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2018年35卷2期

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目次
2018, 12(2): 232-232.
[摘要](410) [PDF 380KB](75)
摘要:
前植物生产层
蒙古高原草地退化程度时空分布定量研究
张艳珍, 王钊齐, 杨悦, 李建龙, 张颖, 章超斌
2018, 12(2): 233-243. doi:
[摘要](595) [HTML全文] (35) [PDF 2938KB](97)
摘要:
为(wei)了实(shi)现(xian)大(da)面(mian)积(ji)(ji)遥感定量评估蒙(meng)古(gu)高原草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)退化(hua)状况,利用NDVI数(shu)据反(fan)演1982-2013年(nian)草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)植被覆(fu)(fu)(fu)盖度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du),并(bing)以1982-1985年(nian)覆(fu)(fu)(fu)盖度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)作为(wei)基准数(shu)据,计算1986-1999年(nian)和(he)(he)2000-2013年(nian)草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)退化(hua)指数(shu)。结果表明,1986-1999年(nian)和(he)(he)2000-2013年(nian),蒙(meng)古(gu)高原草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)覆(fu)(fu)(fu)盖度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)分别(bie)达到14.60%和(he)(he)18.43%,呈上升趋(qu)势(shi);1986-1999年(nian)显著(zhu)(P<0.05)和(he)(he)极(ji)显著(zhu)(P<0.01)增加的(de)面(mian)积(ji)(ji)分别(bie)为(wei)298.86和(he)(he)189.67 km2,2000-2013年(nian)增加面(mian)积(ji)(ji)分别(bie)为(wei)443.32和(he)(he)92.46 km2;相对1986年(nian),2007年(nian)的(de)草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)覆(fu)(fu)(fu)盖度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)最(zui)(zui)差,2001和(he)(he)1995年(nian)也(ye)较差,而2013年(nian)草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)覆(fu)(fu)(fu)盖度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)最(zui)(zui)好,表现(xian)为(wei)初(chu)(chu)期一般(ban)、中(zhong)期变差、后期变好且好于(yu)初(chu)(chu)期;草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)退化(hua)程度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)方面(mian),1986-1999年(nian)重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)退化(hua)草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)面(mian)积(ji)(ji)所占百分比(bi)最(zui)(zui)大(da),达50.35%;2000-2013年(nian)中(zhong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)和(he)(he)重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)退化(hua)草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)面(mian)积(ji)(ji)百分比(bi)分别(bie)是39.42%和(he)(he)30.34%,总和(he)(he)接近70%,草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)退化(hua)状况有由极(ji)重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)、重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)向中(zhong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)和(he)(he)轻(qing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)转(zhuan)(zhuan)变的(de)趋(qu)势(shi),草(cao)地(di)(di)(di)趋(qu)于(yu)好转(zhuan)(zhuan)。
近22年叶尔羌河-喀什噶尔河三角洲绿洲土地利用结构变化及其驱因分析
艾则孜提约麦尔·麦麦提, 玉素甫江·如素力, 拜合提尼沙·阿不都克日木, 何辉
2018, 12(2): 244-255. doi:
[摘要](551) [HTML全文] (16) [PDF 2699KB](100)
摘要:
为(wei)了探(tan)(tan)明(ming)叶尔(er)羌河-喀什噶(ga)尔(er)河三(san)角洲绿洲土(tu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)结构变(bian)化(hua)(hua)规律及(ji)其(qi)归因,以(yi)研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)区(qu)Landsat遥感(gan)分类(lei)数据(ju)、水(shui)(shui)文和气象(xiang)数据(ju)、社会经济数据(ju)为(wei)主要数据(ju)源,综合(he)运用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)动态度(du)、时(shi)间(jian)序列(lie)追踪以(yi)及(ji)MK趋势检验(yan)等方法(fa),探(tan)(tan)寻土(tu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)结构的(de)(de)(de)(de)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)过程(cheng)和流向及(ji)其(qi)影(ying)响因素。结果(guo)(guo)表明(ming),1)近22年(nian)(nian),研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)区(qu)土(tu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)类(lei)型(xing)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu),其(qi)中,城(cheng)镇用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)、植被(bei)和湿(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)积(ji)分别增(zeng)加(jia)240.09、3 908.22和539.73 km2;水(shui)(shui)域(yu)和未(wei)利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)积(ji)分别减(jian)(jian)少464.60和4 223.44 km2;各(ge)土(tu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)类(lei)型(xing)后(hou)10年(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)速(su)度(du)均(jun)大于前10年(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)速(su)度(du);2)土(tu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)类(lei)型(xing)随(sui)时(shi)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)轨迹结果(guo)(guo)显(xian)示,研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)区(qu)66.22%的(de)(de)(de)(de)土(tu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)类(lei)型(xing)未(wei)发(fa)生变(bian)化(hua)(hua),其(qi)中稳定性最强的(de)(de)(de)(de)是未(wei)利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di),然后(hou)依次为(wei)植被(bei)、城(cheng)镇用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)、水(shui)(shui)域(yu)和湿(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di);3)在(zai)22年(nian)(nian)内,研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)区(qu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)气温呈(cheng)上升(sheng)趋势,并达到(dao)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)水(shui)(shui)平;相对湿(shi)度(du)呈(cheng)下(xia)降趋势,达显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)水(shui)(shui)平;降水(shui)(shui)量呈(cheng)波动式减(jian)(jian)少趋势,未(wei)达到(dao)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)水(shui)(shui)平;人口和GDP呈(cheng)不断增(zeng)长(zhang)(zhang)趋势,但不显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu);气候的(de)(de)(de)(de)暖干(gan)化(hua)(hua)、人口及(ji)GDP的(de)(de)(de)(de)急(ji)剧增(zeng)长(zhang)(zhang)在(zai)某(mou)种程(cheng)度(du)上导致研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)区(qu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)城(cheng)镇用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)和植被(bei)面(mian)积(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)加(jia)以(yi)及(ji)水(shui)(shui)域(yu)和未(wei)利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)积(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)减(jian)(jian)少。
放牧对草地生态系统温室气体的影响
宋娅妮, 呼和, 程云湘, 侯扶江, 常生华
2018, 12(2): 256-265. doi:
[摘要](589) [HTML全文] (55) [PDF 589KB](153)
摘要:
放(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)主(zhu)要(yao)通过影响(xiang)草(cao)地生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)系(xi)统(tong)中土壤的(de)(de)(de)理(li)化性(xing)质(土壤含(han)水(shui)率、孔(kong)隙(xi)度(du)、微生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)和有机物(wu)(wu)含(han)量的(de)(de)(de)构成)来(lai)影响(xiang)整(zheng)个生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)系(xi)统(tong)温(wen)室(shi)(shi)(shi)气(qi)(qi)体(ti)(ti)的(de)(de)(de)排(pai)放(fang)。草(cao)地生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)系(xi)统(tong)土壤中,植物(wu)(wu)根系(xi)的(de)(de)(de)呼(hu)吸作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)(yong)、土壤微生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)活动(dong)(dong)以及各种物(wu)(wu)理(li)、化学和生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)(yong)为(wei)温(wen)室(shi)(shi)(shi)气(qi)(qi)体(ti)(ti)的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)来(lai)源。本文(wen)在(zai)阐述(shu)(shu)草(cao)地生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)系(xi)统(tong)温(wen)室(shi)(shi)(shi)气(qi)(qi)体(ti)(ti)排(pai)放(fang)机制(zhi)和作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)基(ji)础上,主(zhu)要(yao)从放(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)管(guan)理(li)模式(shi)、放(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)强度(du)、放(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)动(dong)(dong)物(wu)(wu)等放(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)(yong)对(dui)草(cao)地生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)系(xi)统(tong)温(wen)室(shi)(shi)(shi)气(qi)(qi)体(ti)(ti)的(de)(de)(de)排(pai)放(fang)情况进行了(le)综述(shu)(shu),就今后放(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)对(dui)草(cao)地生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)温(wen)室(shi)(shi)(shi)气(qi)(qi)体(ti)(ti)的(de)(de)(de)研究重点和方(fang)向(xiang)进行了(le)展(zhan)望,总结了(le)适合不同放(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)条件下整(zheng)个生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)系(xi)统(tong)温(wen)室(shi)(shi)(shi)气(qi)(qi)体(ti)(ti)的(de)(de)(de)减(jian)排(pai)措(cuo)施。
土壤水分波动对高寒草甸生态系统CO2和N2O排放的影响
王瑞, 王平, 高永恒, 马钢
2018, 12(2): 266-275. doi:
[摘要](563) [HTML全文] (12) [PDF 904KB](103)
摘要:
受(shou)地形和(he)(he)气(qi)候的(de)影(ying)响,高(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)草地土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)经(jing)历着(zhe)频繁的(de)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)水(shui)(shui)分波(bo)(bo)(bo)动(dong)(dong)过程,为探索土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)水(shui)(shui)分波(bo)(bo)(bo)动(dong)(dong)对青藏高(gao)原高(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)草甸(dian)生态(tai)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)CO2和(he)(he)N2O排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)的(de)影(ying)响,采用原状(zhuang)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)柱模拟(ni)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)由(you)高(gao)含水(shui)(shui)量(liang)(liang)(60 cm3·cm-3)到(dao)低(di)含水(shui)(shui)量(liang)(liang)(30 cm3·cm-3)再到(dao)高(gao)含水(shui)(shui)量(liang)(liang)(60 cm3·cm-3)的(de)波(bo)(bo)(bo)动(dong)(dong)过程,各阶(jie)段(duan)持(chi)续时间相(xiang)应为38、57和(he)(he)46 d,并(bing)以(yi)恒定(ding)含水(shui)(shui)量(liang)(liang)(60 cm3·cm-3)为对照(zhao),研究了高(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)草甸(dian)生态(tai)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)CO2和(he)(he)N2O的(de)释放(fang)(fang)量(liang)(liang)及其与(yu)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)温湿度、土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)铵态(tai)氮(dan)(NH4+-N)、硝态(tai)氮(dan)(NO3--N)和(he)(he)可溶性(xing)有(you)机(ji)碳(DOC)的(de)关系(xi)(xi)(xi)。结果表明, 土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)水(shui)(shui)分波(bo)(bo)(bo)动(dong)(dong)增(zeng)加了高(gao)寒(han)(han)(han)草甸(dian)生态(tai)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)CO2排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)通量(liang)(liang)。在土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)水(shui)(shui)分波(bo)(bo)(bo)动(dong)(dong)过程中,CO2排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)通量(liang)(liang)与(yu)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)温度呈(cheng)正指数(shu)关系(xi)(xi)(xi);在开始的(de)高(gao)含水(shui)(shui)量(liang)(liang)阶(jie)段(duan),CO2排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)与(yu)DOC含量(liang)(liang)有(you)显著(zhu)正相(xiang)关关系(xi)(xi)(xi)(P<0.05),但(dan)在低(di)含水(shui)(shui)量(liang)(liang)阶(jie)段(duan),相(xiang)关性(xing)不明显(P>0.05);土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)水(shui)(shui)分波(bo)(bo)(bo)动(dong)(dong)显著(zhu)降(jiang)低(di)了N2O的(de)排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)(P<0.05)。恒湿对照(zhao)的(de)N2O通量(liang)(liang)与(yu)其土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)NH4+-N含量(liang)(liang)呈(cheng)极显著(zhu)负(fu)相(xiang)关关系(xi)(xi)(xi)(P<0.01),土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)水(shui)(shui)分波(bo)(bo)(bo)动(dong)(dong)处理(li)的(de)N2O 通量(liang)(liang)与(yu)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)NH4+-N和(he)(he)NO3--N含量(liang)(liang)相(xiang)关性(xing)均(jun)不显著(zhu)(P>0.05)。
山西浊漳河北源湿地草本植物群落优势种生态位与种间关系
王昱, 毕润成, 茹文明
2018, 12(2): 276-285. doi:
[摘要](626) [HTML全文] (46) [PDF 574KB](110)
摘要:
以山西浊漳河(he)北源(yuan)湿地草(cao)本植物(wu)群(qun)落(luo)(luo)调查(cha)为基础,通过生(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)测(ce)度、方差比(bi)率(lv)法、2检(jian)验、联(lian)(lian)结(jie)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)数(shu)(shu)AC、Pearson相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)数(shu)(shu)检(jian)验对(dui)16个优(you)势种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)进行了(le)生(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位和种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)(jian)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)联(lian)(lian)的(de)(de)分析。结(jie)果(guo)表明,1)藨(biao)草(cao)(Scirpus triqueter)、头穗莎草(cao) (Cyperus glomeratus)、水蓼(Polygonum hydropiper)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位宽度值相(xiang)对(dui)较(jiao)大,在研究区域内(nei)(nei)具有(you)泛化种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)倾向;2)120个种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)对(dui)间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位重叠指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)低(di),55%的(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)对(dui)之间(jian)(jian)不(bu)(bu)存在重叠,种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)(jian)竞争弱;3)群(qun)落(luo)(luo)内(nei)(nei)植物(wu)整(zheng)体关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)联(lian)(lian)度为显著(zhu)负(fu)相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(P0.05),2检(jian)验与(yu)Pearson相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)数(shu)(shu)检(jian)验的(de)(de)正(zheng)(zheng)负(fu)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)联(lian)(lian)比(bi)(分别为0.52和0.15)均小于1,负(fu)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)联(lian)(lian)的(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)对(dui)数(shu)(shu)多于正(zheng)(zheng)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)联(lian)(lian),且大多数(shu)(shu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)(jian)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)联(lian)(lian)程度不(bu)(bu)显著(zhu)(P0.05),说明浊漳河(he)北源(yuan)湿地草(cao)本植物(wu)群(qun)落(luo)(luo)结(jie)构简单,物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)(jian)相(xiang)互作(zuo)用(yong)较(jiao)弱,处于演(yan)替初(chu)期阶段;4)物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)位重叠指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)与(yu)联(lian)(lian)结(jie)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)数(shu)(shu)AC、Pearson相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)数(shu)(shu)存在着显著(zhu)的(de)(de)正(zheng)(zheng)相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(P0.05),且Pearson相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)数(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)拟合效果(guo)优(you)于AC联(lian)(lian)结(jie)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)数(shu)(shu)。本研究有(you)利于更(geng)好地认识优(you)势种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)相(xiang)互关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)及群(qun)落(luo)(luo)的(de)(de)动态(tai)(tai)特(te)征(zheng),了(le)解浊漳河(he)北源(yuan)湿地利用(yong)现状,为湿地生(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)恢复提供理论依据。
海拔梯度对塔尔巴哈台山地鸭茅群落物种组成及多样性影响
何盘星, 张鲜花, 朱进忠
2018, 12(2): 286-296. doi:
[摘要](623) [HTML全文] (22) [PDF 1132KB](234)
摘要:
基于种(zhong)质资(zi)源保(bao)(bao)护与开发的(de)(de)角(jiao)度(du),在(zai)新疆塔尔(er)巴(ba)哈台(tai)(tai)山(shan)海(hai)拔(ba)1 300-1 900 m鸭(ya)(ya)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)(Dactylis glomerata)分布的(de)(de)集(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)区(qu)域,对鸭(ya)(ya)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)群(qun)落(luo)在(zai)天(tian)然草地(di)(di)不同海(hai)拔(ba)地(di)(di)段的(de)(de)数量(liang)特(te)征及物(wu)种(zhong)多(duo)样性(xing)(xing)进行了研究(jiu)。结(jie)果(guo)表明,塔尔(er)巴(ba)哈台(tai)(tai)山(shan)鸭(ya)(ya)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)群(qun)落(luo)数量(liang)特(te)征随海(hai)拔(ba)升高存在(zai)一定差异,但未呈现出规律性(xing)(xing)变(bian)化;鸭(ya)(ya)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)种(zhong)群(qun)始终为群(qun)落(luo)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)优(you)势(shi)种(zhong),重要(yao)值均保(bao)(bao)持(chi)在(zai)35%以上(shang);当海(hai)拔(ba)升高时,α多(duo)样性(xing)(xing)出现先减小(xiao)再增加的(de)(de)变(bian)化,呈“V”字(zi)型;β多(duo)样性(xing)(xing)表现出较(jiao)高的(de)(de)群(qun)落(luo)相(xiang)似度(du),出现有较(jiao)多(duo)的(de)(de)共有种(zhong);物(wu)种(zhong)多(duo)样性(xing)(xing)与海(hai)拔(ba)整体上(shang)呈负相(xiang)关(guan)关(guan)系,说明随海(hai)拔(ba)升高物(wu)种(zhong)种(zhong)类整体上(shang)趋于减少。研究(jiu)结(jie)果(guo)初步(bu)揭示了分布于塔尔(er)巴(ba)哈台(tai)(tai)山(shan)地(di)(di)不同海(hai)拔(ba)地(di)(di)段鸭(ya)(ya)茅(mao)(mao)(mao)群(qun)落(luo)的(de)(de)数量(liang)特(te)征与物(wu)种(zhong)多(duo)样性(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)差异,以及生境条(tiao)件对物(wu)种(zhong)组(zu)成特(te)征与多(duo)样性(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)影响(xiang)。
入侵植物银胶菊对山东不同性状土壤的适应性
高兴祥, 孙作文, 李美, 朱虹, 赵米若, 李健, 房锋
2018, 12(2): 297-304. doi:
[摘要](605) [HTML全文] (16) [PDF 808KB](71)
摘要:
银(yin)(yin)(yin)胶(jiao)菊(ju)(ju)(ju)(Parthenium hysterophorus)是一(yi)种重要的(de)危险(xian)性(xing)(xing)外来入侵植物,为明确其潜在(zai)的(de)扩(kuo)散蔓延区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)域(yu),在(zai)山(shan)东(dong)(dong)省不(bu)(bu)(bu)同区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)域(yu)采(cai)集31份(fen)(fen)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang),并(bing)在(zai)盆栽条(tiao)件下(xia)研(yan)究了银(yin)(yin)(yin)胶(jiao)菊(ju)(ju)(ju)对采(cai)自山(shan)东(dong)(dong)省31份(fen)(fen)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)的(de)适(shi)(shi)应(ying)性(xing)(xing)。结果表明,银(yin)(yin)(yin)胶(jiao)菊(ju)(ju)(ju)的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长对土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)依赖性(xing)(xing)不(bu)(bu)(bu)强(qiang)(qiang),在(zai)23份(fen)(fen)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)中(zhong)(zhong)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长正常,占(zhan)总土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)份(fen)(fen)数(shu)的(de)74.19%。从8个(ge)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)性(xing)(xing)状指标(biao)来看(kan),土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)水解(jie)性(xing)(xing)氮含(han)量(liang)(liang)、有效(xiao)磷(lin)含(han)量(liang)(liang)、速效(xiao)钾含(han)量(liang)(liang)、有机质(zhi)含(han)量(liang)(liang)以及土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)类型5个(ge)指标(biao)的(de)高低不(bu)(bu)(bu)影响银(yin)(yin)(yin)胶(jiao)菊(ju)(ju)(ju)正常生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长,而(er)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)pH、土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)质(zhi)地和土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)盐分含(han)量(liang)(liang)3个(ge)指标(biao)是影响银(yin)(yin)(yin)胶(jiao)菊(ju)(ju)(ju)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长的(de)主要指标(biao),其中(zhong)(zhong)银(yin)(yin)(yin)胶(jiao)菊(ju)(ju)(ju)不(bu)(bu)(bu)适(shi)(shi)合(he)在(zai)强(qiang)(qiang)酸性(xing)(xing)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)、粘壤(rang)(rang)(rang)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)或砂(sha)性(xing)(xing)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)、盐分含(han)量(liang)(liang)高的(de)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长。从区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)域(yu)来看(kan),山(shan)东(dong)(dong)省鲁(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)山(shan)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)和鲁(lu)西北平原(yuan)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)的(de)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)最适(shi)(shi)合(he)银(yin)(yin)(yin)胶(jiao)菊(ju)(ju)(ju)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长,另(ling)外胶(jiao)东(dong)(dong)丘陵区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)、胶(jiao)潍河谷平原(yuan)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)和鲁(lu)南山(shan)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)也比较适(shi)(shi)合(he)其生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长,但鲁(lu)北滨(bin)海区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)和鲁(lu)西南平洼区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)不(bu)(bu)(bu)适(shi)(shi)合(he)银(yin)(yin)(yin)胶(jiao)菊(ju)(ju)(ju)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长。
白沙蒿杀虫活性初探
刘权, 贺原花, 李勇胜, 刘畅宇, 柳春梅, 王有年, 傅华
2018, 12(2): 305-310. doi:
[摘要](583) [HTML全文] (69) [PDF 641KB](95)
摘要:
白沙蒿(Artemisia sphaerocephala)是典型的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)流动沙丘植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu),非(fei)常适(shi)应(ying)干旱(han)荒(huang)漠地(di)区的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)极(ji)端气候,是沙漠荒(huang)漠化治理和(he)恢复中(zhong)(zhong)优良的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)固(gu)沙植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)之(zhi)一。植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)次生代谢物(wu)是其适(shi)应(ying)不利环境因素的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)策(ce)略(lve)之(zhi)一。本(ben)研究(jiu)首次开展了白沙蒿提取物(wu)对(dui)朱砂叶(ye)(ye)(ye)螨(Tetranychus cinnabarinus)和(he)斜纹(wen)夜(ye)(ye)蛾(Spodoptera litura)幼虫(chong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)活性(xing)测(ce)试,并(bing)对(dui)受体植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)油(you)(you)菜(cai)(Brassica campestris)、紫花苜(mu)蓿(Medicago sativa)、红三(san)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(Trifolium pratense)和(he)早熟(shu)禾(Poa annua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)毒(du)活性(xing)也(ye)进(jin)行了检(jian)测(ce)。结果表(biao)(biao)明,白沙蒿提取物(wu)对(dui)两(liang)种(zhong)害(hai)虫(chong)均表(biao)(biao)现出具(ju)有(you)较强的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)杀螨活性(xing),但对(dui)农作(zuo)物(wu)油(you)(you)菜(cai)和(he)牧草红三(san)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)、紫花苜(mu)蓿和(he)早熟(shu)禾的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生长(zhang)没有(you)明显影响。在低浓(nong)度(du)时,还对(dui)紫花苜(mu)蓿和(he)早熟(shu)禾的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生长(zhang)有(you)一定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)促(cu)进(jin)作(zuo)用。浓(nong)度(du)为333 μg·mL-1时,对(dui)朱砂叶(ye)(ye)(ye)螨的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)触杀活性(xing)大于60%,在20 μg·mL-1的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)浓(nong)度(du)下对(dui)斜纹(wen)夜(ye)(ye)蛾幼虫(chong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)触杀活性(xing)大于50%,而(er)在50和(he)25 μg·mL-1浓(nong)度(du)下对(dui)苜(mu)蓿和(he)早熟(shu)禾有(you)促(cu)进(jin)作(zuo)用,对(dui)油(you)(you)菜(cai)和(he)红三(san)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)抑(yi)制率(lv)小于20%。
科尔沁沙地植物的生态及分布区型结构分析
姜汇, 高凯, 周立业, 田迅
2018, 12(2): 311-322. doi:
[摘要](660) [HTML全文] (33) [PDF 868KB](99)
摘要:
为调(diao)查(cha)科(ke)尔(er)沁(qin)沙地(di)(di)(di)草原(yuan)近年(nian)来(lai)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)多(duo)样(yang)(yang)性和(he)(he)(he)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态特征(zheng),以(yi)反映该地(di)(di)(di)区(qu)环境(jing)(jing)变化和(he)(he)(he)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态适(shi)应性。本研究于2013年(nian)8月选取(qu)科(ke)尔(er)沁(qin)沙地(di)(di)(di)共(gong)(gong)56个(ge)(ge)样(yang)(yang)地(di)(di)(di),对样(yang)(yang)地(di)(di)(di)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)按典型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)科(ke)、属(shu)、种(zhong)分(fen)(fen)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)系(xi)统(tong)和(he)(he)(he)株(zhu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、根(gen)(gen)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、Raunkiaer生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、水分(fen)(fen)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)及(ji)分(fen)(fen)布(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)区(qu)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)进行调(diao)查(cha)和(he)(he)(he)分(fen)(fen)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei),结(jie)果(guo)(guo)表明(ming),科(ke)尔(er)沁(qin)沙地(di)(di)(di)具(ju)有(you)典型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)地(di)(di)(di)面芽(ya)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)气候、中(zhong)(zhong)旱生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)境(jing)(jing)条件、植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)分(fen)(fen)布(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)区(qu)系(xi)结(jie)构(gou)复(fu)杂的(de)特征(zheng),共(gong)(gong)发现(xian)121种(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu),隶(li)属(shu)于31个(ge)(ge)科(ke),6个(ge)(ge)株(zhu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),5个(ge)(ge)根(gen)(gen)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),6个(ge)(ge)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),5个(ge)(ge)水分(fen)(fen)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)和(he)(he)(he)13个(ge)(ge)分(fen)(fen)布(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)区(qu)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。其(qi)中(zhong)(zhong),禾本科(ke)最(zui)多(duo),占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)23.1%;菊科(ke)和(he)(he)(he)豆科(ke)分(fen)(fen)别占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)22.3%和(he)(he)(he)11.6%。株(zhu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)结(jie)构(gou)以(yi)直立型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)种(zhong)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)最(zui)多(duo),占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)37%;分(fen)(fen)枝型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)和(he)(he)(he)丛生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)分(fen)(fen)别占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)30%和(he)(he)(he)19%。根(gen)(gen)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)结(jie)构(gou)以(yi)直根(gen)(gen)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)种(zhong)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)最(zui)多(duo),占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)61%;刷(shua)状根(gen)(gen)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)和(he)(he)(he)根(gen)(gen)茎型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)分(fen)(fen)别占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)22%和(he)(he)(he)15%。生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)结(jie)构(gou)以(yi)地(di)(di)(di)面芽(ya)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)种(zhong)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)最(zui)多(duo),占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)35%;一年(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)和(he)(he)(he)地(di)(di)(di)面-地(di)(di)(di)下(xia)(xia)芽(ya)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)分(fen)(fen)别占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)26%和(he)(he)(he)14%。水分(fen)(fen)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)以(yi)中(zhong)(zhong)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)种(zhong)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)最(zui)多(duo),占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)44%;旱生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)和(he)(he)(he)中(zhong)(zhong)旱生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)分(fen)(fen)别占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)26%和(he)(he)(he)23%。分(fen)(fen)布(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)区(qu)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)结(jie)构(gou)中(zhong)(zhong),蒙(meng)(meng)古-东北(bei)-兴安-华(hua)北(bei)分(fen)(fen)布(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)区(qu)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(Mo-N-D-C)的(de)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)种(zhong)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)据首位,达30%;接下(xia)(xia)来(lai)是蒙(meng)(meng)古分(fen)(fen)布(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)区(qu)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(Mo)和(he)(he)(he)蒙(meng)(meng)古-东北(bei)-华(hua)北(bei)(Mo-N-C)分(fen)(fen)布(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)区(qu)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),分(fen)(fen)别占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)18%和(he)(he)(he)10%。结(jie)果(guo)(guo)表明(ming),科(ke)尔(er)沁(qin)沙地(di)(di)(di)草原(yuan)目前(qian)处于生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态恢复(fu)的(de)早期(qi)阶段,植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)区(qu)系(xi)较复(fu)杂,水分(fen)(fen)环境(jing)(jing)没有(you)发生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)重大变化,有(you)利于该地(di)(di)(di)区(qu)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)正(zheng)向演替,但表层土壤(rang)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态环境(jing)(jing)依旧脆(cui)弱,一年(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)数(shu)量占(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)绝对优势,应继续加强(qiang)草地(di)(di)(di)管(guan)理,合理保护和(he)(he)(he)利用植(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)资源。
甲基托布津对野大麦内生真菌共生体的生长及生理生化的影响
曹莹, 姚祥, 陈水红, 李春杰
2018, 12(2): 323-330. doi:
[摘要](688) [HTML全文] (73) [PDF 571KB](94)
摘要:
以我国北方优(you)良耐盐牧草野(ye)(ye)大(da)麦(Hordeum brevisubulatum)为研究(jiu)(jiu)对(dui)象,进行了(le)杀菌(jun)剂甲(jia)基托布(bu)津对(dui)野(ye)(ye)大(da)麦内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)共生(sheng)(sheng)体的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)及(ji)生(sheng)(sheng)理生(sheng)(sheng)化(hua)影响的(de)研究(jiu)(jiu)。结果表明,甲(jia)基托布(bu)津稀(xi)释500倍浸泡(pao)种(zhong)子(zi)8 h后播种(zhong),出苗(miao)率(lv)显著(zhu)降(jiang)低(di)(P<0.05),从85%降(jiang)至(zhi)72%,幼苗(miao)带菌(jun)率(lv)显著(zhu)降(jiang)低(di)(P<0.05),由100%降(jiang)至(zhi)12%;杀菌(jun)剂处理可降(jiang)低(di)野(ye)(ye)大(da)麦的(de)株高、分蘖,但对(dui)其(qi)叶绿素(su)含(han)(han)量、丙(bing)二醛含(han)(han)量、脯(fu)氨酸含(han)(han)量、过(guo)氧(yang)化(hua)氢酶(mei)活(huo)(huo)性(xing)、过(guo)氧(yang)化(hua)物酶(mei)活(huo)(huo)性(xing)和超氧(yang)化(hua)物酶(mei)活(huo)(huo)性(xing)均未产生(sheng)(sheng)显著(zhu)影响(P>0.05);杀菌(jun)剂处理后野(ye)(ye)大(da)麦的(de)C、N、P含(han)(han)量较蒸馏水浸种(zhong)对(dui)照分别显著(zhu)降(jiang)低(di)了(le)4.87%、10.99%、13.50%(P<0.05)。因此,甲(jia)基托布(bu)津稀(xi)释500 倍浸泡(pao)种(zhong)子(zi)8 h为去除野(ye)(ye)大(da)麦种(zhong)传内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)菌(jun)的(de)有效办(ban)法。
植物生产层
苜蓿抗旱生理与分子机制
李莎莎, 李红, 杨伟光, 杨曌, 王晓龙, 柴华
2018, 12(2): 331-340. doi:
[摘要](560) [HTML全文] (10) [PDF 699KB](85)
摘要:
苜(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)是我国乃至全世界(jie)最优质的豆科牧草之一(yi),具(ju)有(you)较高的经济(ji)价(jia)值、营养价(jia)值和(he)生态价(jia)值。然而我国的苜(mu)蓿(xu)种植大多集中在(zai)(zai)干(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)半干(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)的西北、东北一(yi)带,水分(fen)是影响其产量的主要因(yin)素。本文通过(guo)对(dui)比(bi)光合呼吸系统、活性(xing)氧防御系统、渗透调节系统、脱(tuo)落酸等在(zai)(zai)干(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)胁(xie)迫下的变化分(fen)析了(le)苜(mu)蓿(xu)抵御干(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)胁(xie)迫的生理机制(zhi),同时对(dui)转录因(yin)子、蛋白酶基因(yin)和(he)抗(kang)旱(han)(han)基因(yin)在(zai)(zai)苜(mu)蓿(xu)干(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)胁(xie)迫下的应答(da)过(guo)程进(jin)行(xing)了(le)阐述(shu),并对(dui)未来苜(mu)蓿(xu)应答(da)干(gan)(gan)旱(han)(han)胁(xie)迫的研究重点进(jin)行(xing)了(le)展望。
养分异质条件下连接和断开结缕草克隆分株抗氧化酶及丙二醛的生理整合
徐苏男, 李悦, 陈忠林, 张利红
2018, 12(2): 341-347. doi:
[摘要](606) [HTML全文] (17) [PDF 540KB](93)
摘要:
以克隆植物(wu)(wu)结(jie)缕草(cao)(Zoysia japonica)为研究对象(xiang),对连(lian)接和断(duan)开的(de)分(fen)(fen)(fen)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)进行了(le)不(bu)同养(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)处理(li)(li),研究了(le)养(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)异质(zhi)(zhi)条件下(xia)结(jie)缕草(cao)克隆分(fen)(fen)(fen)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)抗氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)及丙二醛(quan)(quan)含(han)量的(de)变化(hua)。结(jie)果表明,在养(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)异质(zhi)(zhi)条件下(xia),处于中高养(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)水平(ping)的(de)母株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)可(ke)以显(xian)著提高与其相(xiang)连(lian)的(de)子(zi)(zi)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)超氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)物(wu)(wu)歧化(hua)酶(mei)(mei)(SOD)和过氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)氢酶(mei)(mei)(CAT)的(de)活(huo)性(xing),降低(di)丙二醛(quan)(quan)(MDA)含(han)量(P<0.05);处于中高养(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)水平(ping)的(de)子(zi)(zi)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)对与其相(xiang)连(lian)的(de)母株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)抗氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)酶(mei)(mei)活(huo)性(xing)及丙二醛(quan)(quan)含(han)量没有显(xian)著影响(xiang)(P>0.05)。在养(yang)分(fen)(fen)(fen)异质(zhi)(zhi)条件下(xia),结(jie)缕草(cao)母株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)对子(zi)(zi)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)存在生理(li)(li)整合,子(zi)(zi)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)可(ke)以从(cong)母株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)获益(yi),但母株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)不(bu)能从(cong)子(zi)(zi)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)获益(yi),子(zi)(zi)株(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)是生理(li)(li)整合单向获益(yi)者(zhe)。
陕北黄土丘陵沟壑区主要植物种子对干旱胁迫的萌发响应及抗旱性评价
葛芳红, 王宁, 胡澍, 周正朝, 蒋平海
2018, 12(2): 348-356. doi:
[摘要](498) [HTML全文] (19) [PDF 554KB](84)
摘要:
陕北黄土丘陵沟壑(he)区土壤(rang)水分匮(kui)乏(fa)是影响植(zhi)被恢复(fu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要因(yin)素,而(er)干旱(han)胁(xie)迫(po)对(dui)(dui)种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)约是植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)自然更(geng)新(xin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)关键限制(zhi)因(yin)子(zi)(zi)。本研究通过设置(zhi)不同(tong)浓(nong)度(du)梯度(du)聚乙二醇(PEG-6000)溶液模拟不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)干旱(han)胁(xie)迫(po)条件,测定黄土高原丘陵沟壑(he)区16种(zhong)主要植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)特(te)性(xing)及抗(kang)旱(han)性(xing)。结果表明,随PEG浓(nong)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)增加(jia),16种(zhong)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)均受(shou)到不同(tong)程度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)抑制(zhi),种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)时滞延长直至(zhi)不萌(meng)(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa),种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)势(shi)、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)率(lv)(lv)、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(shu)和(he)(he)(he)抗(kang)旱(han)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(shu)均呈下降趋势(shi)。而(er)轻度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)干旱(han)胁(xie)迫(po)(50 g·L-1)能促进(jin)部分种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa),增加(jia)种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)率(lv)(lv)和(he)(he)(he)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)势(shi)。采用隶(li)属函(han)数(shu)(shu)法对(dui)(dui)16种(zhong)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)相对(dui)(dui)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)势(shi)、相对(dui)(dui)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)率(lv)(lv)、相对(dui)(dui)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(shu)和(he)(he)(he)抗(kang)旱(han)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(shu)进(jin)行综(zong)合评价,结果发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)现,鬼(gui)针草(Bidens pilosa)、猪(zhu)毛(mao)蒿(hao)(Artemisia scoparia) 、狗(gou)尾草(Setaria viridis)种(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)耐旱(han)性(xing)最强,而(er)大针茅(Stipa grandis)最弱。
黄帚橐吾基株克隆生长对不同光照的响应
王满堂, 赵全科, 程栋梁
2018, 12(2): 357-362. doi:
[摘要](739) [HTML全文] (31) [PDF 500KB](87)
摘要:
为了解青藏(zang)高原高寒(han)草(cao)甸(dian)克(ke)隆(long)(long)植物黄帚(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)橐(tuo)吾(wu)(wu)(Ligularia virgaurea)的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活史对(dui)策,通过田间盆栽(zai)控制试(shi)验,模拟(ni)青藏(zang)高原东部高寒(han)草(cao)甸(dian)上由于过度(du)(du)放牧产生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)裸(luo)地和(he)低、矮的(de)退化草(cao)甸(dian)的(de)光(guang)(guang)强(qiang),研(yan)究黄帚(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)槖吾(wu)(wu)基(ji)株(zhu)的(de)相(xiang)对(dui)克(ke)隆(long)(long)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)速(su)度(du)(du)和(he)克(ke)隆(long)(long)性(xing)状(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)对(dui)不(bu)同(tong)光(guang)(guang)照的(de)响应,以期(qi)填补有关(guan)(guan)黄帚(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)槖吾(wu)(wu)克(ke)隆(long)(long)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)领域研(yan)究的(de)不(bu)足,并为该类(lei)毒杂草(cao)的(de)防治提供理论依据。结(jie)果表明,在自然光(guang)(guang)照条(tiao)件下(xia)(xia)(xia),黄帚(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)橐(tuo)吾(wu)(wu)根(gen)(gen)状(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)茎(jing)(jing)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)与(yu)时间无线性(xing)关(guan)(guan)系;在遮阴(yin)环境下(xia)(xia)(xia),黄帚(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)橐(tuo)吾(wu)(wu)根(gen)(gen)状(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)茎(jing)(jing)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)与(yu)时间之间存(cun)在显(xian)著的(de)线性(xing)关(guan)(guan)系(P<0.05),根(gen)(gen)状(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)茎(jing)(jing)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)随着时间延长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)而(er)(er)显(xian)著增长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)。光(guang)(guang)照不(bu)仅可以直接(jie)影(ying)响单位长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)根(gen)(gen)状(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)茎(jing)(jing)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物量,还可以通过影(ying)响基(ji)株(zhu)大(da)小从而(er)(er)间接(jie)影(ying)响单位长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)根(gen)(gen)状(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)茎(jing)(jing)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物量。黄帚(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)橐(tuo)吾(wu)(wu)根(gen)(gen)状(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)茎(jing)(jing)的(de)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)与(yu)单位长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)根(gen)(gen)状(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)茎(jing)(jing)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物量之间不(bu)存(cun)在权衡(heng)。光(guang)(guang)照对(dui)黄帚(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)橐(tuo)吾(wu)(wu)克(ke)隆(long)(long)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)相(xiang)对(dui)速(su)率(lv)有显(xian)著影(ying)响(P<0.05),遮阴(yin)条(tiao)件下(xia)(xia)(xia)黄帚(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)橐(tuo)吾(wu)(wu)克(ke)隆(long)(long)相(xiang)对(dui)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)速(su)率(lv)显(xian)著大(da)于自然光(guang)(guang)照条(tiao)件下(xia)(xia)(xia)的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)(zhang)速(su)率(lv)。因此,在遮阴(yin)下(xia)(xia)(xia)根(gen)(gen)状(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)茎(jing)(jing)主(zhu)要(yao)功能(neng)(neng)是觅食,自然光(guang)(guang)照下(xia)(xia)(xia)根(gen)(gen)状(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)茎(jing)(jing)主(zhu)要(yao)功能(neng)(neng)用(yong)于贮(zhu)藏(zang)养料、固定作用(yong)。
紫花苜蓿茎秆组织中木质素的分布与沉积模式
张金青, 陈奋奇, 汪芳珍, 方强恩, 师尚礼
2018, 12(2): 363-370. doi:
[摘要](718) [HTML全文] (42) [PDF 2243KB](101)
摘要:
以(yi)甘农5号紫花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa‘Gannong No.5’)为(wei)(wei)材料,采用组织化学染色方法(fa)研究了(le)茎秆(gan)中(zhong)(zhong)木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)素(su)的(de)(de)发生(sheng)(sheng)、分(fen)布(bu)与(yu)沉积(ji)(ji)规律。结(jie)果表(biao)明,苜(mu)蓿(xu)茎秆(gan)中(zhong)(zhong)木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)素(su)的(de)(de)分(fen)布(bu)与(yu)生(sheng)(sheng)长部(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)位(wei)密切相关,在(zai)茎秆(gan)顶端初(chu)(chu)(chu)生(sheng)(sheng)维(wei)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)组织中(zhong)(zhong)仅(jin)木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)部(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)有木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)素(su)分(fen)布(bu),随节(jie)间(jian)下移,木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)素(su)开始在(zai)初(chu)(chu)(chu)生(sheng)(sheng)韧(ren)(ren)皮纤(xian)维(wei)、次(ci)生(sheng)(sheng)木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)部(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)和髓射线(xian)(xian)中(zhong)(zhong)大量沉积(ji)(ji);茎秆(gan)中(zhong)(zhong)存在(zai)G、S两(liang)种(zhong)木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)素(su),S木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)素(su)的(de)(de)发生(sheng)(sheng)迟(chi)于(yu)G木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)素(su);在(zai)维(wei)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)束(shu)之间(jian),两(liang)种(zhong)木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)素(su)均以(yi)“厚角组织处维(wei)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)束(shu)→厚角组织间(jian)维(wei)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)束(shu)”的(de)(de)模式沉积(ji)(ji),但在(zai)维(wei)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)束(shu)内,木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)素(su)沉积(ji)(ji)表(biao)现出异质(zhi)(zhi)性,G木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)素(su)沉积(ji)(ji)模式为(wei)(wei)“初(chu)(chu)(chu)生(sheng)(sheng)木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)部(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)导(dao)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)→初(chu)(chu)(chu)生(sheng)(sheng)韧(ren)(ren)皮纤(xian)维(wei)→次(ci)生(sheng)(sheng)木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)部(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)和髓射线(xian)(xian)”;S木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)素(su)沉积(ji)(ji)模式为(wei)(wei)“初(chu)(chu)(chu)生(sheng)(sheng)韧(ren)(ren)皮纤(xian)维(wei)→次(ci)生(sheng)(sheng)木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)部(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)和髓射线(xian)(xian)→髓薄壁细胞”。分(fen)析(xi)认为(wei)(wei),紫花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)茎秆(gan)中(zhong)(zhong)木(mu)(mu)(mu)质(zhi)(zhi)素(su)特殊的(de)(de)沉积(ji)(ji)模式可(ke)能是其对北温带生(sheng)(sheng)长环境的(de)(de)一种(zhong)适应对策。
民勤绿洲梭梭同化枝光合生理特性与形态
张华, 吴睿, 康雅茸
2018, 12(2): 371-379. doi:
[摘要](731) [HTML全文] (127) [PDF 608KB](98)
摘要:
梭(suo)梭(suo)(Haloxylon ammodendron)是(shi)干(gan)旱(han)区植被(bei)组成中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)植被(bei)优势种,对(dui)区域生(sheng)(sheng)态系统稳定有着重(zhong)要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)作用。为进一步揭示(shi)生(sheng)(sheng)长季(ji)内不同(tong)时期梭(suo)梭(suo)同(tong)化(hua)(hua)枝光(guang)合生(sheng)(sheng)理特(te)性(xing)(xing)和形(xing)(xing)态性(xing)(xing)状及(ji)(ji)其对(dui)环(huan)境因(yin)子(zi)的(de)(de)(de)适应,本研(yan)究比较分析了(le)民勤绿洲梭(suo)梭(suo)同(tong)化(hua)(hua)枝在5月(yue)下(xia)(xia)旬和7月(yue)下(xia)(xia)旬的(de)(de)(de)光(guang)合生(sheng)(sheng)理特(te)性(xing)(xing)及(ji)(ji)形(xing)(xing)态。结果表明,5月(yue)下(xia)(xia)旬和7月(yue)下(xia)(xia)旬梭(suo)梭(suo)同(tong)化(hua)(hua)枝净光(guang)合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)和气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)导度(du)(Gs)的(de)(de)(de)日变化(hua)(hua)均(jun)呈(cheng)现双峰曲(qu)线(xian)。5月(yue)下(xia)(xia)旬中(zhong)午前后(hou)Pn降(jiang)低主要(yao)是(shi)气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)限(xian)制因(yin)素,7月(yue)下(xia)(xia)旬中(zhong)午前后(hou)Pn降(jiang)低主要(yao)是(shi)非气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)限(xian)制因(yin)素。7月(yue)下(xia)(xia)旬的(de)(de)(de)同(tong)化(hua)(hua)枝面积(ji)(LA)、鲜重(zhong)(FW)、干(gan)重(zhong)(DW)、含水(shui)量(LWC)、干(gan)物质含量(LDMC)和比叶面积(ji)(SLA)较5月(yue)下(xia)(xia)旬分别增长了(le)79%、94%、99%、33%、14%和3%。LA是(shi)梭(suo)梭(suo)同(tong)化(hua)(hua)枝最具代表性(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)形(xing)(xing)态性(xing)(xing)状。影响5月(yue)下(xia)(xia)旬梭(suo)梭(suo)同(tong)化(hua)(hua)枝的(de)(de)(de)环(huan)境因(yin)子(zi)主要(yao)是(shi)光(guang)合有效辐射(PAR)、空气(qi)(qi)相(xiang)对(dui)湿度(du)(RH)和土壤含水(shui)量(SWC),影响7月(yue)下(xia)(xia)旬的(de)(de)(de)主要(yao)是(shi)大(da)气(qi)(qi)温度(du)(Ta)和SWC。
AM真菌与禾草内生真菌对黑麦草抗旱性的影响
王晓瑜, 郭艳娥, 冯希, 施颖, 段廷玉
2018, 12(2): 380-390. doi:
[摘要](1264) [HTML全文] (26) [PDF 711KB](116)
摘要:
通过(guo)(guo)温室盆栽试验(yan),从(cong)植物(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长、养分(fen)吸收(shou)和(he)(he)抗(kang)逆(ni)相关酶等方面探究(jiu)(jiu)了(le)(le)AM真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)与(yu)禾(he)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)互作对(dui)黑(hei)(hei)麦草(cao)(cao)(Loliumperenne)抗(kang)旱(han)(han)性(xing)的影响,以期为充分(fen)利用两类微生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)来(lai)提高(gao)(gao)植物(wu)抗(kang)逆(ni)性(xing)提供理论依据。本研究(jiu)(jiu)包括(kuo)单独接种(zhong)(zhong)AM真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)、禾(he)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun),AM真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)+禾(he)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)以及(ji)无(wu)(wu)AM真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)和(he)(he)无(wu)(wu)禾(he)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)4种(zhong)(zhong)处(chu)理,黑(hei)(hei)麦草(cao)(cao)分(fen)别由含有(you)禾(he)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(E+)和(he)(he)不含禾(he)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(E-)种(zhong)(zhong)子建植获得。并于黑(hei)(hei)麦草(cao)(cao)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长38 d后,按照土壤(rang)最(zui)大持水量的15%、30%、45%和(he)(he)60%设置4个水分(fen)梯度,共16种(zhong)(zhong)处(chu)理。结果表(biao)明,接种(zhong)(zhong)AM真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)与(yu)禾(he)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)显著促(cu)进(jin)了(le)(le)45%和(he)(he)60%土壤(rang)水分(fen)条件下(xia)(xia)黑(hei)(hei)麦草(cao)(cao)的生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长,促(cu)进(jin)了(le)(le)其对(dui)N、P的吸收(shou),增强(qiang)了(le)(le)黑(hei)(hei)麦草(cao)(cao)体(ti)内(nei)过(guo)(guo)氧化(hua)物(wu)酶活性(xing),降低了(le)(le)丙二醛浓度,表(biao)明本研究(jiu)(jiu)所用共生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)微生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)仅(jin)在较为干旱(han)(han)条件下(xia)(xia)提高(gao)(gao)了(le)(le)植物(wu)的耐旱(han)(han)性(xing)。
5株木霉菌株对鸭茅生长及营养品质的影响
袁扬, 王胤晨, 曾兵, 张锦华, 韩玉竹
2018, 12(2): 391-397. doi:
[摘要](519) [HTML全文] (17) [PDF 515KB](127)
摘要:
在(zai)盆(pen)栽条件下,分(fen)析(xi)了5株(zhu)木(mu)霉(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)菌(jun)(jun)[3株(zhu)哈茨木(mu)霉(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(Trichoderma harzianum)、1株(zhu)长梗木(mu)霉(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(T. longibrachiatum)和1株(zhu)里(li)氏木(mu)霉(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(T. reesei)]对(dui)(dui)鸭(ya)茅(mao)(Dactylis glomerata)生长及其(qi)营(ying)养成分(fen)的(de)影响(xiang),发现5 株(zhu)木(mu)霉(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)菌(jun)(jun)株(zhu)对(dui)(dui)鸭(ya)茅(mao)植(zhi)株(zhu)均(jun)有(you)显(xian)著的(de)促生长作用。各(ge)处(chu)理与不接种(zhong)木(mu)霉(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)菌(jun)(jun)的(de)对(dui)(dui)照组(zu)相(xiang)比,地(di)(di)上干重、地(di)(di)下干重、分(fen)蘖(nie)数及叶宽等均(jun)有(you)所增加(jia)(jia),各(ge)指标平均(jun)分(fen)别增加(jia)(jia)2.88 g、0.40 g、2.22、0.31 mm;株(zhu)高(gao)及叶长较对(dui)(dui)照稍(shao)有(you)降低,平均(jun)分(fen)别降低6.31、7.19 cm。从营(ying)养成分(fen)来(lai)看(kan),5株(zhu)木(mu)霉(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)处(chu)理均(jun)能提高(gao)鸭(ya)茅(mao)植(zhi)株(zhu)干物质(zhi)、粗灰分(fen)、粗蛋(dan)白(bai)、粗脂肪及钙、磷的(de)含量(liang),各(ge)指标平均(jun)分(fen)别增加(jia)(jia)了8.16%、5.73%、34.48%、33.47%、38.64%、5.95%;有(you)效(xiao)降低了鸭(ya)茅(mao)植(zhi)株(zhu)的(de)中性洗涤纤维、酸性洗涤纤维的(de)含量(liang),平均(jun)分(fen)别降低了7.11%、8.04%。5株(zhu)木(mu)霉(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)菌(jun)(jun)株(zhu)能明显(xian)提高(gao)鸭(ya)茅(mao)的(de)营(ying)养品质(zhi),其(qi)中哈茨木(mu)霉(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)(mei)1菌(jun)(jun)株(zhu)表现最优。
AMF对不同水分条件下紫花苜蓿生态化学计量学特征的影响
郭理想, 杨婕妤, 龙明秀, 马文雪, 岳佳铭, 刘洁, 臧琳, 呼天明, 何树斌
2018, 12(2): 398-406. doi:
[摘要](531) [HTML全文] (35) [PDF 587KB](94)
摘要:
为(wei)研究(jiu)丛(cong)枝菌(jun)根(gen)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(AMF)对不同(tong)水(shui)分(fen)条件(jian)下(xia)(xia)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)营养(yang)元素含量(liang)(liang)(liang)及生(sheng)态化学(xue)计(ji)量(liang)(liang)(liang)学(xue)特征(zheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang),试(shi)验以(yi)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)阿尔冈金(M. sativa cv. Algonquin)为(wei)材料,通过温(wen)室盆栽的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)方法(fa),在(zai)模拟干(gan)旱和(he)(he)正常供水(shui)两个(ge)水(shui)分(fen)梯(ti)度(du)下(xia)(xia),单接种(zhong)(zhong)丛(cong)枝菌(jun)根(gen)真(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)AMF(Glomus constrictum,M)、单接种(zhong)(zhong)根(gen)瘤(liu)菌(jun)(Sinorhizobium meliloti,R)、双接种(zhong)(zhong)R和(he)(he)M(RM)以(yi)及不接种(zhong)(zhong)(CK),测定紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)和(he)(he)根(gen)系(xi)中碳(tan)(C)、氮(N)、磷(P)、钾(K)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)并(bing)计(ji)算其(qi)生(sheng)态化学(xue)计(ji)量(liang)(liang)(liang)学(xue)特征(zheng)。结(jie)果显示,干(gan)旱胁(xie)迫(po)降低了(le)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)(liang),抑(yi)制(zhi)(zhi)了(le)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)C、N、K和(he)(he)根(gen)系(xi)N、P和(he)(he)K的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)累(lei)积。M、R和(he)(he)RM处理均提高(gao)了(le)干(gan)旱胁(xie)迫(po)下(xia)(xia)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)(liang),叶(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)C、N、P和(he)(he)K的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)含量(liang)(liang)(liang),但却(que)降低了(le)根(gen)系(xi)N、P和(he)(he)K的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)。C/N对水(shui)分(fen)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)响(xiang)应较为(wei)不一致,但干(gan)旱胁(xie)迫(po)提高(gao)了(le)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)和(he)(he)根(gen)系(xi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)N/P和(he)(he)C/P。然而,M处理提高(gao)了(le)干(gan)旱胁(xie)迫(po)下(xia)(xia)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)和(he)(he)根(gen)系(xi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)C/N、N/P和(he)(he)C/P。紫(zi)(zi)(zi)花(hua)苜(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)和(he)(he)根(gen)系(xi)具(ju)有(you)不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)代谢特征(zheng),所以(yi)其(qi)对AMF和(he)(he)水(shui)分(fen)具(ju)有(you)不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)响(xiang)应规律。此外(wai),RM仅在(zai)对生(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)(he)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)N、P、K等方面具(ju)有(you)较为(wei)明显的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)双接种(zhong)(zhong)协(xie)同(tong)增(zeng)效的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)效益。本研究(jiu)结(jie)果有(you)助于进一步(bu)阐明共生(sheng)体内(nei)C的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)消耗与(yu)N、P营养(yang)物质的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)转移之间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机制(zhi)(zhi)。
磷镁促释基质养分释放特性及种植效果
张俊涛, 叶少萍, 廖宗文
2018, 12(2): 407-414. doi:
[摘要](690) [HTML全文] (12) [PDF 554KB](63)
摘要:
选用4种促(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)释(shi)材料(liao)(W、Y、QW、FS)对(dui)磷(lin)(lin)矿粉、轻烧氧(yang)化镁(mei)混合物进(jin)行活化处理(li),配制(zhi)促(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)释(shi)材料(liao)含量(liang)分别(bie)为3%、5%的(de)Ⅰ、Ⅱ型促(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)释(shi)磷(lin)(lin)镁(mei)草花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)基(ji)质,通(tong)过淋(lin)溶(rong)(rong)试验、盆栽试验研究水(shui)(shui)溶(rong)(rong)性磷(lin)(lin)、镁(mei)素释(shi)放特性以(yi)及对(dui)夏堇(jin)(Torenia fournieri)、本地长春(chun)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(Catharanthus roseus)生长及开花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)的(de)影响(xiang)。结果显示,促(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)释(shi)材料(liao)W、Y、QW、FS对(dui)磷(lin)(lin)矿粉均表现(xian)出良好(hao)(hao)的(de)促(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)释(shi)效(xiao)果,磷(lin)(lin)镁(mei)促(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)释(shi)基(ji)质水(shui)(shui)溶(rong)(rong)性磷(lin)(lin)淋(lin)溶(rong)(rong)总量(liang)较不(bu)(bu)添(tian)加(jia)(jia)促(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)释(shi)磷(lin)(lin)镁(mei)显著(zhu)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)了15.42%~27.10%(P<0.05);添(tian)加(jia)(jia)4种促(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)释(shi)材料(liao)对(dui)水(shui)(shui)溶(rong)(rong)性镁(mei)总量(liang)释(shi)放效(xiao)果均不(bu)(bu)显著(zhu)(P>0.05)。促(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)释(shi)磷(lin)(lin)镁(mei)W-Ⅰ不(bu)(bu)仅(jin)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)了夏堇(jin)开花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)数量(liang),同时对(dui)本地长春(chun)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)的(de)冠(guan)幅增(zeng)长、分枝以(yi)及地上(shang)部生物量(liang)积(ji)累有促(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)进(jin)作用;FS-Ⅱ则(ze)有利于夏堇(jin)地上(shang)部生物量(liang)的(de)积(ji)累;Y-Ⅰ则(ze)对(dui)夏堇(jin)、本地长春(chun)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)生长无促(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)进(jin)作用。综(zong)合考虑,草花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)基(ji)质添(tian)加(jia)(jia)促(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)(cu)释(shi)磷(lin)(lin)镁(mei)W-Ⅰ、FS-Ⅱ应用效(xiao)果最(zui)(zui)好(hao)(hao),其最(zui)(zui)适添(tian)加(jia)(jia)比例分别(bie)为3.09、3.16 kg·m-3。
氮肥对库布齐沙地柳枝稷产量、氮肥利用率及土壤硝态氮残留的影响
陶梦, 苏德荣, 吕世海, 王铁梅, 陈俊翰
2018, 12(2): 415-422. doi:
[摘要](482) [HTML全文] (16) [PDF 575KB](69)
摘要:
为(wei)了(le)改(gai)善库布(bu)齐(qi)沙地的(de)(de)生态(tai)(tai)环(huan)境,实现生态(tai)(tai)效(xiao)益(yi)和(he)(he)经济效(xiao)益(yi)的(de)(de)有(you)效(xiao)结合,将暖季型草本能源植(zhi)物柳(liu)(liu)枝(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)稷(ji)(Panicum virgatum)引种(zhong)到库布(bu)齐(qi)沙地。以柳(liu)(liu)枝(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)稷(ji)品种(zhong) “BL-1”为(wei)试(shi)验(yan)材料(liao),研究(jiu)了(le)施(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)硫酸铵和(he)(he)尿(niao)素(su)两种(zhong)氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)对柳(liu)(liu)枝(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)稷(ji)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)利用(yong)(yong)率及0-40 cm土(tu)(tu)层土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)硝态(tai)(tai)氮(dan)(dan)分布(bu)和(he)(he)积(ji)累的(de)(de)影响。本研究(jiu)采用(yong)(yong)完全随机区组设计, 设置0、75、150、225 kg·hm-2共4个(ge)施(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)水平(ping),每个(ge)处(chu)理3个(ge)重复。硫酸铵和(he)(he)尿(niao)素(su)分别于苗期(qi)、分蘖期(qi)和(he)(he)拔节期(qi)施(shi)(shi)(shi)入各(ge)试(shi)验(yan)小(xiao)区,施(shi)(shi)(shi)入量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)分别为(wei)施(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)1/5、2/5和(he)(he)2/5。在(zai)初(chu)花期(qi)对柳(liu)(liu)枝(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)稷(ji)的(de)(de)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)及土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)硝态(tai)(tai)氮(dan)(dan)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)进行测定。结果表明,硫酸铵和(he)(he)尿(niao)素(su)的(de)(de)施(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)均可以显(xian)著提高柳(liu)(liu)枝(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)稷(ji)的(de)(de)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(P<0.05)。柳(liu)(liu)枝(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)稷(ji)的(de)(de)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、吸氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、氮(dan)(dan)肥(fei)利用(yong)(yong)率在(zai)施(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)硫酸铵时随着施(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加逐渐增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加;在(zai)施(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)尿(niao)素(su)时,随着施(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加出(chu)现先升高后降低(di)的(de)(de)趋势,在(zai)施(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)为(wei)150 kg·hm-2时达到峰值。在(zai)0-40 cm土(tu)(tu)层土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)硝态(tai)(tai)氮(dan)(dan)集(ji)中分布(bu)在(zai)10-20 cm,且其积(ji)累量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)随着施(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)(dan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加而(er)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加。
气候变化对通辽草甸草原草本植物物候期的影响
高亚敏
2018, 12(2): 423-433. doi:
[摘要](721) [HTML全文] (63) [PDF 642KB](98)
摘要:
植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)物(wu)(wu)候(hou)期(qi)(qi)的变化(hua)直接反(fan)映气(qi)(qi)候(hou)变化(hua),并成为全球(qiu)变化(hua)研(yan)(yan)究的重点。基于(yu)通(tong)辽市巴雅尔吐胡(hu)硕牧业气(qi)(qi)象(xiang)试验站 1981-2016年主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)羊(yang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Leymus chinensis)、冰草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Agropyron cristatum)、委陵(ling)菜(cai)(cai)(Potentilla chinensis)、车前(qian)(qian)(Plantago asiatica)物(wu)(wu)候(hou)观测(ce)数据和同期(qi)(qi)气(qi)(qi)象(xiang)观测(ce)数据,研(yan)(yan)究了气(qi)(qi)候(hou)变化(hua)对草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)本植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)返青(qing)(qing)(qing)期(qi)(qi)、黄(huang)枯(ku)(ku)期(qi)(qi)和生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)季(ji)(ji)的影(ying)响,结果表明:1)研(yan)(yan)究区近36年来年均(jun)(jun)气(qi)(qi)温(wen)上升0.35 ℃·10 a-1(P<0.01),年均(jun)(jun)降(jiang)水(shui)量(liang)减(jian)少22.73 mm·10 a-1,气(qi)(qi)候(hou)暖干化(hua)特征明显(xian)。2)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)本植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)返青(qing)(qing)(qing)期(qi)(qi)呈一致性延(yan)(yan)迟(chi)趋(qu)势,平均(jun)(jun)每(mei)10年延(yan)(yan)迟(chi)1.16~7.60 d。羊(yang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)、车前(qian)(qian)返青(qing)(qing)(qing)推迟(chi)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)受2-3月(yue)(yue)累计(ji)降(jiang)水(shui)量(liang)减(jian)少的影(ying)响,冰草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)、委陵(ling)菜(cai)(cai)返青(qing)(qing)(qing)推迟(chi)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)受2-4月(yue)(yue)、3-4月(yue)(yue)累计(ji)降(jiang)水(shui)量(liang)减(jian)少的影(ying)响。3)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)本植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)黄(huang)枯(ku)(ku)期(qi)(qi)变化(hua)趋(qu)势不同,羊(yang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)、冰草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)黄(huang)枯(ku)(ku)期(qi)(qi)延(yan)(yan)迟(chi)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)受夏季(ji)(ji)、初秋(qiu)累计(ji)降(jiang)水(shui)量(liang)影(ying)响,委陵(ling)菜(cai)(cai)黄(huang)枯(ku)(ku)期(qi)(qi)提(ti)前(qian)(qian)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)受夏季(ji)(ji)、初秋(qiu)的累计(ji)降(jiang)水(shui)量(liang)和日(ri)照时(shi)数共同影(ying)响,车前(qian)(qian)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)黄(huang)枯(ku)(ku)期(qi)(qi)延(yan)(yan)迟(chi)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)受夏季(ji)(ji)、初秋(qiu)平均(jun)(jun)气(qi)(qi)温(wen)影(ying)响。4)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)本植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)季(ji)(ji)长(zhang)度(du)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)受气(qi)(qi)温(wen)和降(jiang)水(shui)量(liang)影(ying)响。气(qi)(qi)候(hou)变暖后,研(yan)(yan)究区夏季(ji)(ji)、生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)季(ji)(ji)平均(jun)(jun)气(qi)(qi)温(wen)显(xian)著上升,降(jiang)水(shui)量(liang)逐渐减(jian)少,导致羊(yang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)、冰草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)、委陵(ling)菜(cai)(cai)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)季(ji)(ji)缩短;而车前(qian)(qian)对气(qi)(qi)温(wen)反(fan)应(ying)比较敏(min)感(gan),气(qi)(qi)温(wen)升高有(you)利于(yu)车前(qian)(qian)生(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)季(ji)(ji)延(yan)(yan)长(zhang)。
动物生产层
紫茎泽兰对萨能奶山羊血常规及重要脏器病理学的影响
符杰, 胡延春, 陈伟红, 翁嘉华, 胡力文, 石真, 何亚军, 莫全, 王娅, 任志华, 彭广能, 左之才, 邓俊良
2018, 12(2): 434-440. doi:
[摘要](716) [HTML全文] (16) [PDF 1265KB](85)
摘要:
紫(zi)(zi)(zi)茎(jing)泽(ze)兰(lan)(lan)(lan)(Eupatorium adenophorum)在中(zhong)国(guo)作为入侵物种(zhong),可造成食(shi)(shi)草(cao)动(dong)(dong)物中(zhong)毒(du)死(si)亡,并给畜牧业带巨大(da)的(de)损失(shi)。为研究(jiu)反刍动(dong)(dong)物采食(shi)(shi)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)茎(jing)泽(ze)兰(lan)(lan)(lan)后(hou)的(de)中(zhong)毒(du)机理,本研究(jiu)探讨了日(ri)(ri)粮中(zhong)添(tian)(tian)加(jia)不(bu)同剂量(liang)的(de)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)茎(jing)泽(ze)兰(lan)(lan)(lan)对(dui)(dui)萨能奶(nai)(nai)山(shan)(shan)羊(Saanen goat)血(xue)常规及(ji)肝(gan)(gan)(gan)、脾(pi)、肾的(de)病(bing)理学影响。选择16只5~6月(yue)龄健康萨能奶(nai)(nai)山(shan)(shan)羊,随机分成对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(日(ri)(ri)粮中(zhong)未添(tian)(tian)加(jia)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)茎(jing)泽(ze)兰(lan)(lan)(lan))和(he)(he)试(shi)(shi)验Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(日(ri)(ri)粮配比中(zhong)分别(bie)(bie)添(tian)(tian)加(jia)紫(zi)(zi)(zi)茎(jing)泽(ze)兰(lan)(lan)(lan)40%、60%和(he)(he)80%),每(mei)组(zu)(zu)4只。试(shi)(shi)验Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)分别(bie)(bie)饲喂含40%、60%和(he)(he)80%紫(zi)(zi)(zi)茎(jing)泽(ze)兰(lan)(lan)(lan)的(de)混合(he)日(ri)(ri)粮3个月(yue),每(mei)两周检测一次血(xue)常规,试(shi)(shi)验末屠(tu)宰(zai)奶(nai)(nai)山(shan)(shan)羊,并观察其肝(gan)(gan)(gan)、肾、脾(pi)的(de)病(bing)理学变(bian)化。结果(guo)(guo)表明,与对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)(zhao)组(zu)(zu)相比,各(ge)试(shi)(shi)验组(zu)(zu)血(xue)液中(zhong)的(de)白细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(white blood cell ,)和(he)(he)中(zhong)性粒(li)细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(neutrophil,NEUT)均(jun)显著升高(P<0.05),试(shi)(shi)验后(hou)期极显著高于(yu)对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(P<0.01);而(er)各(ge)试(shi)(shi)验组(zu)(zu)血(xue)液中(zhong)淋巴细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(lymphocyte,LY)与血(xue)红(hong)蛋白(hemoglobin,HGB)均(jun)呈(cheng)下降趋势,试(shi)(shi)验后(hou)期均(jun)极显著低于(yu)对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(P<0.01)。肝(gan)(gan)(gan)和(he)(he)脾(pi)肿大(da),肝(gan)(gan)(gan)组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)出现淤血(xue),肝(gan)(gan)(gan)细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞发生水泡(pao)变(bian)性及(ji)脂(zhi)肪变(bian)性等,肾组(zu)(zu)织(zhi)伴有出血(xue)、坏死(si)、颗粒(li)变(bian)性及(ji)水泡(pao)样变(bian)性的(de)现象。因此(ci),本研究(jiu)结果(guo)(guo)说明紫(zi)(zi)(zi)茎(jing)泽(ze)兰(lan)(lan)(lan)对(dui)(dui)萨能奶(nai)(nai)山(shan)(shan)羊血(xue)液指标有显著影响,且长期摄入紫(zi)(zi)(zi)茎(jing)泽(ze)兰(lan)(lan)(lan)可引起动(dong)(dong)物肝(gan)(gan)(gan)、肾、脾(pi)等主(zhu)要实质器官不(bu)同程(cheng)度的(de)损伤(shang)。
苜蓿素对脂多糖诱导下奶牛乳腺上皮细胞炎症和乳蛋白合成相关基因表达的影响
占今舜, 詹康, 陈小连, 霍俊宏, 赵国琦
2018, 12(2): 441-448. doi:
[摘要](524) [HTML全文] (19) [PDF 536KB](95)
摘要:
为分(fen)析苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)素(su)(su)(su)对(dui)脂多糖(tang)诱导(dao)下体(ti)(ti)外培养(yang)奶(nai)(nai)牛(niu)乳(ru)(ru)腺(xian)上皮(pi)细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)抗炎(yan)(yan)和(he)(he)乳(ru)(ru)蛋(dan)(dan)白(bai)合成(cheng)(cheng)相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)的(de)(de)影响,本研究将体(ti)(ti)外培养(yang)的(de)(de)奶(nai)(nai)牛(niu)乳(ru)(ru)腺(xian)上皮(pi)细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)分(fen)成(cheng)(cheng)4组,即基(ji)础培养(yang)基(ji)(对(dui)照(zhao)(zhao))和(he)(he)基(ji)础培养(yang)基(ji)中(zhong)分(fen)别(bie)加(jia)入1 μg·mL-1 LPS(L)、1 μg·mL-1 LPS+10 μg·mL-1 苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)素(su)(su)(su)(L+T)和(he)(he)10 μg·mL-1 苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)素(su)(su)(su)(T)。结果(guo)显(xian)(xian)示,1)与(yu)对(dui)照(zhao)(zhao)组相(xiang)比(bi),L组奶(nai)(nai)牛(niu)乳(ru)(ru)腺(xian)上皮(pi)细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)的(de)(de)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)下降(P<0.05),而(er)(er)(er)T组则显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)升(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(P<0.01)。2)L+T组细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)的(de)(de)超氧(yang)化(hua)物歧化(hua)酶(SOD)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于L组(P<0.01),而(er)(er)(er)一氧(yang)化(hua)氮(NO)、丙二(er)醛(MDA)含量则显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)低(di)于L组(P<0.01)。3)LPS能(neng)(neng)够(gou)(gou)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)升(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)的(de)(de)白(bai)细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)介素(su)(su)(su)1β(IL-1β)、IL-6、肿瘤(liu)坏(huai)死因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)子(zi)(zi)α(TNF-α)、Toll样受体(ti)(ti)2(TLR2)、TLR4和(he)(he)髓(sui)样分(fen)化(hua)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)子(zi)(zi)88(MyD88)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)水平(ping)(ping)(P<0.01),而(er)(er)(er)添(tian)加(jia)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)素(su)(su)(su)能(neng)(neng)够(gou)(gou)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)降低(di)IL-1β、TNF-α、TLR2和(he)(he)TLR4的(de)(de)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)水平(ping)(ping)(P<0.01)。4)与(yu)对(dui)照(zhao)(zhao)组相(xiang)比(bi),T组细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)的(de)(de)酪氨酸激(ji)酶2(JAK2)、信号转(zhuan)导(dao)子(zi)(zi)和(he)(he)转(zhuan)录激(ji)活(huo)子(zi)(zi)5(STAT5)、雷帕霉素(su)(su)(su)靶蛋(dan)(dan)白(bai)(mTOR)、真核细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)始动因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)子(zi)(zi)4E结合蛋(dan)(dan)白(bai)1(4EBP1)和(he)(he)核糖(tang)体(ti)(ti)S6蛋(dan)(dan)白(bai)激(ji)酶1(S6K1)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)量显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)升(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(P<0.01),而(er)(er)(er)碱性(xing)(xing)氨基(ji)酸转(zhuan)运(yun)载(zai)体(ti)(ti)1(CAT1)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)量显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)降低(di)(P<0.01)。LPS能(neng)(neng)够(gou)(gou)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)降低(di)细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)的(de)(de)CAT1、L型(xing)氨基(ji)酸转(zhuan)运(yun)载(zai)体(ti)(ti)1(LAT1)、STAT5、mTOR和(he)(he)4EBP1表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)水平(ping)(ping)(P<0.01或(huo)P<0.05),而(er)(er)(er)添(tian)加(jia)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)素(su)(su)(su)能(neng)(neng)够(gou)(gou)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)升(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)STAT5表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)水平(ping)(ping)(P<0.01)。结果(guo)表(biao)(biao)(biao)明,乳(ru)(ru)腺(xian)细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)在LPS刺激(ji)下,导(dao)致细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)内(nei)炎(yan)(yan)症(zheng)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)子(zi)(zi)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)升(sheng)(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)和(he)(he)抑(yi)制(zhi)乳(ru)(ru)蛋(dan)(dan)白(bai)合成(cheng)(cheng)相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)的(de)(de)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da),而(er)(er)(er)添(tian)加(jia)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)素(su)(su)(su)能(neng)(neng)够(gou)(gou)抑(yi)制(zhi)乳(ru)(ru)腺(xian)细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)内(nei)炎(yan)(yan)症(zheng)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)子(zi)(zi)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da),但(dan)对(dui)乳(ru)(ru)蛋(dan)(dan)白(bai)合成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)作用不明显(xian)(xian);无LPS刺激(ji)下,添(tian)加(jia)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)素(su)(su)(su)能(neng)(neng)够(gou)(gou)提高(gao)(gao)(gao)乳(ru)(ru)腺(xian)细(xi)(xi)(xi)胞(bao)(bao)(bao)活(huo)性(xing)(xing)和(he)(he)促进乳(ru)(ru)蛋(dan)(dan)白(bai)合成(cheng)(cheng)相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)的(de)(de)表(biao)(biao)(biao)达(da)。
奶牛低淀粉型日粮研究进展
王志兰, 李发弟, 李飞
2018, 12(2): 449-455. doi:
[摘要](605) [HTML全文] (17) [PDF 500KB](103)
摘要:
低淀(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)粉(fen)型(xing)日(ri)粮的(de)(de)应用(yong)不仅可以(yi)(yi)满(man)足高产奶牛(niu)生产阶段的(de)(de)能量需(xu)要,而(er)且可以(yi)(yi)保证奶牛(niu)瘤胃(wei)健康,避免(mian)瘤胃(wei)酸(suan)中(zhong)(zhong)毒。常用(yong)低淀(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)粉(fen)型(xing)饲(si)(si)料(liao)有优质牧草、中(zhong)(zhong)性(xing)(xing)(xing)洗涤可溶性(xing)(xing)(xing)纤维源饲(si)(si)料(liao)以(yi)(yi)及(ji)(ji)可溶性(xing)(xing)(xing)糖三大部分。饲(si)(si)喂低淀(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)粉(fen)型(xing)日(ri)粮可以(yi)(yi)有效缓(huan)解(jie)挥发性(xing)(xing)(xing)脂肪(fang)酸(suan)的(de)(de)产生,避免(mian)瘤胃(wei)pH降低,并促(cu)进了奶牛(niu)的(de)(de)采食以(yi)(yi)及(ji)(ji)养分消化,提(ti)高乳品质。本(ben)文从低淀(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)粉(fen)型(xing)日(ri)粮的(de)(de)实现手(shou)段,以(yi)(yi)及(ji)(ji)瘤胃(wei)发酵(jiao)参(can)数和生产性(xing)(xing)(xing)能方面阐述(shu)低淀(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)粉(fen)型(xing)日(ri)粮在奶牛(niu)生产中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)必(bi)要性(xing)(xing)(xing),确(que)立今后的(de)(de)研究重点(dian)应该在各种原(yuan)(yuan)料(liao)替代(dai)谷(gu)物原(yuan)(yuan)料(liao)的(de)(de)最(zui)适(shi)比(bi)例(li)及(ji)(ji)组合效应方面,从而(er)完善奶牛(niu)低淀(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)粉(fen)型(xing)日(ri)粮配制(zhi)技术。
后生物生产层
不同添加剂对陇东紫花苜蓿青贮品质的影响
薛春胜, 刘瑞生, 徐建峰, 张金林
2018, 12(2): 456-462. doi:
[摘要](525) [HTML全文] (22) [PDF 519KB](94)
摘要:
生(sheng)物(wu)添(tian)(tian)(tian)加(jia)(jia)剂(ji)(ji)在促进牧草青(qing)贮发(fa)酵过程中(zhong)有(you)(you)益(yi)菌(jun)和(he)(he)酶的活(huo)性(xing)(xing)、提高(gao)消化率和(he)(he)改善(shan)发(fa)酵品(pin)质等方面(mian)发(fa)挥着重要作用。本研究(jiu)以(yi)初花(hua)(hua)期刈割的第1茬陇东(dong)紫(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)为原料,分析不(bu)同添(tian)(tian)(tian)加(jia)(jia)剂(ji)(ji)(甲(jia)酸(suan)(suan)、蔗糖(tang)、EM菌(jun)液(ye)和(he)(he)纤(xian)维素(su)酶)对(dui)(dui)青(qing)贮发(fa)酵品(pin)质的影响。结果(guo)表明(ming),4种添(tian)(tian)(tian)加(jia)(jia)剂(ji)(ji)处(chu)理(li)(li)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)青(qing)贮饲料感官评(ping)定得分均(jun)(jun)(jun)高(gao)于(yu)无添(tian)(tian)(tian)加(jia)(jia)剂(ji)(ji)对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu),pH、乙(yi)(yi)酸(suan)(suan)和(he)(he)氨态氮(NH3-N)/总氮(TN)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)均(jun)(jun)(jun)显(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05)低(di)(di)于(yu)对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu),乳酸(suan)(suan)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)均(jun)(jun)(jun)显(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05)高(gao)于(yu)对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu),且未检(jian)测(ce)到丁酸(suan)(suan)和(he)(he)丙(bing)酸(suan)(suan)。4种添(tian)(tian)(tian)加(jia)(jia)剂(ji)(ji)处(chu)理(li)(li)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)的粗蛋白质含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)均(jun)(jun)(jun)显(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05)高(gao)于(yu)对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu),酸(suan)(suan)性(xing)(xing)洗(xi)涤(di)纤(xian)维含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)均(jun)(jun)(jun)显(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05)低(di)(di)于(yu)对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)。蔗糖(tang)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)、EM菌(jun)液(ye)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)和(he)(he)纤(xian)维素(su)酶组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)的中(zhong)性(xing)(xing)洗(xi)涤(di)纤(xian)维含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)均(jun)(jun)(jun)显(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05)低(di)(di)于(yu)甲(jia)酸(suan)(suan)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)和(he)(he)对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)。粗灰(hui)分含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)各组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)间无显(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)差异(P>0.05)。4种添(tian)(tian)(tian)加(jia)(jia)剂(ji)(ji)处(chu)理(li)(li)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)的有(you)(you)氧(yang)(yang)稳定性(xing)(xing)均(jun)(jun)(jun)显(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05)高(gao)于(yu)对(dui)(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)。上述结果(guo)说(shuo)明(ming),4种添(tian)(tian)(tian)加(jia)(jia)剂(ji)(ji)都可(ke)以(yi)提高(gao)陇东(dong)紫(zi)(zi)花(hua)(hua)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)青(qing)贮的发(fa)酵品(pin)质、营养价值,延长有(you)(you)氧(yang)(yang)稳定性(xing)(xing)。但以(yi)纤(xian)维素(su)酶组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)pH、乙(yi)(yi)酸(suan)(suan)和(he)(he)NH3-N/TN含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)最低(di)(di),乳酸(suan)(suan)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)最高(gao),青(qing)贮发(fa)酵品(pin)质最佳,建议在生(sheng)产实践中(zhong)大量(liang)(liang)推广应用。
欧宝体育