欧宝体育

欢迎访问 欧宝体育,今天是

2018年35卷4期

显示方式:          |     

目录
目录
2018, 12(4): 712-712.
[摘要](457) [PDF 1064KB](298)
摘要:
前植物生产层
基于GIMMS NDVI 3g.v1的近34年青海省植被生长季NDVI时空变化特征
代子俊, 赵霞, 李冠稳, 王兴春, 庞龙辉
2018, 12(4): 713-725. doi:
[摘要](1128) [HTML全文] (219) [PDF 2828KB](209)
摘要:
在(zai)气候变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)和人类(lei)活(huo)动的(de)(de)综合影响(xiang)下(xia),青(qing)(qing)海(hai)(hai)省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态环境发(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)了明(ming)(ming)显变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)。在(zai)此背景下(xia),以GIMMS NDVI 3g.v1为数据源(yuan),采(cai)用Sen+Mann-Kendal方法研究青(qing)(qing)海(hai)(hai)省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)1982-2015年(nian)植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)覆(fu)(fu)盖(gai)(gai)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)NDVI时(shi)空变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua),将趋(qu)势(shi)(shi)分析(xi)和R/S(rescaled range analysis)分析(xi)叠(die)加(jia),研究植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)季NDVI变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)持续性(xing)(xing)特征,并揭示(shi)植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)对气候变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)及人类(lei)活(huo)动的(de)(de)响(xiang)应规律。结果表(biao)明(ming)(ming):1)近(jin)34年(nian)青(qing)(qing)海(hai)(hai)省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)NDVI整(zheng)体呈从西北(bei)到东(dong)南(nan)的(de)(de)增(zeng)加(jia)趋(qu)势(shi)(shi);且变(bian)异(yi)系(xi)数显示(shi),波动性(xing)(xing)较(jiao)(jiao)大地(di)区(qu)集(ji)中在(zai)柴达木盆(pen)地(di)周边和青(qing)(qing)南(nan)牧(mu)区(qu)西北(bei)部(bu)等(deng)植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)NDVI较(jiao)(jiao)低的(de)(de)区(qu)域(yu)(yu),波动性(xing)(xing)较(jiao)(jiao)小地(di)区(qu)集(ji)中在(zai)祁连山东(dong)部(bu)、东(dong)部(bu)农业区(qu)和青(qing)(qing)南(nan)牧(mu)区(qu)东(dong)南(nan)部(bu)等(deng)植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)NDVI较(jiao)(jiao)高的(de)(de)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)。2)近(jin)34年(nian)青(qing)(qing)海(hai)(hai)省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)NDVI整(zheng)体呈增(zeng)加(jia)趋(qu)势(shi)(shi),增(zeng)长(zhang)率为0.38%·10 a-1;且NDVI变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)具有明(ming)(ming)显的(de)(de)阶段性(xing)(xing),存(cun)在(zai)1994年(nian)和2000年(nian)两个突变(bian)点。3)近(jin)34年(nian)青(qing)(qing)海(hai)(hai)省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)改善(shan)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(75.4%)远(yuan)大于退(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)(hua)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(24.6%),其中显著改善(shan)面(mian)积(ji)占(zhan)植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)覆(fu)(fu)盖(gai)(gai)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)面(mian)积(ji)的(de)(de)40.9%,退(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)(hua)区(qu)随时(shi)间变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)在(zai)空间上表(biao)现出(chu)明(ming)(ming)显的(de)(de)转(zhuan)移现象。4)Hurst指(zhi)数表(biao)明(ming)(ming),青(qing)(qing)海(hai)(hai)省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)反持续性(xing)(xing)较(jiao)(jiao)强,趋(qu)势(shi)(shi)分析(xi)与(yu)Hurst指(zhi)数叠(die)加(jia)得出(chu),由退(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)(hua)转(zhuan)为改善(shan)的(de)(de)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)占(zhan)植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)覆(fu)(fu)盖(gai)(gai)区(qu)面(mian)积(ji)的(de)(de)13.7%,由改善(shan)转(zhuan)为退(tui)(tui)化(hua)(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)占(zhan)植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)覆(fu)(fu)盖(gai)(gai)区(qu)面(mian)积(ji)的(de)(de)44.3%,另41.5%的(de)(de)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)无法确(que)定(ding)未来变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)趋(qu)势(shi)(shi)。5)青(qing)(qing)海(hai)(hai)省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)季NDVI受气候变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)和人类(lei)活(huo)动的(de)(de)双重影响(xiang),且不同植(zhi)被(bei)(bei)类(lei)型对气候变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)响(xiang)应存(cun)在(zai)较(jiao)(jiao)大差异(yi)。
1982-2014年藏北地区植被NDVI变化特征及驱动因素
拉巴, 拉巴卓玛, 德吉央宗, 拉珍
2018, 12(4): 726-736. doi:
[摘要](663) [HTML全文] (130) [PDF 1985KB](107)
摘要:
近(jin)5年(nian)(nian)草原(yuan)生(sheng)态(tai)(tai)补(bu)偿(chang)项目的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)实(shi)施,那(nei)曲地(di)(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)植被(bei)长势(shi)发生(sheng)了一(yi)定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)变化(hua)(hua)。利用1981-2014年(nian)(nian)GIMMS、MODIS-NDVI及(ji)(ji)同期(qi)气象(xiang)、社会统计(ji)资料(liao)分(fen)析(xi)了那(nei)曲地(di)(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)植被(bei)时空变化(hua)(hua)及(ji)(ji)气象(xiang)因子、人类活动(dong)对其的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响。结果表(biao)明,近(jin)34年(nian)(nian)来(lai),那(nei)曲地(di)(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)植被(bei)年(nian)(nian)际变化(hua)(hua)呈不显著(zhu)波动(dong)变化(hua)(hua)(P>0.05);年(nian)(nian)代变化(hua)(hua)呈显著(zhu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)周期(qi)性波动(dong)上升趋势(shi)(P<0.05)。34年(nian)(nian)来(lai)那(nei)曲地(di)(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)植被(bei)整体趋于(yu)稳定态(tai)(tai)势(shi),局部(bu)(bu)有(you)减少和(he)改善(shan)趋势(shi),研究区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)57.82%的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)域植被(bei)呈稳定状态(tai)(tai),32.84%的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)域呈轻(qing)微改善(shan)趋势(shi),轻(qing)微退化(hua)(hua)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)占(zhan)14.06%,显著(zhu)退化(hua)(hua)和(he)改善(shan)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)约占(zhan)7%,退化(hua)(hua)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)主(zhu)要(yao)集中在那(nei)曲东(dong)部(bu)(bu)和(he)东(dong)南部(bu)(bu)各(ge)县,稳定区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)在中西部(bu)(bu)和(he)北部(bu)(bu)各(ge)县、部(bu)(bu)分(fen)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)域甚至(zhi)有(you)所改善(shan)。降水量、气温及(ji)(ji)牲畜数量的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)变化(hua)(hua)是引起那(nei)曲地(di)(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu)(qu)植被(bei)趋于(yu)空间分(fen)布(bu)不均的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)原(yuan)因。
黄河源区高寒草甸群落高度遥感模拟与评价
殷建鹏, 高金龙, 冯琦胜, 葛静, 孟宝平, 杨淑霞, 梁天刚, 孟小平
2018, 12(4): 737-748. doi:
[摘要](602) [HTML全文] (44) [PDF 893KB](141)
摘要:
草(cao)层(ceng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)度(du)(du)(du)(du)是反(fan)映草(cao)地生长(zhang)状况(kuang)的(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)标之一,与草(cao)地地上生物(wu)量的(de)(de)(de)监测及载(zai)畜(chu)力的(de)(de)(de)评估具(ju)有紧密(mi)联系。目前,对(dui)我国天(tian)然(ran)草(cao)地群(qun)(qun)落高(gao)(gao)(gao)度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)监测尚缺乏精确的(de)(de)(de)遥感(gan)方法。本研究以(yi)黄河源(yuan)区高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)草(cao)甸(dian)(dian)为(wei)研究区,分(fen)别基于MODIS植(zhi)被指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)数、冠层(ceng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)度(du)(du)(du)(du)模(mo)型以(yi)及草(cao)地冠层(ceng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)光谱反(fan)射率,构建了高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)草(cao)甸(dian)(dian)草(cao)地群(qun)(qun)落高(gao)(gao)(gao)度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)估算模(mo)型,并对(dui)模(mo)型精度(du)(du)(du)(du)进行了评价。结果表(biao)明,1)12种MODIS植(zhi)被指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)数中(zhong),NDVI对(dui)草(cao)层(ceng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)变化最为(wei)敏感(gan),其4种回归模(mo)型的(de)(de)(de)R2均较(jiao)低,介于0.203~0.241,NDVI指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)数模(mo)型(y=0.789e3.186x,R2=0.241)的(de)(de)(de)拟合效果最好,但反(fan)演(yan)误差(cha)较(jiao)大(RMSE=4.2 cm,CVRMSE=45.7%);2)冠层(ceng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)度(du)(du)(du)(du)模(mo)型在黄河源(yuan)地区高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)草(cao)甸(dian)(dian)试验区的(de)(de)(de)反(fan)演(yan)精度(du)(du)(du)(du)较(jiao)低(RMSE=5.8 cm,CVRMSE=62.1%),实际(ji)应用误差(cha)较(jiao)大;3)高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)草(cao)甸(dian)(dian)群(qun)(qun)落高(gao)(gao)(gao)度(du)(du)(du)(du)与519.4-583.17 nm波段之间的(de)(de)(de)冠层(ceng)光谱反(fan)射率存在显著负相关关系(P0.05),基于光谱位置变量R'510.59的(de)(de)(de)线性模(mo)型(y=-156.375x+20.384)相对(dui)最优(R2=0.489,RMSE=3.5 cm),较(jiao)适合反(fan)演(yan)高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)(han)草(cao)甸(dian)(dian)群(qun)(qun)落的(de)(de)(de)草(cao)层(ceng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)度(du)(du)(du)(du)。
青藏高原东部乡土植物对高寒沙化草地土壤性质的影响
张潇喜, 曾凯, 蔡义民, 马赛男, 宋洋, 刘琳, 陈冬明, 周春梅, 孙飞达, 陈有军
2018, 12(4): 749-759. doi:
[摘要](669) [HTML全文] (91) [PDF 981KB](149)
摘要:
以青藏高(gao)(gao)原东部高(gao)(gao)寒(han)沙(sha)化(hua)(hua)草(cao)地(di)(di)为(wei)(wei)(wei)研究对(dui)象,通过(guo)比较(jiao)分(fen)析狭(xia)叶(ye)红(hong)(hong)(hong)景天(Rhodiola rosea)、硬秆仲彬草(cao)(Kengyilia rigidula)、垂穗披碱草(cao)(Elymus nutans)和(he)(he)高(gao)(gao)山红(hong)(hong)(hong)柳(Salix cupularis)4种(zhong)乡土(tu)植(zhi)物(wu)对(dui)沙(sha)化(hua)(hua)草(cao)地(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)理(li)(li)化(hua)(hua)性质(zhi)、土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)酶(mei)活(huo)(huo)性及(ji)微(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量的(de)(de)(de)影响,旨(zhi)在(zai)为(wei)(wei)(wei)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)地(di)(di)沙(sha)化(hua)(hua)地(di)(di)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态植(zhi)被的(de)(de)(de)重建与(yu)恢(hui)复(fu)选择适(shi)宜的(de)(de)(de)治理(li)(li)植(zhi)物(wu)提(ti)供理(li)(li)论依据。结果(guo)显示:1)种(zhong)植(zhi)4种(zhong)植(zhi)物(wu)治理(li)(li)恢(hui)复(fu)5年后,土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)含水量均(jun)(jun)有(you)(you)显著升(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(P<0.05),土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)容(rong)重和(he)(he)土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)pH有(you)(you)不同程(cheng)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)下降,垂穗披碱草(cao)处理(li)(li)下土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)含水量最高(gao)(gao),与(yu)对(dui)照相(xiang)(xiang)较(jiao)增加了357.70%;2)植(zhi)被恢(hui)复(fu)显著提(ti)高(gao)(gao)了土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)中与(yu)碳(tan)氮(dan)(dan)磷循环相(xiang)(xiang)关的(de)(de)(de)各(ge)种(zhong)酶(mei)的(de)(de)(de)活(huo)(huo)性(P<0.05),其中狭(xia)叶(ye)红(hong)(hong)(hong)景天样地(di)(di)中的(de)(de)(de)土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)纤维素酶(mei)、过(guo)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)物(wu)酶(mei)、蔗糖酶(mei)、蛋白(bai)酶(mei)和(he)(he)磷酸(suan)酶(mei)活(huo)(huo)性最高(gao)(gao),分(fen)别(bie)为(wei)(wei)(wei)对(dui)照的(de)(de)(de)3.19、1.98、3.22、1.87和(he)(he)4.59倍(bei)。3)种(zhong)植(zhi)4种(zhong)植(zhi)物(wu)治理(li)(li)恢(hui)复(fu)5年后,不同土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)微(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量碳(tan)(MBC)、微(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量氮(dan)(dan)(MBN)均(jun)(jun)有(you)(you)显著提(ti)高(gao)(gao)(P<0.05),狭(xia)叶(ye)红(hong)(hong)(hong)景天的(de)(de)(de)MBC、MBN和(he)(he)微(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量碳(tan)氮(dan)(dan)比(MBC/MBN)均(jun)(jun)为(wei)(wei)(wei)最高(gao)(gao),分(fen)别(bie)为(wei)(wei)(wei)对(dui)照的(de)(de)(de)4.39、3.46和(he)(he)1.27倍(bei);4)种(zhong)植(zhi)狭(xia)叶(ye)红(hong)(hong)(hong)景天和(he)(he)高(gao)(gao)山红(hong)(hong)(hong)柳样地(di)(di),土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)酶(mei)活(huo)(huo)性与(yu)土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)理(li)(li)化(hua)(hua)性质(zhi)及(ji)微(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量呈极(ji)显著(P<0.01)和(he)(he)显著(P<0.05)相(xiang)(xiang)关,种(zhong)植(zhi)垂穗披碱草(cao)样地(di)(di),土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)酶(mei)活(huo)(huo)性与(yu)土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)理(li)(li)化(hua)(hua)性质(zhi)及(ji)微(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)量相(xiang)(xiang)关性较(jiao)差。研究表明(ming),4种(zhong)植(zhi)物(wu)种(zhong)植(zhi)5年后,狭(xia)叶(ye)红(hong)(hong)(hong)景天对(dui)高(gao)(gao)寒(han)沙(sha)化(hua)(hua)草(cao)地(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)(rang)特性改善更(geng)明(ming)显。
35份草本植物镉吸收与富集特征比较
李希铭, 李金波, 宋桂龙, 李诗刚, 濮阳雪华
2018, 12(4): 760-770. doi:
[摘要](511) [HTML全文] (21) [PDF 641KB](117)
摘要:
选(xuan)取35份常见(jian)草(cao)本(ben)植物(wu),在室外(wai)遮(zhe)雨(yu)条件下采用盆栽方法(fa),研(yan)究10 mg·kg-1镉(Cd)胁迫下草(cao)本(ben)植物(wu)Cd耐性和富集特征。研(yan)究表明:草(cao)本(ben)植物(wu)对10 mg·kg-1Cd胁迫有较(jiao)高(gao)耐性,所选(xuan)35份植物(wu)中仅9种植物(wu)生长明显受到抑制,根冠(guan)比显著(zhu)降低(di)(P<0.05)的(de)仅有2种;不同植物(wu)间Cd吸收和积(ji)累差(cha)异较(jiao)大,豆科植物(wu)以及暖季型(xing)(xing)草(cao)Cd转运能力(li)优于冷(leng)季型(xing)(xing)草(cao),地上部(bu)(bu)和地下部(bu)(bu)Cd含量最(zui)高(gao)的(de)分(fen)别(bie)为(wei)百脉根(Lotus corniculatus)和草(cao)地早熟禾(he)(Poa pratensis),Cd转运系(xi)数最(zui)大的(de)为(wei)披碱草(cao)(Elymus dahuricum);聚类分(fen)析得(de)出,两种一年生黑麦草(cao)(Lolium multiflorum)地上部(bu)(bu)积(ji)累量较(jiao)高(gao),属于高(gao)积(ji)累类型(xing)(xing)草(cao)本(ben)植物(wu)。
土地利用方式对豫西黄土丘陵区土壤团聚体微生物生物量及群落组成的影响
刘晶, 张跃伟, 张巧明, 徐少君
2018, 12(4): 771-780. doi:
[摘要](610) [HTML全文] (24) [PDF 695KB](82)
摘要:
采(cai)用熏(xun)蒸浸提和(he)(he)(he)(he)磷脂脂肪酸(suan)(PLFA)法研究了豫西黄土丘陵区不同(tong)土地(di)利用方式下土壤团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)中(zhong)微(wei)生(sheng)物(wu)生(sheng)物(wu)量及其群(qun)落(luo)组成(cheng)。结果(guo)表明,0.25~2 mm粒(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)级(ji)(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)微(wei)生(sheng)物(wu)生(sheng)物(wu)量碳(MBC)和(he)(he)(he)(he)微(wei)生(sheng)物(wu)生(sheng)物(wu)量氮(MBN)含量最(zui)高,0.053~0.25 mm粒(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)级(ji)(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)MBC和(he)(he)(he)(he)MBN含量最(zui)低(di);阔杂林(lin)(lin)、刺槐(huai)林(lin)(lin)和(he)(he)(he)(he)灌(guan)草(cao)地(di)>5、2~5和(he)(he)(he)(he)0.25~2 mm 3个粒(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)级(ji)(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)的MBC和(he)(he)(he)(he)MBN含量较耕(geng)地(di)显(xian)著(zhu)提高(P<0.05),果(guo)园(yuan)(yuan)与(yu)耕(geng)地(di)之间无显(xian)著(zhu)差异(P>0.05)。不同(tong)利用方式下,细菌PLFA含量及其占团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)总(zong)PLFA的比(bi)例(li)分(fen)别以(yi)0.25~2和(he)(he)(he)(he)0.053~0.25 mm粒(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)级(ji)(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)最(zui)高;真(zhen)菌PLFA含量及其占比(bi)为>5 mm粒(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)级(ji)(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)最(zui)高,且(qie)随团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)粒(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)径的减小而降低(di)。MBC和(he)(he)(he)(he)MBN含量与(yu)PLFA总(zong)量、表征细菌和(he)(he)(he)(he)真(zhen)菌PLFA含量均显(xian)著(zhu)或(huo)极(ji)显(xian)著(zhu)正相关(P<0.05或(huo)P<0.01)。与(yu)耕(geng)地(di)和(he)(he)(he)(he)果(guo)园(yuan)(yuan)土壤相比(bi)较,阔杂林(lin)(lin)地(di)、刺槐(huai)林(lin)(lin)地(di)和(he)(he)(he)(he)灌(guan)草(cao)地(di)中(zhong)>5、2~5和(he)(he)(he)(he)0.25~2 mm粒(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)级(ji)(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)中(zhong)表征真(zhen)菌PLFA的含量显(xian)著(zhu)增加。综上(shang),阔杂林(lin)(lin)、刺槐(huai)林(lin)(lin)和(he)(he)(he)(he)灌(guan)草(cao)地(di)较耕(geng)地(di)和(he)(he)(he)(he)果(guo)园(yuan)(yuan)显(xian)著(zhu)提高了>0.25 mm粒(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)级(ji)(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)中(zhong)微(wei)生(sheng)物(wu)生(sheng)物(wu)量及真(zhen)菌含量。
增温与氮沉降对高寒植物净光合速率的影响
冯憬, 张相锋, 董世魁, 赵金博, 赵珍珍, 韩雨晖, 沙威, 杨明岳, 李帅, 沈豪
2018, 12(4): 781-790. doi:
[摘要](858) [HTML全文] (61) [PDF 1543KB](87)
摘要:
在青藏高(gao)(gao)(gao)原(yuan)地(di)区(qu)开展(zhan)模(mo)拟(ni)(ni)增(zeng)(zeng)温试验和(he)(he)模(mo)拟(ni)(ni)氮(dan)沉(chen)降(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)试验,在高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)、高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)原(yuan)、高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)荒(huang)漠和(he)(he)栽培(pei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)4类(lei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)上各(ge)设置7组处理:对照[CK,0 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、低氮(dan)Ⅰ[NⅠ,8 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、低氮(dan)Ⅱ[NⅡ,24 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、中(zhong)氮(dan)[NⅢ,40 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、高(gao)(gao)(gao)氮(dan)Ⅰ[NⅣ,56 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、高(gao)(gao)(gao)氮(dan)Ⅱ[NⅤ,72 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、增(zeng)(zeng)温[W,0 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、增(zeng)(zeng)温增(zeng)(zeng)氮(dan)耦(ou)合(he)(he)(he)[W-NⅠ,8 kg·(hm2·a)-1],采用(yong)Li-6400光(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)仪(yi),对各(ge)类(lei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)优势植物(wu)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)速率(lv)(lv)进(jin)行实测(ce)分析(xi)。结果表明(ming),1)随(sui)氮(dan)沉(chen)降(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)和(he)(he)增(zeng)(zeng)温的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)剧,高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)甸(dian)中(zhong)白花(hua)枝子花(hua)(Dracocephalum heterophyllum)和(he)(he)针(zhen)(zhen)茅(Stipa capillata)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)速率(lv)(lv)先(xian)增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)后减(jian)少(shao),高(gao)(gao)(gao)氮(dan)沉(chen)降(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)条件下,猪毛蒿(Artemisia scoparia)、女娄(lou)菜(Silene aprica)等(deng)(deng)植物(wu)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)速率(lv)(lv)显著(zhu)增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia);2)高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)原(yuan)中(zhong)披(pi)针(zhen)(zhen)叶(ye)(ye)黄华(hua)(Thermopsis lanceolate)、马蔺(Iris lactea var. chinensis)等(deng)(deng)植物(wu)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)速率(lv)(lv)随(sui)氮(dan)沉(chen)降(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)而增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia),矮生嵩(song)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Kobresia humilis)、平车前(Plantago depressa)等(deng)(deng)植物(wu)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)速率(lv)(lv)减(jian)少(shao);3)栽培(pei)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)中(zhong)披(pi)针(zhen)(zhen)叶(ye)(ye)黄华(hua)、冷(leng)地(di)早熟禾(he)(Poa crymophila)等(deng)(deng)植物(wu)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)速率(lv)(lv)随(sui)氮(dan)沉(chen)降(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)量的(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)呈(cheng)现先(xian)下降(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)后增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)的(de)(de)趋势;4)在增(zeng)(zeng)温条件下,盐(yan)渍化草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)原(yuan)中(zhong)的(de)(de)华(hua)扁穗草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Blysmus sinocompressus)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)速率(lv)(lv)减(jian)少(shao),高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)荒(huang)漠中(zhong)垫状(zhuang)驼绒藜(Ceratoides compacta)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)速率(lv)(lv)显著(zhu)增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia),高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)荒(huang)漠与(yu)盐(yan)渍化草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)原(yuan)过渡(du)带中(zhong)赖草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Leymus secalinus)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)合(he)(he)(he)速率(lv)(lv)增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)。
不同放牧制度对土壤种子库的影响——以青藏高原东缘高寒草甸为例
申波, 马青青, 程云湘, 常生华, 李悦, 郭金梅, 侯扶江
2018, 12(4): 791-799. doi:
[摘要](620) [HTML全文] (29) [PDF 562KB](110)
摘要:
以(yi)青藏(zang)高原玛曲地区高寒(han)草甸(dian)为(wei)研究(jiu)对象,通(tong)过对暖季(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)与(yu)(yu)冷(leng)季(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)不(bu)(bu)同放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)强度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)比较分(fen)析,探(tan)讨了可萌(meng)发土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)库(ku)(ku)的(de)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)、垂直分(fen)布规(gui)律及(ji)其与(yu)(yu)地上(shang)植被(bei)(bei)的(de)关(guan)系。结果表(biao)明,1)暖季(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)库(ku)(ku)中(zhong)(zhong),轻度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)有(you)(you)12种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)2 307.66粒·m-2,重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)有(you)(you)6种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)1 065.08粒·m-2,禁(jin)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)有(you)(you)5种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)828.38粒·m-2,轻度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)的(de)物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)丰富度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)及(ji)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)都(dou)显(xian)著大(da)于(yu)重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草地(P<0.05);冷(leng)季(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)轻度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)有(you)(you)12种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)3 786.88粒·m-2,重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)有(you)(you)8种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)5 621.15粒·m-2,禁(jin)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)有(you)(you)5种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)532.53粒·m-2,轻度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)小(xiao)于(yu)重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)。2)无论是(shi)暖季(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)还(hai)是(shi)冷(leng)季(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)轻度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)库(ku)(ku)的(de)多样性(xing)指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)、均匀度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)、优势度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)和丰富度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)均大(da)于(yu)重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu),土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)库(ku)(ku)与(yu)(yu)地上(shang)植被(bei)(bei)的(de)相似性(xing)在不(bu)(bu)同的(de)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)强度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)下都(dou)小(xiao)于(yu)0.3,其中(zhong)(zhong)不(bu)(bu)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)时(shi)的(de)相似性(xing)最小(xiao),轻度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)时(shi)的(de)相似性(xing)最高。而(er)暖季(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)和冷(leng)季(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)的(de)轻度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)和重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)两种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)强度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)之间的(de)相似性(xing)系数(shu)(shu)都(dou)最大(da),分(fen)别为(wei)0.63和0.67。3)土(tu)(tu)壤(rang)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)库(ku)(ku)在不(bu)(bu)同处(chu)理间随着土(tu)(tu)层的(de)加深(shen)数(shu)(shu)量都(dou)呈现迅(xun)速(su)减少(shao)的(de)趋势,大(da)部分(fen)集中(zhong)(zhong)在0-5 cm。
放牧对小叶锦鸡儿种群数量特征的影响
王立红, 王悦, 王德凯, 解李娜, 马成仓
2018, 12(4): 800-806. doi:
[摘要](730) [HTML全文] (18) [PDF 584KB](97)
摘要:
本研究通(tong)过测定(ding)禁牧(mu)(mu)(CK)、轻(qing)度(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(LG)、中度(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(MG)和(he)重度(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(HG)下(xia)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)叶(ye)锦(jin)鸡儿(Caragana microphylla)种群(qun)总(zong)盖度(du)(du)(du)、密(mi)度(du)(du)(du)、高度(du)(du)(du)和(he)总(zong)生物(wu)(wu)量(liang),旨在(zai)掌握(wo)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)对(dui)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)叶(ye)锦(jin)鸡儿种群(qun)数量(liang)特征的(de)(de)(de)影响。结(jie)果表明:随(sui)着放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)强度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)加(jia),小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)叶(ye)锦(jin)鸡儿灌丛密(mi)度(du)(du)(du)呈现(xian)先增(zeng)加(jia)后(hou)减(jian)少的(de)(de)(de)趋(qu)势,但各处理间无显著差(cha)异(P=0.11)。这(zhei)说(shuo)(shuo)明中度(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)在(zai)一定(ding)程度(du)(du)(du)上有(you)利(li)于小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)叶(ye)锦(jin)鸡儿的(de)(de)(de)繁殖(zhi)。灌丛盖度(du)(du)(du)、高度(du)(du)(du)和(he)总(zong)生物(wu)(wu)量(liang)随(sui)着放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)强度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)加(jia)而显著降低(P<0.05),这(zhei)说(shuo)(shuo)明放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)对(dui)灌木种群(qun)有(you)明显的(de)(de)(de)负作用。综合考虑(lv)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)叶(ye)锦(jin)鸡儿种群(qun)的(de)(de)(de)数量(liang)特征和(he)生产力,在(zai)荒漠草原上适宜的(de)(de)(de)载畜率应为(wei)中度(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)。
甘肃亚高山云杉人工林下植物种群生态位特征
冯宜明, 陈学龙, 齐瑞, 赵阳, 侯亚丽, 闫倩倩, 李社勤, 徐德才
2018, 12(4): 807-815. doi:
[摘要](633) [HTML全文] (52) [PDF 574KB](83)
摘要:
根据野外110个样方的(de)(de)调查数(shu)据,应用Levins、Shannon-Wiener生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)宽(kuan)度(du)指数(shu)和Levins生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)重(zhong)(zhong)叠(die)(die)指数(shu)对(dui)甘肃亚(ya)高山云(yun)(yun)杉(Picea asperata)人(ren)工林(lin)下(xia)30个种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(包(bao)括(kuo)15种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)灌(guan)木(mu)和15 种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)草(cao)(cao)本植物)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)特征进行(xing)定量分析。结果(guo)表明,灌(guan)木(mu)针刺悬(xuan)钩子(Rubus pungens)、箭竹(Sinarundinaria nitida)、秀丽莓(mei)(Rubus amabilis)、草(cao)(cao)本东(dong)方草(cao)(cao)莓(mei)(Fragaria orientalis)、鸭茅(Dactylis glomerata)和紫花(hua)碎米荠(Cardamine tangutorum)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)宽(kuan)度(du)较(jiao)(jiao)大,表明这些物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)适应能力强,分布范(fan)围广,倾向于泛化(hua)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)。生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)宽(kuan)的(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)可能产生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)较(jiao)(jiao)小的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)重(zhong)(zhong)叠(die)(die),生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)较(jiao)(jiao)窄的(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)间(jian)也会产生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)较(jiao)(jiao)大的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)重(zhong)(zhong)叠(die)(die),生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)宽(kuan)度(du)与(yu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)重(zhong)(zhong)叠(die)(die)程度(du)无(wu)相(xiang)关性。总体(ti)上看,亚(ya)高山云(yun)(yun)杉人(ren)工林(lin)下(xia)物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)重(zhong)(zhong)叠(die)(die)程度(du)均(jun)较(jiao)(jiao)小,种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)竞(jing)争并不激烈(lie)。从生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)响应来(lai)看,灌(guan)木(mu)层的(de)(de)红(hong)桦(Betula albo-sinensis)幼苗和草(cao)(cao)本层的(de)(de)老鹳草(cao)(cao)(Geranium wilfordii)发展性最强,今(jin)后可能会发展为云(yun)(yun)杉人(ren)工林(lin)下(xia)的(de)(de)优势种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)群(qun)。
钝叶草盐胁迫的临界浓度初步研究
徐毓皎, 周宇杰, 罗瑛, 廖丽, 白昌军, 王志勇
2018, 12(4): 816-821. doi:
[摘要](821) [HTML全文] (93) [PDF 880KB](99)
摘要:
本(ben)研究(jiu)拟(ni)通过(guo)水培法筛选(xuan)钝叶(ye)草(cao)(Stenotaphrum secundatum)盐(yan)胁(xie)迫半(ban)致死(si)浓(nong)(nong)度(du),为(wei)(wei)后(hou)期筛选(xuan)耐盐(yan)钝叶(ye)草(cao)品系提供依据。研究(jiu)分别以(yi)0、35、70、105、140、175、210、245、280和(he)315 mmol·L-1 10个NaCl浓(nong)(nong)度(du)梯(ti)度(du)处理(li)钝叶(ye)草(cao),以(yi)叶(ye)色、枯(ku)黄率、坪用质量、匍匐茎长度(du)和(he)干物质重量5个指标(biao)进行综(zong)合评价,得出(chu)盐(yan)胁(xie)迫半(ban)致死(si)临(lin)界浓(nong)(nong)度(du)。结果表(biao)明,不同NaCl浓(nong)(nong)度(du)处理(li)下各(ge)指标(biao)之间(jian)存(cun)在(zai)显著(zhu)差异(yi)(P<0.05)。随着处理(li)盐(yan)浓(nong)(nong)度(du)的增加,枯(ku)黄率显著(zhu)下降(P<0.05),其他指标(biao)均呈显著(zhu)上升趋势(P<0.05)。以(yi)钝叶(ye)草(cao)枯(ku)黄率数(shu)据建立线性回归方程(cheng),以(yi)50%枯(ku)黄率为(wei)(wei)标(biao)准,确定钝叶(ye)草(cao)的盐(yan)胁(xie)迫半(ban)致死(si)临(lin)界浓(nong)(nong)度(du)为(wei)(wei)185 mmol·L-1,研究(jiu)结果为(wei)(wei)今后(hou)钝叶(ye)草(cao)种质资(zi)源大(da)量筛选(xuan)提供依据。
乙烯利对干旱胁迫下草地早熟禾生理指标的影响
隋永超, 冷暖, 姜赫男, 武雪, 罗智浩, 叶昊坤, 冯玉宇, 许立新
2018, 12(4): 822-828. doi:
[摘要](657) [HTML全文] (43) [PDF 509KB](100)
摘要:
以(yi)草地早(zao)熟禾(Poa pratensis)‘Nuglade’品种(zhong)为(wei)试验材(cai)料,研究叶(ye)(ye)(ye)片喷施(shi)乙烯(xi)利对(dui)(dui)草地早(zao)熟禾在(zai)水(shui)分充足、干(gan)旱及复(fu)(fu)水(shui)恢(hui)(hui)复(fu)(fu)3种(zhong)处(chu)理(li)下(xia)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)片电解(jie)质(zhi)(zhi)渗透率(lv)、叶(ye)(ye)(ye)绿素(su)、可溶性蛋白、丙二(er)醛(MDA)等生(sheng)理(li)指标的(de)影响(xiang)。结果表(biao)明,乙烯(xi)利与对(dui)(dui)照组(CK)相比,乙烯(xi)利在(zai)干(gan)旱胁(xie)迫下(xia)保持更高的(de)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)片相对(dui)(dui)含(han)水(shui)量(liang)23.5%(对(dui)(dui)照为(wei)11.5%)和更低(di)的(de)电解(jie)质(zhi)(zhi)渗透率(lv)68.1%(对(dui)(dui)照为(wei)90.7%)及MDA含(han)量(liang)53.90 μmol·g-1(对(dui)(dui)照检(jian)查131.62 μmol·g-1),且复(fu)(fu)水(shui)后的(de)电解(jie)质(zhi)(zhi)渗透率(lv)恢(hui)(hui)复(fu)(fu)程度更好;此外(wai)乙烯(xi)利处(chu)理(li)提高了复(fu)(fu)水(shui)恢(hui)(hui)复(fu)(fu)过程草地早(zao)熟禾的(de)可溶性蛋白含(han)量(liang);说(shuo)明,叶(ye)(ye)(ye)片喷施(shi)乙烯(xi)利能够缓(huan)解(jie)草地早(zao)熟禾的(de)干(gan)旱胁(xie)迫损伤,并(bing)促进干(gan)旱后的(de)复(fu)(fu)水(shui)恢(hui)(hui)复(fu)(fu)。
植物生产层
水稻金属硫蛋白基因(rgMT)遗传转化的紫花苜蓿耐盐性分析
徐畅, 何好, 李国良, 金淑梅
2018, 12(4): 829-838. doi:
[摘要](797) [HTML全文] (11) [PDF 2154KB](82)
摘要:
采用根(gen)癌农杆(gan)菌(jun)介导法将从水稻(dao)(Oryza sativa)中(zhong)(zhong)克隆出的(de)一个金属硫蛋白基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(rgMT)转化(hua)到紫花苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)品种“农菁1号”中(zhong)(zhong),经(jing)PCR和(he)Northern blot技术(shu)对(dui)获得(de)的(de)抗(kang)性(xing)(xing)植(zhi)株(zhu)进(jin)行(xing)了检测,证(zheng)明rgMT基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)已整合到苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)组中(zhong)(zhong)并在转基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)植(zhi)株(zhu)中(zhong)(zhong)转录表(biao)达。以(yi)野(ye)生(sheng)型(xing)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)为对(dui)照,对(dui)获得(de)的(de)转基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)株(zhu)系在不同(tong)浓度NaCl、NaHCO3胁(xie)迫(po)下的(de)表(biao)型(xing)和(he)生(sheng)理指标测定发现,NaCl、NaHCO3胁(xie)迫(po)处理后,野(ye)生(sheng)型(xing)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)受胁(xie)迫(po)严(yan)重甚至死亡,转基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)受胁(xie)迫(po)较轻。转基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)脯氨(an)酸(suan)含量(liang)和(he)超氧(yang)化(hua)物歧化(hua)酶活(huo)性(xing)(xing)显著高于(yu)野(ye)生(sheng)型(xing)(P<0.05),细胞膜透性(xing)(xing)显著低于(yu)野(ye)生(sheng)型(xing),野(ye)生(sheng)型(xing)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)叶片(pian)中(zhong)(zhong)积(ji)累的(de)过氧(yang)化(hua)氢高于(yu)转基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)叶片(pian)中(zhong)(zhong)积(ji)累的(de)过氧(yang)化(hua)氢。研究结果表(biao)明,rgMT基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)已在苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)中(zhong)(zhong)表(biao)达,并且提(ti)高了转基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)耐盐性(xing)(xing)。
内生真菌发酵液浸种对干旱胁迫下黑麦草种子萌发的影响
刘静, 周景乐, 陈振江, 魏学凯, 李涛, 李春杰
2018, 12(4): 839-847. doi:
[摘要](714) [HTML全文] (22) [PDF 663KB](118)
摘要:
为了探究离体Epichloë内(nei)生(sheng)真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)对萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)期多年(nian)生(sheng)黑(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)(Lolium perenne)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)抗(kang)旱性的(de)(de)影(ying)响。本研究以(yi)醉(zui)马(ma)草(cao)(cao)(Achnatherum inebrians)内(nei)生(sheng)真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(Epichloë gansuensis)、披碱(jian)草(cao)(cao)(Elymus dahuricus)雀麦(mai)(mai)内(nei)生(sheng)真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(E. bromicola)和中华羊茅(Festuca sinensis)内(nei)生(sheng)真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)(Epichloë sp.)3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)禾草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)液(ye)对多年(nian)生(sheng)黑(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)进(jin)行(xing)浸(jin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),采用纸上(shang)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)法(TP)测定不同(tong)浓(nong)(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)PEG处理下(xia)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)指(zhi)标。结(jie)果表明:随PEG浓(nong)(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)增(zeng)大,黑(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)率(lv)(lv)、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)势(shi)、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)和活(huo)力(li)指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)均(jun)逐渐降低(di),幼苗(miao)(miao)(miao)苗(miao)(miao)(miao)长(zhang)和幼苗(miao)(miao)(miao)含(han)水量逐渐减小(xiao),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)霉变(bian)率(lv)(lv)先增(zeng)大后减小(xiao),根系长(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)均(jun)在-0.6 MPa时(shi)达到(dao)最大值。PEG浓(nong)(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)在-1.2 MPa时(shi),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)活(huo)力(li)丧失。相与(yu)无浸(jin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)对照(zhao)相比(bi),内(nei)生(sheng)真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)液(ye)浸(jin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)可显(xian)著(P<0.05)促(cu)进(jin)黑(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)的(de)(de)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)、幼苗(miao)(miao)(miao)和根的(de)(de)生(sheng)长(zhang),有效降低(di)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)的(de)(de)霉变(bian)率(lv)(lv)。醉(zui)马(ma)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)液(ye)浸(jin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)下(xia),多年(nian)生(sheng)黑(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)、活(huo)力(li)指(zhi)数(shu)(shu)、幼苗(miao)(miao)(miao)含(han)水量、幼苗(miao)(miao)(miao)苗(miao)(miao)(miao)长(zhang)和根系长(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)大于披碱(jian)草(cao)(cao)和中华羊茅浸(jin)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)。综(zong)上(shang)所述,内(nei)生(sheng)真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)液(ye)对干(gan)旱胁迫下(xia)黑(hei)(hei)麦(mai)(mai)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)的(de)(de)萌(meng)(meng)(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)具有一定的(de)(de)促(cu)进(jin)作用,且3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)液(ye)中,醉(zui)马(ma)草(cao)(cao)内(nei)生(sheng)真菌(jun)(jun)(jun)(jun)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)液(ye)抗(kang)旱效果比(bi)较明显(xian)。
干旱及复水对桑树叶片光合能力的影响
滕志远, 张栩涵, 张会慧, 马瑶, 张秀丽, 孙广玉
2018, 12(4): 848-856. doi:
[摘要](555) [HTML全文] (17) [PDF 847KB](88)
摘要:
为研究干旱(han)及(ji)(ji)旱(han)后复(fu)水对桑(sang)树(shu)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)能(neng)力(li)的(de)(de)(de)影响,揭(jie)示其(qi)对干旱(han)的(de)(de)(de)适应(ying)(ying)性(xing)及(ji)(ji)复(fu)水后的(de)(de)(de)修(xiu)复(fu)机制,以(yi)秋(qiu)雨桑(sang)(Morus alba ‘Qiuyu’)为试验(yan)材料,采用(yong)盆栽控水法探究了桑(sang)树(shu)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)生长及(ji)(ji)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)荧(ying)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)特性(xing)。结果(guo)表(biao)明:土壤含(han)水量(liang)(liang)(liang)为26.7%时,叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)含(han)水量(liang)(liang)(liang)显著降低(di),萎蔫下(xia)垂,卷曲度(du)(du)、叶(ye)(ye)基角增(zeng)大;桑(sang)树(shu)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)的(de)(de)(de)净光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速率(lv)(lv)(lv)、蒸腾速率(lv)(lv)(lv)以(yi)及(ji)(ji)气(qi)孔(kong)导度(du)(du)等主要光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)气(qi)体交(jiao)换参(can)数近(jin)于0,而胞间(jian)CO2浓度(du)(du)和气(qi)孔(kong)限(xian)制值升(sheng)高。初始(shi)荧(ying)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)、过剩(sheng)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)能(neng)、失活PSⅡ反应(ying)(ying)中心的(de)(de)(de)热耗(hao)散量(liang)(liang)(liang)子(zi)产(chan)额(e)(e)、维持类囊体膜两侧质(zhi)子(zi)梯度(du)(du)和叶(ye)(ye)黄(huang)素(su)循环的(de)(de)(de)比(bi)例、荧(ying)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)量(liang)(liang)(liang)子(zi)产(chan)额(e)(e)和热耗(hao)散的(de)(de)(de)量(liang)(liang)(liang)子(zi)产(chan)额(e)(e)值均升(sheng)高,而最大荧(ying)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)、电子(zi)传递效率(lv)(lv)(lv)和吸收光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)能(neng)用(yong)于光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)化学反应(ying)(ying)量(liang)(liang)(liang)子(zi)产(chan)额(e)(e)下(xia)降;复(fu)水后,叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)长势指(zhi)标、主要光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)气(qi)体交(jiao)换参(can)数和荧(ying)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)参(can)数值迅速恢复(fu)。这表(biao)明干旱(han)下(xia)桑(sang)树(shu)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)净光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速率(lv)(lv)(lv)由气(qi)孔(kong)和非气(qi)孔(kong)因素(su)共同限(xian)制,PSⅡ反应(ying)(ying)中心部分失活,叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)通过增(zeng)加叶(ye)(ye)黄(huang)素(su)循环,荧(ying)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)量(liang)(liang)(liang)子(zi)产(chan)额(e)(e)和热耗(hao)散来消耗(hao)过剩(sheng)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)能(neng)。且复(fu)水后,桑(sang)树(shu)叶(ye)(ye)片(pian)(pian)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)机构(gou)具有完善的(de)(de)(de)调节修(xiu)复(fu)机制,可在较(jiao)短的(de)(de)(de)时间(jian)内修(xiu)复(fu)干旱(han)胁迫引起的(de)(de)(de)损伤。
基于生长度日和降水量的韩国饲用玉米产量预测模型构建
彭京伦, 王娟, 金抆主, 曹武焕, 金炳完, 成庆一
2018, 12(4): 857-866. doi:
[摘要](604) [HTML全文] (53) [PDF 1190KB](125)
摘要:
本研究基(ji)于韩国(guo)(guo)(guo)不同地(di)区的(de)(de)(de)(de)气(qi)(qi)(qi)象(xiang)数(shu)据和(he)饲用(yong)(yong)全(quan)(quan)(quan)株(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)米(Zea mays)产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)历(li)史记(ji)录数(shu)据,利(li)用(yong)(yong)一(yi)般(ban)线性(xing)模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)进行了(le)饲用(yong)(yong)全(quan)(quan)(quan)株(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)米的(de)(de)(de)(de)干(gan)(gan)物(wu)(wu)(wu)质产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)预(yu)测模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)构建。作物(wu)(wu)(wu)产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)等(deng)相关数(shu)据采集(ji)自(zi)韩国(guo)(guo)(guo)农(nong)业协同组(zu)合(he)中(zhong)央(yang)会饲料作物(wu)(wu)(wu)研究课题报告,气(qi)(qi)(qi)象(xiang)数(shu)据采集(ji)自(zi)韩国(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)家气(qi)(qi)(qi)象(xiang)厅网(wang)站。经过(guo)(guo)(guo)4个(ge)(ge)步(bu)骤的(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)据整(zheng)理(li),最终(zhong)用(yong)(yong)于模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)构建的(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)据集(ji)包含了(le)22年间(1988-2011年)的(de)(de)(de)(de)775个(ge)(ge)数(shu)据点。以干(gan)(gan)物(wu)(wu)(wu)质产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)为(wei)因变(bian)(bian)(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang),通(tong)(tong)(tong)过(guo)(guo)(guo)逐步(bu)回归分析,两个(ge)(ge)气(qi)(qi)(qi)象(xiang)变(bian)(bian)(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)被选(xuan)定为(wei)构建产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)预(yu)测模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)最适气(qi)(qi)(qi)象(xiang)变(bian)(bian)(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)。进一(yi)步(bu),通(tong)(tong)(tong)过(guo)(guo)(guo)一(yi)般(ban)线性(xing)模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing),构建了(le)包含两个(ge)(ge)选(xuan)定的(de)(de)(de)(de)气(qi)(qi)(qi)象(xiang)变(bian)(bian)(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)以虚拟(ni)变(bian)(bian)(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)形式考虑进模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)栽(zai)培(pei)地(di)域变(bian)(bian)(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)韩国(guo)(guo)(guo)饲用(yong)(yong)全(quan)(quan)(quan)株(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)米产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)预(yu)测模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing):DMY=11.298SHAGDD-3.651SHP+1 089.870+Location。其中(zhong),DMY为(wei)饲用(yong)(yong)全(quan)(quan)(quan)株(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)米的(de)(de)(de)(de)干(gan)(gan)物(wu)(wu)(wu)质产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang),SHAGDD为(wei)播(bo)种(zhong)(zhong)到(dao)收获(huo)累积(ji)生(sheng)长度日,SHP为(wei)播(bo)种(zhong)(zhong)到(dao)收获(huo)累积(ji)降水(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)。通(tong)(tong)(tong)过(guo)(guo)(guo)残差(cha)分析和(he)10折交(jiao)叉验证对所构建的(de)(de)(de)(de)模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)进行了(le)检验。根据此产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)预(yu)测模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing),可(ke)以发(fa)现(xian)作物(wu)(wu)(wu)生(sheng)长期间的(de)(de)(de)(de)温度和(he)降水(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)对饲用(yong)(yong)全(quan)(quan)(quan)株(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)米的(de)(de)(de)(de)干(gan)(gan)物(wu)(wu)(wu)质产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)有(you)着显著的(de)(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)。因此,确定合(he)理(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)播(bo)种(zhong)(zhong)和(he)收获(huo)时间以使作物(wu)(wu)(wu)获(huo)得充分的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)长对确保合(he)理(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)作物(wu)(wu)(wu)产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)有(you)着重要意(yi)义。此外,基(ji)于韩国(guo)(guo)(guo)夏季降水(shui)相对集(ji)中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)气(qi)(qi)(qi)象(xiang)条(tiao)件,选(xuan)择拥有(you)较(jiao)好排水(shui)性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)土(tu)地(di)和(he)较(jiao)强耐涝性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)作物(wu)(wu)(wu)品种(zhong)(zhong),也是(shi)确保饲用(yong)(yong)全(quan)(quan)(quan)株(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)米产(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要因素(su)。
13份柱花草品系生产性能比较
严琳玲, 张瑜, 白昌军
2018, 12(4): 867-875. doi:
[摘要](457) [HTML全文] (16) [PDF 541KB](74)
摘要:
为(wei)筛(shai)选出(chu)性状优良的柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Stylosanthes)品种(zhong)(zhong),2011-2014年对13份(fen)柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)品种(zhong)(zhong)(系)的株高(gao)(gao)、存(cun)活率、茎叶比、抗(kang)炭(tan)疽(ju)病能力(li)、干(gan)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)量(liang)、种(zhong)(zhong)子千粒重和(he)产(chan)(chan)量(liang)及(ji)养分进行(xing)测定分析,并采用隶属函数法对其综合生产(chan)(chan)性能进行(xing)评价(jia)。结果表明,13份(fen)柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)品系初(chu)花(hua)(hua)期在9-11月(yue);TPRC2001-84柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)植(zhi)株存(cun)活率最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(72.6%),TPRC 2001-81其次(56.6%);13份(fen)柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)品系均(jun)较抗(kang)柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)炭(tan)疽(ju)病;TPRC 2001-84柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)年均(jun)干(gan)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)量(liang)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(15 968 kg·hm-2),TPRC 2001-81和(he)热(re)(re)研(yan)(yan)20号(hao)(hao)(hao)其次(12 206和(he)12 724 kg·hm-2);TPRC 2001-85柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)子产(chan)(chan)量(liang)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(56.7 kg·hm-2);热(re)(re)研(yan)(yan)21号(hao)(hao)(hao)柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)粗(cu)蛋白含(han)量(liang)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(21.57%),热(re)(re)研(yan)(yan)20号(hao)(hao)(hao)和(he)热(re)(re)研(yan)(yan)21号(hao)(hao)(hao)柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)粗(cu)脂肪和(he)磷含(han)量(liang)较高(gao)(gao),热(re)(re)研(yan)(yan)20号(hao)(hao)(hao)(CK)柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)钙(gai)含(han)量(liang)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao),TPRC 2001-85柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)钾含(han)量(liang)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)。TPRC 2001-84、热(re)(re)研(yan)(yan)21号(hao)(hao)(hao)、TPRC 2001-85和(he)TPRC 2001-1柱(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)的综合生产(chan)(chan)性能较优,适于在热(re)(re)带亚热(re)(re)带地区推广种(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)。
甘引1号黑麦在天祝县高寒区的最佳刈割期
孟祥君, 韩天虎, 武慧娟, 俞慧云
2018, 12(4): 876-881. doi:
[摘要](594) [HTML全文] (32) [PDF 508KB](82)
摘要:
牧草在(zai)适(shi)宜(yi)时期(qi)(qi)(qi)刈(yi)割,可确保其草产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)和营养品(pin)质(zhi)达(da)到最(zui)(zui)(zui)优组(zu)合。本(ben)研(yan)究通(tong)过对(dui)甘(gan)引(yin)(yin)1号(hao)黑麦(mai)(Secale cereale‘Ganyin No.1’)在(zai)天(tian)祝县高(gao)(gao)寒区不(bu)同生(sheng)育期(qi)(qi)(qi)株高(gao)(gao)、草产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)、茎叶比、鲜干比、粗(cu)蛋(dan)白(bai)(bai)、酸性(xing)洗涤纤维(wei)、中(zhong)(zhong)性(xing)洗涤纤维(wei)等指标的测定,确定其最(zui)(zui)(zui)佳刈(yi)割期(qi)(qi)(qi)。结果表明,甘(gan)引(yin)(yin)1号(hao)黑麦(mai)株高(gao)(gao)、干草产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)及酸性(xing)洗涤纤维(wei)和中(zhong)(zhong)性(xing)洗涤纤维(wei)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)随生(sheng)育期(qi)(qi)(qi)推移逐(zhu)(zhu)渐增(zeng)加,粗(cu)蛋(dan)白(bai)(bai)含量(liang)(liang)(liang)逐(zhu)(zhu)渐降低,粗(cu)蛋(dan)白(bai)(bai)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)先增(zeng)后减(jian)。从拔节到抽穗(sui)期(qi)(qi)(qi),甘(gan)引(yin)(yin)1号(hao)黑麦(mai)生(sheng)长(zhang)速度(du)最(zui)(zui)(zui)快(kuai),开(kai)花期(qi)(qi)(qi)和乳熟(shu)期(qi)(qi)(qi)鲜草产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)无显著差异(yi)(P>0.05),虽然开(kai)花期(qi)(qi)(qi)干草产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)不(bu)及乳熟(shu)期(qi)(qi)(qi),但(dan)其粗(cu)蛋(dan)白(bai)(bai)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)最(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao),达(da)2.16 t·hm-2。经隶(li)属函数法分析4个刈(yi)割期(qi)(qi)(qi)综合评价(jia)值(zhi)为抽穗(sui)期(qi)(qi)(qi)>开(kai)花期(qi)(qi)(qi)>孕穗(sui)期(qi)(qi)(qi)>乳熟(shu)期(qi)(qi)(qi),因(yin)此(ci)选择抽穗(sui)期(qi)(qi)(qi)至开(kai)花期(qi)(qi)(qi)刈(yi)割最(zui)(zui)(zui)为适(shi)宜(yi)。
科尔沁沙地苜蓿-禾草混播组合对播种当年牧草生产性能的影响
张永亮, 骆秀梅, 吴明浩, 潘东
2018, 12(4): 882-890. doi:
[摘要](635) [HTML全文] (43) [PDF 513KB](79)
摘要:
以紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)、无芒雀(que)麦(Bromus inermis)、垂穗披碱草(cao)(Elymus nutans)、虉草(cao)(Phalaris arundinacea)4种(zhong)牧(mu)草(cao)按豆(dou)禾(he)(he)(he)(he)比1:1、1:2、2:2和(he)(he)2:1间行(xing)种(zhong)植,分(fen)析(xi)其播种(zhong)年(nian)(nian)混(hun)(hun)播组分(fen)株高(gao)(gao)与产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)变化。结果表明(ming),禾(he)(he)(he)(he)草(cao)种(zhong)类对混(hun)(hun)播禾(he)(he)(he)(he)草(cao)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)影(ying)响(xiang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05),而(er)对混(hun)(hun)播苜蓿产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)影(ying)响(xiang)不(bu)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P>0.05)。禾(he)(he)(he)(he)草(cao)种(zhong)类对禾(he)(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)总(zong)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)影(ying)响(xiang)不(bu)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu),而(er)混(hun)(hun)播比例对混(hun)(hun)播组分(fen)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)及禾(he)(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)总(zong)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)影(ying)响(xiang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(P<0.05)。单播苜蓿全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)年(nian)(nian)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)于(yu)混(hun)(hun)播草(cao)地禾(he)(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)总(zong)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(P<0.05)。在混(hun)(hun)播处理中(zhong),头茬禾(he)(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)总(zong)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)以1:1混(hun)(hun)播最高(gao)(gao),二(er)(er)茬和(he)(he)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)年(nian)(nian)禾(he)(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)总(zong)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)以2:1混(hun)(hun)播最高(gao)(gao),1:2混(hun)(hun)播各茬次及全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)年(nian)(nian)禾(he)(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)总(zong)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)低于(yu)其他(ta)混(hun)(hun)播组合(he)(P<0.05)。豆(dou)禾(he)(he)(he)(he)比例对禾(he)(he)(he)(he)草(cao)生(sheng)长(zhang)及禾(he)(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)比有明(ming)显(xian)(xian)影(ying)响(xiang),1:2和(he)(he)2:2混(hun)(hun)播禾(he)(he)(he)(he)草(cao)生(sheng)长(zhang)良好,全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)年(nian)(nian)禾(he)(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)比为0.28~0.81;而(er)1:1和(he)(he)2:1混(hun)(hun)播组合(he)二(er)(er)茬禾(he)(he)(he)(he)草(cao)生(sheng)长(zhang)受到明(ming)显(xian)(xian)抑制(zhi),全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)年(nian)(nian)禾(he)(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)产(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)比为0.11~0.30。
不同栽培模式下青贮玉米的农艺性状
段震宇, 王婷, 桑志勤, 王友德, 陈树宾, 郭斌, 李玉梅, 张小伟
2018, 12(4): 891-899. doi:
[摘要](574) [HTML全文] (32) [PDF 710KB](100)
摘要:
为探究不同(tong)(tong)的(de)栽(zai)(zai)培(pei)(pei)模(mo)式(shi)(shi)对青(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)(yu)米(mi)(Zea mays)农艺(yi)性(xing)状及产量(liang)形成的(de)影(ying)响,选用新饲玉(yu)(yu)(yu)19号在(30+60)、(10+66)、(17+50)、(60+60)、(76+76)、(40+60)和(30+90) cm 7种行(xing)距(ju)栽(zai)(zai)培(pei)(pei)模(mo)式(shi)(shi)下(xia)对比研(yan)究。结果(guo)表明,(60+60) cm的(de)栽(zai)(zai)培(pei)(pei)模(mo)式(shi)(shi)中青(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)(yu)米(mi)株(zhu)高、穗(sui)位高等(deng)农艺(yi)性(xing)状以及单株(zhu)叶面(mian)积、倒四叶SPAD值和单株(zhu)干鲜重均高于其(qi)他(ta)栽(zai)(zai)培(pei)(pei)模(mo)式(shi)(shi),随(sui)着(zhe)栽(zai)(zai)培(pei)(pei)行(xing)距(ju)的(de)增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia),青(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)(yu)米(mi)冠层(ceng)中下(xia)部透光率有所增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia),(60+60) cm等(deng)行(xing)距(ju)栽(zai)(zai)培(pei)(pei)下(xia)青(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)(yu)米(mi)冠层(ceng)结构布(bu)局合理,生(sheng)物量(liang)显(xian)著高于其(qi)他(ta)栽(zai)(zai)培(pei)(pei)模(mo)式(shi)(shi)(P=0.003)。不同(tong)(tong)的(de)栽(zai)(zai)培(pei)(pei)模(mo)式(shi)(shi)中,随(sui)着(zhe)行(xing)距(ju)的(de)增(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)玉(yu)(yu)(yu)米(mi)农艺(yi)性(xing)状表现良好,(60+60) cm等(deng)行(xing)距(ju)栽(zai)(zai)培(pei)(pei)时有利于青(qing)贮(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)(yu)米(mi)产量(liang)的(de)形成。
动物生产层
日粮中添加乡土草对獭兔健康、屠宰性能和消化系统的影响
谢荣菊, 王建平, 刘宁, 张飞可
2018, 12(4): 900-905. doi:
[摘要](558) [HTML全文] (19) [PDF 517KB](83)
摘要:
为研究不同(tong)比(bi)(bi)例(li)乡土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)草(cao)日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)(liang)对(dui)獭兔(tu)(tu)免(mian)疫指(zhi)(zhi)标、碱性(xing)(xing)磷(lin)酸酶(alkaline phosphatase,AKP)、屠宰(zai)性(xing)(xing)能(neng)、消化器(qi)官发育(yu)指(zhi)(zhi)标的(de)影响,从(cong)而(er)探讨(tao)獭兔(tu)(tu)日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)(liang)中乡土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)草(cao)的(de)适宜替代比(bi)(bi)例(li)。试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)选用(yong)健康无(wu)病、精神状态良(liang)好的(de)110日(ri)(ri)龄试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)兔(tu)(tu)30只(公母(mu)各(ge)半),按性(xing)(xing)别(bie)随机分为3组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu),每组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)10只。试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)饲喂基(ji)础日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)(liang)(对(dui)照组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)),试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)饲喂15%乡土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)草(cao)草(cao)粉(fen)+85%基(ji)础日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)(liang),试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)饲喂30%乡土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)草(cao)草(cao)粉(fen)+70%基(ji)础日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)(liang)。预试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)期(qi)7 d,正试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)期(qi)30 d。结果(guo)表明,试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)和(he)试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)脾脏指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)、血(xue)清免(mian)疫球蛋白A(immunoglobulin A,IgA)含量(liang)均显(xian)著高(gao)于试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.05)。试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)活重、胴体重分别(bie)显(xian)著高(gao)于试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)11.5%、13.1%(P<0.05)。3个试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)獭兔(tu)(tu)AKP活性(xing)(xing)随着日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)(liang)乡土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)草(cao)含量(liang)的(de)升高(gao)而(er)降低(P>0.05)。3个试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)均未出现(xian)腹泻、死(si)亡现(xian)象(xiang)。试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)十(shi)二(er)指(zhi)(zhi)肠比(bi)(bi)重、空肠比(bi)(bi)重分别(bie)显(xian)著高(gao)于试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)16.2%、39.2%(P<0.05);试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)盲肠比(bi)(bi)重低于试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)26.7%(P<0.05);其(qi)余(yu)消化器(qi)官发育(yu)指(zhi)(zhi)标各(ge)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)间差异不显(xian)著(P>0.05)。综上所述(shu),獭兔(tu)(tu)自由采(cai)食30%乡土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)草(cao)草(cao)粉(fen)有利于体质健康和(he)提高(gao)屠宰(zai)性(xing)(xing)能(neng),乡土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)草(cao)可以用(yong)作獭兔(tu)(tu)的(de)基(ji)础日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)(liang)原料使(shi)用(yong)。
补饲水平对甘肃高山细毛羊生产性能的影响
靳继鹏, 王春辉, 张利平, 张筱艳, 张昌吉
2018, 12(4): 906-915. doi:
[摘要](575) [HTML全文] (48) [PDF 878KB](105)
摘要:
为了(le)(le)(le)探讨补(bu)饲(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)水平对(dui)高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)牧(mu)(mu)区(qu)甘肃高(gao)(gao)(gao)山细(xi)毛羊(yang)(yang)生产(chan)性能的影响(xiang),本研究(jiu)选(xuan)择12月龄甘肃高(gao)(gao)(gao)山细(xi)毛后(hou)(hou)备母羊(yang)(yang)48只,随机分为补(bu)饲(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(颗粒饲(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)料)、Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)[玉(yu)米(mi)(Zea mays)和(he)苜(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)干(gan)草]、Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)[玉(yu)米(mi)、苜(mu)蓿(xu)干(gan)草和(he)燕麦(Avena sativa)干(gan)草]和(he)对(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(不补(bu)饲(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)),进(jin)行(xing)冬(dong)春(chun)季“放牧(mu)(mu)”+“补(bu)饲(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)”试验,比较了(le)(le)(le)后(hou)(hou)备母羊(yang)(yang)体(ti)(ti)重(zhong),剪(jian)毛量(liang),毛纤(xian)维长(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)、细(xi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)、白度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)、强度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)和(he)伸(shen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)等物理指(zhi)标。结(jie)果表明,试验Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)、Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)和(he)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)试验羊(yang)(yang)平均日增重(zhong)分别比对(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)148.29%、133.09%、96.76%;剪(jian)毛量(liang)各组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)之间差异(yi)不显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(P>0.05);自然长(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)和(he)伸(shen)直(zhi)长(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)对(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)均极(ji)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)低于(yu)(yu)Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.01),且自然长(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)极(ji)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)(yu)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)和(he)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.01),伸(shen)直(zhi)长(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)极(ji)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)低于(yu)(yu)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)和(he)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.01),Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)(yu)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.05);细(xi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(直(zhi)径)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)最(zui)大,Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)极(ji)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)(yu)对(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.01),且显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)(yu)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.05);白度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)最(zui)高(gao)(gao)(gao),Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)(yu)对(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.05),其(qi)他各组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)之间均差异(yi)不显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)(P>0.05);强度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)和(he)伸(shen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)补(bu)饲(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)均极(ji)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)(yu)对(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.01),且强度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)极(ji)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)(yu)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.01),伸(shen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)于(yu)(yu)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.05)。由此可见,补(bu)饲(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)对(dui)体(ti)(ti)重(zhong)、羊(yang)(yang)毛品质(zhi)都有显(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)正(zheng)向影响(xiang),高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)牧(mu)(mu)区(qu)冬(dong)春(chun)季节牧(mu)(mu)草营养(yang)缺乏,为了(le)(le)(le)满(man)足羊(yang)(yang)只营养(yang)需要,使甘肃高(gao)(gao)(gao)山细(xi)毛羊(yang)(yang)后(hou)(hou)备母羊(yang)(yang)能在(zai)1.5岁进(jin)行(xing)配种(zhong)繁殖(zhi),在(zai)冷季放牧(mu)(mu)的基础上补(bu)饲(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)1号料为最(zui)佳选(xuan)择。
后生物生产层
青海省牧区雪灾监测与预警系统的设计
费建瑶, 黄晓东, 高金龙, 梁天刚
2018, 12(4): 916-923. doi:
[摘要](675) [HTML全文] (168) [PDF 886KB](96)
摘要:
本研究欲(yu)通(tong)过(guo)改进数据(ju)存取方式(shi)、增加矩(ju)阵运(yun)(yun)(yun)算(suan)以(yi)(yi)提高(gao)雪灾(zai)(zai)监(jian)(jian)测与预(yu)警系统对(dui)数据(ju)的更新(xin)效率(lv)和对(dui)矩(ju)阵的处理(li)能(neng)(neng)力。使用Tomcat Web服务、GeoServer地图(tu)服务、PostgreSQL数据(ju)库、OpenLayers地图(tu)数据(ju)访问(wen)框架、J2EE技术(shu)架构、雪灾(zai)(zai)风(feng)险评估Logistic线性(xing)(xing)回归模型、雪灾(zai)(zai)家畜死亡率(lv)估测BP-ANN模型以(yi)(yi)及MATLAB矩(ju)阵运(yun)(yun)(yun)算(suan)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)设计(ji)开发青海(hai)省牧区(qu)雪灾(zai)(zai)监(jian)(jian)测与预(yu)警系统,以(yi)(yi)实(shi)现雪灾(zai)(zai)监(jian)(jian)测与预(yu)警数据(ju)、区(qu)域属性(xing)(xing)信(xin)息的web页(ye)面展示及查询,雪灾(zai)(zai)风(feng)险概率(lv)运(yun)(yun)(yun)算(suan),雪灾(zai)(zai)家畜死亡率(lv)运(yun)(yun)(yun)算(suan)以(yi)(yi)及数据(ju)导入(ru)等功(gong)能(neng)(neng),解决(jue)以(yi)(yi)往雪灾(zai)(zai)风(feng)险监(jian)(jian)测系统对(dui)数据(ju)资料(liao)更新(xin)不及时(shi)的问(wen)题(ti),提高(gao)风(feng)险监(jian)(jian)测与预(yu)警系统的矩(ju)阵运(yun)(yun)(yun)算(suan)能(neng)(neng)力,同时(shi)减少重(zhong)复的数据(ju)操作,方便(bian)用户对(dui)青海(hai)省牧区(qu)雪灾(zai)(zai)监(jian)(jian)测及预(yu)警数据(ju)的管理(li)。
基于GIS的牧场载畜量评估系统设计与实现
闵志强, 苏晓慧, 吴保国, 闫瑞瑞, 张利飞
2018, 12(4): 924-932. doi:
[摘要](553) [HTML全文] (19) [PDF 1095KB](80)
摘要:
我国(guo)(guo)北方草(cao)地(di)(di)资源过(guo)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)现(xian)象和(he)荒漠化(hua)严重,在数(shu)(shu)字(zi)化(hua)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)(chang)管理(li)(li)(li)方面,目(mu)前(qian)尚(shang)处在理(li)(li)(li)论研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)阶(jie)段,还未有一套(tao)完善(shan)的牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)(chang)管理(li)(li)(li)系(xi)统推广使用。为提高(gao)数(shu)(shu)字(zi)化(hua)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)(chang)管理(li)(li)(li)水平(ping),合(he)理(li)(li)(li)利用草(cao)地(di)(di)资源,利用载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)(chu)(chu)量预(yu)估模(mo)型(xing)对草(cao)地(di)(di)进行载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)(chu)(chu)量预(yu)估和(he)载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)(chu)(chu)平(ping)衡(heng)预(yu)估,设计并实(shi)现(xian)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)(chang)畜(chu)(chu)(chu)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)量评(ping)(ping)估系(xi)统。以(yi)呼伦贝尔谢(xie)尔塔拉国(guo)(guo)营(ying)农(nong)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)(chang)为研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)示(shi)范区(qu)域(yu),基于组件GIS开(kai)(kai)发技术对草(cao)地(di)(di)管理(li)(li)(li)、载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)(chu)(chu)量预(yu)估与载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)(chu)(chu)平(ping)衡(heng)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)进行研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)。系(xi)统开(kai)(kai)发了牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)(chang)载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)(chu)(chu)量预(yu)估、载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)(chu)(chu)平(ping)衡(heng)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)、专题图生成(cheng)等功(gong)(gong)能模(mo)块,如(ru),实(shi)现(xian)了用户选择地(di)(di)块输入(ru)(ru)牲畜(chu)(chu)(chu)日食量、放牧(mu)(mu)(mu)天数(shu)(shu)预(yu)估该地(di)(di)块理(li)(li)(li)论载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)(chu)(chu)量,以(yi)及通过(guo)用户输入(ru)(ru)基本放牧(mu)(mu)(mu)情况(kuang)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)当前(qian)选择地(di)(di)块或整个牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)(chang)载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)(chu)(chu)平(ping)衡(heng)情况(kuang)等核心功(gong)(gong)能。研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)结(jie)果(guo)表明,该系(xi)统能够(gou)满足数(shu)(shu)字(zi)化(hua)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)(chang)管理(li)(li)(li)需(xu)求,辅(fu)助谢(xie)尔塔拉国(guo)(guo)营(ying)农(nong)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)(chang)进行经营(ying)决策,可(ke)以(yi)对今后(hou)数(shu)(shu)字(zi)化(hua)经营(ying)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)(chang)管理(li)(li)(li)系(xi)统研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)提供(gong)一些指导性意见。
基于“互联网+”的草业企业经营管理模式——以草都易牧连锁超市为例
吴渊, 林慧龙
2018, 12(4): 933-939. doi:
[摘要](767) [HTML全文] (24) [PDF 603KB](106)
摘要:
在“互(hu)联(lian)(lian)网(wang)+”大(da)潮改(gai)造着各(ge)行各(ge)业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)背景(jing)下(xia),新时(shi)期的(de)(de)(de)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)经(jing)营管(guan)理(li)模式(shi)正发生着深(shen)刻(ke)的(de)(de)(de)变化(hua)。基于此(ci),以草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)电商的(de)(de)(de)实例(li)——草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)都(dou)易(yi)牧连(lian)锁(suo)超市为例(li),分(fen)(fen)析(xi)其经(jing)营管(guan)理(li)模式(shi),并(bing)运用成(cheng)本效(xiao)益分(fen)(fen)析(xi)法从理(li)论(lun)上探讨其经(jing)济(ji)可行性。结果表明,草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)都(dou)易(yi)牧连(lian)锁(suo)超市的(de)(de)(de)经(jing)营管(guan)理(li)模式(shi)为“互(hu)联(lian)(lian)网(wang)+草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)”模式(shi)。该模式(shi)能将(jiang)牧区饲(si)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)料(liao)的(de)(de)(de)需求(qiu)和(he)供给对接起来,增加(jia)参(can)与(yu)其中的(de)(de)(de)线上牧户与(yu)入驻企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)利润,实现二(er)者(zhe)的(de)(de)(de)共赢,在理(li)论(lun)上具有经(jing)济(ji)可行性。草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)都(dou)易(yi)牧连(lian)锁(suo)超市的(de)(de)(de)大(da)胆尝试是草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)在当前(qian)经(jing)济(ji)社会环境下(xia)一种(zhong)重(zhong)要的(de)(de)(de)“互(hu)联(lian)(lian)网(wang)+草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)”创新模式(shi)。通过对“互(hu)联(lian)(lian)网(wang)+”在草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)中具体应用的(de)(de)(de)深(shen)入探讨,认(ren)为草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)“互(hu)联(lian)(lian)网(wang)+草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)”模式(shi)多(duo)主体分(fen)(fen)析(xi)、实证(zheng)分(fen)(fen)析(xi)以及草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产业(ye)(ye)(ye)链尺度(du)分(fen)(fen)析(xi)或将(jiang)成(cheng)为“互(hu)联(lian)(lian)网(wang)+草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)”未来的(de)(de)(de)3个重(zhong)点研究方向。
欧宝体育