)达(da)到(dao)最大,为(wei)(wei)未(wei)施(shi)(shi)(shi)处理的(de)(de)(de)3.06倍(bei),氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)低效基因(yin)型苎(zhu)(zhu)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)册(ce)亨家(jia)(jia)(jia)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)体积(ji)在9 mmol·L-1时(shi)(shi)达(da)到(dao)最大,为(wei)(wei)未(wei)施(shi)(shi)(shi)处理的(de)(de)(de)2.38倍(bei);而过量施(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)则会导致(zhi)指标下降,其(qi)中旺长(zhang)(zhang)期册(ce)亨家(jia)(jia)(jia)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)活(huo)力(li)下降达(da)67.5%。各(ge)性(xing)状的(de)(de)(de)综合表现导致(zhi)苎(zhu)(zhu)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)素(su)(su)回(hui)收(shou)率(lv)(lv)在9 mmol·L-1时(shi)(shi)达(da)到(dao)最大值。氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)效苎(zhu)(zhu)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)H2000-03较(jiao)(jiao)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)低效苎(zhu)(zhu)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)册(ce)亨家(jia)(jia)(jia)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)具有(you)显(xian)(xian)著较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)(de)根(gen)(gen)长(zhang)(zhang)、根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)体积(ji)、总(zong)吸(xi)收(shou)面(mian)(mian)积(ji)、活(huo)跃吸(xi)收(shou)面(mian)(mian)积(ji),且(qie)(qie)能够随生长(zhang)(zhang)发育维持较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(gao)水(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)。但二者(zhe)根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)比(bi)表面(mian)(mian)积(ji)和根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)活(huo)力(li)没有(you)显(xian)(xian)著差异,是其(qi)根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)性(xing)状改(gai)良的(de)(de)(de)重点。影(ying)响(xiang)(xiang)苎(zhu)(zhu)麻(ma)(ma)(ma)(ma)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)素(su)(su)回(hui)收(shou)率(lv)(lv)、地上部氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)素(su)(su)累积(ji)量的(de)(de)(de)关(guan)键时(shi)(shi)期为(wei)(wei)生长(zhang)(zhang)中后期,且(qie)(qie)关(guan)键因(yin)素(su)(su)为(wei)(wei)根(gen)(gen)量及(ji)根(gen)(gen)系(xi)(xi)表面(mian)(mian)特性(xing)。
不同种植和收割方式下夏播光敏型高丹草的效益分析
何振富, 贺露, 贺春贵, 王斐, 王国栋, 刘陇生
2017, 11(11): 2325-2334. doi:
[摘要](651) [HTML全文] (32) [PDF 819KB](166)
摘要:
为(wei)了(le)掌握光(guang)敏型高(gao)丹(dan)草(Sorghum bicolor×S. sudanense)在不(bu)同种(zhong)(zhong)植和(he)收(shou)(shou)割(ge)(ge)(ge)方式(shi)(shi)下的(de)(de)经济效(xiao)益(yi)(yi)(yi),在陇东旱塬麦茬(cha)(cha)(cha)后用(yong)(yong)3种(zhong)(zhong)穴播(bo)(bo)方式(shi)(shi)(免(mian)耕露地、翻耕露地和(he)翻耕覆膜)复种(zhong)(zhong)了(le)3个光(guang)敏型高(gao)丹(dan)草品种(zhong)(zhong)(海牛、BJM和(he)大(da)卡(ka)),测定了(le)各处理(li)下刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)(ge)一(yi)(yi)茬(cha)(cha)(cha)和(he)两(liang)茬(cha)(cha)(cha)的(de)(de)草产(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang),并(bing)比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)分析了(le)总(zong)投(tou)入(ru)(ru)、总(zong)收(shou)(shou)入(ru)(ru)、纯(chun)收(shou)(shou)益(yi)(yi)(yi)和(he)产(chan)(chan)(chan)投(tou)比(bi)。结果表明,两(liang)种(zhong)(zhong)收(shou)(shou)割(ge)(ge)(ge)方式(shi)(shi)下,总(zong)收(shou)(shou)入(ru)(ru)、纯(chun)收(shou)(shou)益(yi)(yi)(yi)和(he)产(chan)(chan)(chan)投(tou)比(bi)的(de)(de)穴播(bo)(bo)方式(shi)(shi)主(zhu)效(xiao)均呈显(xian)(xian)(xian)著差异(yi)(P<0.05),且均以(yi)翻耕覆膜最(zui)高(gao);品种(zhong)(zhong)和(he)穴播(bo)(bo)方式(shi)(shi)互(hu)作(zuo)不(bu)明显(xian)(xian)(xian);刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)(ge)两(liang)茬(cha)(cha)(cha),品种(zhong)(zhong)主(zhu)效(xiao)无显(xian)(xian)(xian)著差异(yi),均以(yi)海牛最(zui)高(gao);刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)(ge)一(yi)(yi)茬(cha)(cha)(cha),品种(zhong)(zhong)主(zhu)效(xiao)有显(xian)(xian)(xian)著差异(yi)(P<0.05),均以(yi)BJM最(zui)高(gao)。人(ren)(ren)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)业(ye)与(yu)机(ji)械作(zuo)业(ye)相比(bi):3种(zhong)(zhong)穴播(bo)(bo)方式(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)总(zong)投(tou)入(ru)(ru)在采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)机(ji)械作(zuo)业(ye)时均较(jiao)(jiao)人(ren)(ren)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)业(ye)低,机(ji)械作(zuo)业(ye)的(de)(de)纯(chun)收(shou)(shou)益(yi)(yi)(yi)和(he)产(chan)(chan)(chan)投(tou)比(bi)均较(jiao)(jiao)人(ren)(ren)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)业(ye)的(de)(de)高(gao)。刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)(ge)一(yi)(yi)茬(cha)(cha)(cha)和(he)刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)(ge)两(liang)茬(cha)(cha)(cha)相比(bi):刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)(ge)一(yi)(yi)茬(cha)(cha)(cha)的(de)(de)总(zong)收(shou)(shou)入(ru)(ru)、纯(chun)收(shou)(shou)益(yi)(yi)(yi)和(he)产(chan)(chan)(chan)投(tou)比(bi)均明显(xian)(xian)(xian)高(gao)于刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)(ge)两(liang)茬(cha)(cha)(cha)。从经济效(xiao)益(yi)(yi)(yi)的(de)(de)角度(du)考虑,陇东旱塬地区麦茬(cha)(cha)(cha)后夏播(bo)(bo)高(gao)丹(dan)草的(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)模式(shi)(shi)中,以(yi)选择BJM品种(zhong)(zhong)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)翻耕覆膜穴播(bo)(bo),并(bing)利(li)用(yong)(yong)机(ji)械刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)(ge)一(yi)(yi)茬(cha)(cha)(cha)(早霜前1周刈(yi)(yi)(yi)割(ge)(ge)(ge))的(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)方式(shi)(shi)经济效(xiao)益(yi)(yi)(yi)为(wei)最(zui)优。
混播方式对无芒雀麦+红豆草混播草地植物生长效率及混播效应的影响
朱亚琼, 郑伟, 王祥, 关正翾, 刘美君
2017, 11(11): 2335-2346. doi:
[摘要](778) [HTML全文] (43) [PDF 806KB](178)
摘要:
本研究从混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)生(sheng)(sheng)长效(xiao)率(lv)和(he)(he)(he)(he)种间竞(jing)(jing)(jing)争动(dong)态的(de)角度出(chu)发,利用盆栽(zai)试验分析和(he)(he)(he)(he)比较(jiao)(jiao)不同(tong)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)方式下(xia)无芒(mang)(mang)雀(que)麦(Bromus inermis)、红豆(dou)(dou)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Onobrychis viciaefolia)的(de)相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)生(sheng)(sheng)长速率(lv)、叶(ye)绿素(su)荧光参数、牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)产(chan)(chan)量及相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)产(chan)(chan)量总(zong)和(he)(he)(he)(he),以期明(ming)确无芒(mang)(mang)雀(que)麦+红豆(dou)(dou)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地的(de)种间竞(jing)(jing)(jing)争过程和(he)(he)(he)(he)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)优势产(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)机制。结果(guo)表明(ming),两(liang)种牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)株高(gao)相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)生(sheng)(sheng)长速率(lv)和(he)(he)(he)(he)密(mi)度相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)生(sheng)(sheng)长速率(lv)均(jun)表现出(chu)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)大于单播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo),行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)距(ju)(ju)30 cm异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)表现出(chu)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)的(de)相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)生(sheng)(sheng)长速率(lv)。异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)下(xia)无芒(mang)(mang)雀(que)麦相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)密(mi)度(RDg)和(he)(he)(he)(he)红豆(dou)(dou)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)密(mi)度(RDl)均(jun)高(gao)于同(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo),行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)距(ju)(ju)30 cm异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)下(xia)红豆(dou)(dou)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)RDl和(he)(he)(he)(he)相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)产(chan)(chan)量(RY)均(jun)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao);同(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)和(he)(he)(he)(he)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)距(ju)(ju)30 cm异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)具(ju)有(you)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)的(de)相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)产(chan)(chan)量总(zong)和(he)(he)(he)(he)(RYT)。无芒(mang)(mang)雀(que)麦叶(ye)片(pian)的(de)初(chu)始荧光效(xiao)率(lv)(Fo)和(he)(he)(he)(he)最大荧光(Fm)均(jun)为异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)高(gao)于单播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo),叶(ye)片(pian)PSⅡ潜在活性(Fv/Fo)则是单播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)高(gao)于同(tong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo);在不同(tong)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)方式下(xia)两(liang)种牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)叶(ye)片(pian)单位面积捕获的(de)光能(TRo/CSo)值(zhi)相(xiang)(xiang)差较(jiao)(jiao)小;行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)距(ju)(ju)30 cm异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)、行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)距(ju)(ju)45 cm异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)下(xia)两(liang)种牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)均(jun)具(ju)有(you)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)叶(ye)绿素(su)荧光参数。因此(ci),行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)距(ju)(ju)30 cm+异(yi)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)(bo)具(ju)有(you)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)群(qun)体光合效(xiao)率(lv)和(he)(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)(dou)科牧(mu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)种间竞(jing)(jing)(jing)争力,形成了(le)组(zu)分结构稳定、生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)性能较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)的(de)群(qun)体。
中国苜蓿属植物适宜性区划
徐丽君, 徐大伟, 逄焕成, 辛晓平, 金东艳, 唐雪娟, 郭明英
2017, 11(11): 2347-2358. doi:
[摘要](1188) [HTML全文] (116) [PDF 3465KB](163)
摘要:
苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago)是我国(guo)大(da)面积种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)多年生牧草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)之(zhi)一,素有“牧草(cao)(cao)之(zhi)王(wang)”的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)美誉(yu),近年来,随着我国(guo)草(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)畜牧业(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)快速发(fa)展,苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)面积正逐年增加(jia),如何选择适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)在(zai)适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)(qu)域种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi),对指导大(da)面积作业(ye)尤为重要(yao)。本研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)在(zai)吸收借(jie)鉴已有研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)成果的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)基础上,建(jian)立(li)基于(yu)自(zi)(zi)然要(yao)素的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生态(tai)适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)(yi)性(xing)模型,结合(he)牧草(cao)(cao)生物学特性(xing),综(zong)合(he)考虑各因(yin)子同时(shi)(shi)联系牧草(cao)(cao)实际(ji)生产情况,进行系统分(fen)析。研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)结果初步明确(que)了(le)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)属植(zhi)(zhi)物在(zai)全(quan)国(guo)生态(tai)范围内(nei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)分(fen)布(bu)区(qu)(qu)(qu)域,提出(chu)了(le)我国(guo)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)生态(tai)适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)(yi)区(qu)(qu)(qu)、次适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)(yi)区(qu)(qu)(qu)、不适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)(yi)区(qu)(qu)(qu)。其中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)(yi)区(qu)(qu)(qu)主要(yao)分(fen)布(bu)为:东北(bei)(bei)区(qu)(qu)(qu)主要(yao)集(ji)(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)在(zai)吉林、辽宁的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)西(xi)(xi)(xi)部及黑龙江(jiang)东部部分(fen)市(shi)(shi)(shi)县;内(nei)蒙古区(qu)(qu)(qu)集(ji)(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)在(zai)东部的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)赤峰(feng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)、通辽市(shi)(shi)(shi)及兴安盟等(deng),西(xi)(xi)(xi)部的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)乌兰察(cha)布(bu)盟、呼和(he)浩特市(shi)(shi)(shi)、鄂尔多斯市(shi)(shi)(shi)等(deng);西(xi)(xi)(xi)北(bei)(bei)区(qu)(qu)(qu)主要(yao)集(ji)(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)在(zai)甘肃(su)省(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)河(he)西(xi)(xi)(xi)走廊,新疆(jiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)伊犁地(di)(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu)、昌吉回族(zu)(zu)自(zi)(zi)治(zhi)(zhi)区(qu)(qu)(qu)及塔里木盆地(di)(di)周(zhou)边(bian)地(di)(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu),同时(shi)(shi)在(zai)主干(gan)河(he)流建(jian)立(li)缓冲带(dai)作为苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)(yi)区(qu)(qu)(qu);青(qing)藏(zang)高(gao)原(yuan)区(qu)(qu)(qu)适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)(yi)区(qu)(qu)(qu)比较(jiao)少,青(qing)海主要(yao)集(ji)(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)在(zai)西(xi)(xi)(xi)宁市(shi)(shi)(shi)、海东地(di)(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu)、黄南藏(zang)族(zu)(zu)自(zi)(zi)治(zhi)(zhi)州(zhou)及海南藏(zang)族(zu)(zu)自(zi)(zi)治(zhi)(zhi)州(zhou)部分(fen)地(di)(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu);华北(bei)(bei)区(qu)(qu)(qu)在(zai)河(he)北(bei)(bei)省(sheng)(sheng)北(bei)(bei)部张(zhang)家口市(shi)(shi)(shi)和(he)承德市(shi)(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)坝(ba)上以(yi)南的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)地(di)(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu);黄土高(gao)原(yuan)区(qu)(qu)(qu)大(da)部分(fen)地(di)(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu)都适(shi)(shi)(shi)宜(yi)(yi)(yi)种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu);华中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)区(qu)(qu)(qu)主要(yao)分(fen)布(bu)在(zai)安徽省(sheng)(sheng)北(bei)(bei)部、江(jiang)苏省(sheng)(sheng)北(bei)(bei)部、湖北(bei)(bei)省(sheng)(sheng)西(xi)(xi)(xi)北(bei)(bei)部;西(xi)(xi)(xi)南区(qu)(qu)(qu)主要(yao)分(fen)布(bu)在(zai)云南省(sheng)(sheng)北(bei)(bei)部,贵(gui)州(zhou)省(sheng)(sheng)毕节市(shi)(shi)(shi),四川省(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成都市(shi)(shi)(shi)、德阳(yang)市(shi)(shi)(shi)、遂宁市(shi)(shi)(shi)、绵阳(yang)市(shi)(shi)(shi)南部。
青海省海晏县牧场牧草营养品质全年动态
范小红, 杨得玉, 郝力壮, 刘书杰, 牛建章, 张晓卫, 孙璐, 张成图, 李吉业
2017, 11(11): 2359-2365. doi:
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摘要:
为(wei)弥(mi)补众多青(qing)藏(zang)高(gao)原(yuan)定(ding)点监测全(quan)(quan)年(nian)(nian)(nian)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)营养(yang)(yang)价值变化(hua)(hua)对生(sheng)产(chan)支撑不足的(de)问题,探明(ming)青(qing)藏(zang)高(gao)原(yuan)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)牦(mao)牛全(quan)(quan)年(nian)(nian)(nian)轮(lun)(lun)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)条件下牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)的(de)全(quan)(quan)年(nian)(nian)(nian)动态营养(yang)(yang)价值,本研究选取(qu)青(qing)藏(zang)高(gao)原(yuan)典型牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)户的(de)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)地(di),于2015年(nian)(nian)(nian)9月(yue)(yue)到2016年(nian)(nian)(nian)8月(yue)(yue)全(quan)(quan)年(nian)(nian)(nian)跟踪放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)牦(mao)牛、模(mo)拟采集可(ke)食性(xing)(xing)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao),并分(fen)析牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)常规营养(yang)(yang)成分(fen)及(ji)总(zong)(zong)能(neng),采用(yong)体外(wai)两阶(jie)段法(fa)测定(ding)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)体外(wai)干物(wu)质消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)率。结果(guo)表明(ming),1)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)中(zhong)粗蛋白(CP)、粗脂肪(EE)、酸性(xing)(xing)洗涤纤(xian)维(ADF)、中(zhong)性(xing)(xing)洗涤纤(xian)维(NDF)、粗灰分(fen)(Ash)、钙(Ca)和(he)(he)(he)磷(P)含(han)量(liang)分(fen)别为(wei)3.68%~19.21%、0.86%~2.74%、9.65%~43.83%、44.70%~76.23%、5.40%~9.62%、2.13%~5.12%和(he)(he)(he)0.027%~0.190%,5月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)CP、Ash含(han)量(liang)极(ji)显(xian)著高(gao)于其(qi)他月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)(P<0.01);2)体外(wai)两阶(jie)段法(fa)评定(ding)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)体外(wai)干物(wu)质消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)率得出,消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)率为(wei)42.72%~72.47%,5月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)极(ji)显(xian)著高(gao)于其(qi)他月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)(P<0.01);3)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)总(zong)(zong)能(neng)(GE)、消(xiao)化(hua)(hua)能(neng)(DE)和(he)(he)(he)代谢能(neng)(ME) 分(fen)别为(wei)17.76~19.67、7.81~13.26和(he)(he)(he)6.40~10.87 MJ·kg-1,全(quan)(quan)年(nian)(nian)(nian)不同(tong)月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)GE差(cha)异不显(xian)著(P>0.05),以(yi)6月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)最高(gao),11月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)次(ci)之(zhi),牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)DE及(ji)ME为(wei)5月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)显(xian)著高(gao)于其(qi)他月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)( P<0.05),4月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)和(he)(he)(he)6月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)次(ci)之(zhi),12月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)最低。青(qing)海(hai)省(sheng)海(hai)晏县(xian)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)5月(yue)(yue)和(he)(he)(he)6月(yue)(yue)天然牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)品质优(you)良,10月(yue)(yue)至翌(yi)年(nian)(nian)(nian)3月(yue)(yue)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)营养(yang)(yang)价值较(jiao)低。因此,建议牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)民和(he)(he)(he)养(yang)(yang)殖(zhi)户在10月(yue)(yue)到翌(yi)年(nian)(nian)(nian)3月(yue)(yue)采用(yong)天然草(cao)地(di)配合补饲饲料养(yang)(yang)殖(zhi);鉴于全(quan)(quan)年(nian)(nian)(nian)轮(lun)(lun)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)季节性(xing)(xing)草(cao)地(di)类型不同(tong),今后(hou)应采取(qu)跟踪式牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草(cao)营养(yang)(yang)监测方法(fa),较(jiao)好地(di)实现放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)牦(mao)牛精准(zhun)补饲。
山西4类主要天然草地的生物量空间分布特征
任敏, 谭振宇, 张智袁, 高永强, 赵祥, 任国华, 苏宗义
2017, 11(11): 2366-2377. doi:
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摘要:
通过对(dui)山(shan)(shan)西(xi)(xi)省暖(nuan)(nuan)性草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)丛(cong)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)、暖(nuan)(nuan)性灌草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)丛(cong)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)、温性草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)原类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)、温性山(shan)(shan)地(di)(di)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)4类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)主要天然(ran)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)70个(ge)(ge)大(da)样地(di)(di)进(jin)行调查,测定草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)地(di)(di)上、地(di)(di)下生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang),分(fen)析4个(ge)(ge)海拔(ba)梯(ti)度(du),6个(ge)(ge)纬度(du)梯(ti)度(du)和(he)5个(ge)(ge)经度(du)梯(ti)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)变化规(gui)律,旨(zhi)在掌(zhang)握山(shan)(shan)西(xi)(xi)天然(ran)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)空间分(fen)布特征,为充分(fen)了解山(shan)(shan)西(xi)(xi)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)系统及(ji)合理利(li)用奠定基(ji)础。结果表(biao)明(ming),山(shan)(shan)西(xi)(xi)省主要类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)型天然(ran)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)随(sui)(sui)海拔(ba)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)升(sheng)高呈现出先(xian)(xian)升(sheng)高后降低(di)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)趋(qu)势,海拔(ba)1 200-1 600 m的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)地(di)(di)下生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)和(he)总(zong)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)最高,分(fen)别为1 412.86和(he)2 037.87 g·m-2;而地(di)(di)上活(huo)体生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)和(he)凋落(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)则是在<800 m的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)海拔(ba)处最高,分(fen)别为301.5和(he)105.97 g·m-2。随(sui)(sui)纬度(du)从南(nan)向北地(di)(di)下生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)和(he)总(zong)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)呈先(xian)(xian)增(zeng)加后降低(di)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)趋(qu)势,且南(nan)边略高于北边(P>0.05)。随(sui)(sui)经度(du)从西(xi)(xi)向东地(di)(di)下生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)和(he)总(zong)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)呈先(xian)(xian)增(zeng)加后降低(di)再(zai)增(zeng)加的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)趋(qu)势。不同草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)型地(di)(di)上生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)存在较(jiao)大(da)差异(yi),暖(nuan)(nuan)性草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)丛(cong)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)地(di)(di)上活(huo)体生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)显著(zhu)高于其余3类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)型(P<0.05)。暖(nuan)(nuan)性草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)丛(cong)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)和(he)温性山(shan)(shan)地(di)(di)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)凋落(luo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)显著(zhu)高于暖(nuan)(nuan)性灌草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)丛(cong)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)和(he)温性草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)原类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(P<0.05)。
后生物生产层
中国草地类自然保护区生态环境质量动态评价指标体系构建与案例
杜金鸿, 张玉波, 刘方正, 陈冰, 李俊生, 王伟
2017, 11(11): 2378-2387. doi:
[摘要](644) [HTML全文] (84) [PDF 1911KB](175)
摘要:
自然(ran)保护(hu)区(qu)(qu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)环(huan)境破坏问题日益严重(zhong),而草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)类(lei)(lei)自然(ran)保护(hu)区(qu)(qu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)系(xi)统(tong)脆弱,一旦破坏,很(hen)难恢复,因此,对(dui)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)类(lei)(lei)自然(ran)保护(hu)区(qu)(qu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)环(huan)境质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)开(kai)展动态(tai)(tai)(tai)评(ping)价(jia),对(dui)我国草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)类(lei)(lei)自然(ran)保护(hu)区(qu)(qu)的(de)可持(chi)续(xu)发展具有重(zhong)要意(yi)义(yi)。本研(yan)究在集成(cheng)分析(xi)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)系(xi)统(tong)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)环(huan)境质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)研(yan)究的(de)基础上,基于我国草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)类(lei)(lei)自然(ran)保护(hu)区(qu)(qu)的(de)特征(zheng),构建了包含16个指(zhi)标(biao)(14个一般性指(zhi)标(biao)和2个限(xian)制性指(zhi)标(biao))的(de)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)类(lei)(lei)自然(ran)保护(hu)区(qu)(qu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)环(huan)境质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)动态(tai)(tai)(tai)评(ping)价(jia)指(zhi)标(biao)体(ti)系(xi),并(bing)将生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)环(huan)境质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)的(de)动态(tai)(tai)(tai)变(bian)化(hua)情况(生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)环(huan)境质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)变(bian)化(hua)指(zhi)数)分为7个等(deng)级,以期为科学客观地(di)(di)(di)评(ping)价(jia)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)(di)类(lei)(lei)自然(ran)保护(hu)区(qu)(qu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)环(huan)境质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)提(ti)供重(zhong)要参考依据(ju)。通过案例研(yan)究看(kan)出,2010-2015年(nian)间,锡林郭勒草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)原自然(ran)保护(hu)区(qu)(qu)的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)环(huan)境质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)变(bian)化(hua)指(zhi)数为-0.7,评(ping)价(jia)等(deng)级为“显著变(bian)差”。
基于SWOT模型的山东省牧草产业发展战略
江帆, 赵伟
2017, 11(11): 2388-2395. doi:
[摘要](542) [HTML全文] (46) [PDF 587KB](156)
摘要:
“粮(liang)改饲”政(zheng)策(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)旨在调整种植业(ye)(ye)结构,促进畜(chu)牧(mu)业(ye)(ye)转型升级,解决(jue)粮(liang)食安全、农业(ye)(ye)污(wu)染等(deng)问题。本(ben)研(yan)究(jiu)介绍了(le)(le)山(shan)东(dong)省牧(mu)草产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)发展现状,运用SWOT模型分析(xi)了(le)(le)山(shan)东(dong)发展牧(mu)草产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)的(de)优势(strength,S)、劣势(weaknesses,W)、机遇(yu)(opportunities,O)、威(wei)胁(threats,T),并将以4项(xiang)要素交叉分析(xi)得出(chu)了(le)(le)SO、WO、ST、WT战(zhan)略,分析(xi)得出(chu)SO战(zhan)略是当前山(shan)东(dong)牧(mu)草产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)发展的(de)战(zhan)略重(zhong)点,即充分利用政(zheng)策(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)机遇(yu)发挥(hui)自然条件优势,选(xuan)择(ze)土质资(zi)源、畜(chu)牧(mu)产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)优势突出(chu)的(de)地区(qu),例如黄河三角洲地区(qu),建(jian)立“粮(liang)改饲”试点基地,并针对四项(xiang)战(zhan)略的(de)实施在试点基地建(jian)设、完(wan)善技术规程(cheng)、政(zheng)策(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)宣传、产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)融资(zi)等(deng)方面提出(chu)政(zheng)策(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)建(jian)议。
青藏高原耐低温乳酸菌在垂穗披碱草青贮中的应用
荆佩欣, 张红梅, 曹蕾, 许冬梅, 张永辉, 郭旭生
2017, 11(11): 2396-2402. doi:
[摘要](623) [HTML全文] (22) [PDF 502KB](169)
摘要:
为探(tan)讨一(yi)株低(di)温(wen)发(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)戊(wu)糖片球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)菌(jun)(jun)Q6在不(bu)同(tong)温(wen)度条件下对垂穗(sui)披碱草(Elymus nutans)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)饲料发(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)品(pin)质(zhi)的(de)影响。本研究设(she)置了对照组(zu)(清水,CK)、耐低(di)温(wen)戊(wu)糖片球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)菌(jun)(jun)Q6及商品(pin)化的(de)戊(wu)糖片球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)菌(jun)(jun)(APP)3个处理(li)(li),分别在10、15、25 ℃温(wen)度下进行垂穗(sui)披碱草青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu),在青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)发(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)30、60、90 d后取样测(ce)定其发(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)品(pin)质(zhi)和化学成分。结(jie)果表明(ming),添(tian)加(jia)耐低(di)温(wen)戊(wu)糖片球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)菌(jun)(jun)Q6在15 ℃下青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)60 d时,青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)饲料发(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)品(pin)质(zhi)明(ming)显优(you)于(yu)CK组(zu)和APP处理(li)(li)组(zu),有效降(jiang)低(di)了青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)料的(de)pH,增加(jia)了乳(ru)酸含量,并保存更多的(de)干物质(zhi)。同(tong)时,添(tian)加(jia)菌(jun)(jun)株Q6不(bu)仅提高(gao)了青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)饲料中(zhong)乳(ru)酸菌(jun)(jun)数量而且抑制了酵(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)母(mu)和霉菌(jun)(jun)生长。因此,戊(wu)糖片球(qiu)(qiu)(qiu)菌(jun)(jun)Q6是(shi)一(yi)株适宜于(yu)青(qing)(qing)藏(zang)高(gao)原牧草低(di)温(wen)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)的(de)优(you)良乳(ru)酸菌(jun)(jun)。
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