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2018, 12(4): 712-712.
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前植物生产层
基于GIMMS NDVI 3g.v1的近34年青海省植被生长季NDVI时空变化特征
代子俊, 赵霞, 李冠稳, 王兴春, 庞龙辉
2018, 12(4): 713-725. doi:
[摘要](1146) [HTML全文] (221) [PDF 2828KB](211)
摘要:
在气(qi)候变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)和(he)人类活动(dong)的(de)(de)综(zong)合影响下,青(qing)海省(sheng)生(sheng)(sheng)态环境发(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)了明(ming)显变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)。在此(ci)背景下,以GIMMS NDVI 3g.v1为数据(ju)源,采用Sen+Mann-Kendal方(fang)法研(yan)究(jiu)青(qing)海省(sheng)1982-2015年(nian)(nian)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)覆(fu)盖(gai)区(qu)(qu)(qu)域NDVI时空变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua),将(jiang)趋(qu)势分(fen)析和(he)R/S(rescaled range analysis)分(fen)析叠(die)(die)加,研(yan)究(jiu)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)生(sheng)(sheng)长季(ji)NDVI变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)持续(xu)性(xing)特征(zheng),并揭示植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)对(dui)气(qi)候变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)及人类活动(dong)的(de)(de)响应规律(lv)。结果表明(ming):1)近(jin)34年(nian)(nian)青(qing)海省(sheng)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)NDVI整体(ti)呈(cheng)(cheng)从西北到东(dong)南(nan)的(de)(de)增加趋(qu)势;且变(bian)异(yi)系数显示,波动(dong)性(xing)较(jiao)大(da)(da)地(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu)集(ji)中在柴(chai)达木盆(pen)地(di)周边和(he)青(qing)南(nan)牧区(qu)(qu)(qu)西北部等植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)NDVI较(jiao)低的(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)(qu)域,波动(dong)性(xing)较(jiao)小地(di)区(qu)(qu)(qu)集(ji)中在祁连山东(dong)部、东(dong)部农业区(qu)(qu)(qu)和(he)青(qing)南(nan)牧区(qu)(qu)(qu)东(dong)南(nan)部等植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)NDVI较(jiao)高(gao)的(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)(qu)域。2)近(jin)34年(nian)(nian)青(qing)海省(sheng)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)NDVI整体(ti)呈(cheng)(cheng)增加趋(qu)势,增长率为0.38%·10 a-1;且NDVI变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)具(ju)有明(ming)显的(de)(de)阶段(duan)性(xing),存在1994年(nian)(nian)和(he)2000年(nian)(nian)两(liang)个突(tu)变(bian)点。3)近(jin)34年(nian)(nian)青(qing)海省(sheng)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)改善(shan)(shan)区(qu)(qu)(qu)域(75.4%)远大(da)(da)于(yu)退化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)区(qu)(qu)(qu)域(24.6%),其中显著改善(shan)(shan)面积占植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)覆(fu)盖(gai)区(qu)(qu)(qu)域面积的(de)(de)40.9%,退化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)区(qu)(qu)(qu)随时间变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)在空间上表现出明(ming)显的(de)(de)转(zhuan)(zhuan)移现象。4)Hurst指(zhi)数表明(ming),青(qing)海省(sheng)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)反持续(xu)性(xing)较(jiao)强(qiang),趋(qu)势分(fen)析与Hurst指(zhi)数叠(die)(die)加得出,由(you)退化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)转(zhuan)(zhuan)为改善(shan)(shan)的(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)(qu)域占植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)覆(fu)盖(gai)区(qu)(qu)(qu)面积的(de)(de)13.7%,由(you)改善(shan)(shan)转(zhuan)(zhuan)为退化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)(qu)域占植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)覆(fu)盖(gai)区(qu)(qu)(qu)面积的(de)(de)44.3%,另41.5%的(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)(qu)域无(wu)法确定未来(lai)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)趋(qu)势。5)青(qing)海省(sheng)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)生(sheng)(sheng)长季(ji)NDVI受(shou)气(qi)候变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)和(he)人类活动(dong)的(de)(de)双重影响,且不同植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)(bei)(bei)类型对(dui)气(qi)候变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)响应存在较(jiao)大(da)(da)差异(yi)。
1982-2014年藏北地区植被NDVI变化特征及驱动因素
拉巴, 拉巴卓玛, 德吉央宗, 拉珍
2018, 12(4): 726-736. doi:
[摘要](680) [HTML全文] (137) [PDF 1985KB](109)
摘要:
近(jin)5年草原(yuan)(yuan)生(sheng)态补偿项目的(de)(de)实施,那(nei)曲地(di)区(qu)(qu)的(de)(de)植被长势发(fa)生(sheng)了一定的(de)(de)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)。利用1981-2014年GIMMS、MODIS-NDVI及同(tong)期气(qi)象(xiang)、社会统计资料分析了那(nei)曲地(di)区(qu)(qu)植被时空变(bian)化(hua)(hua)及气(qi)象(xiang)因子(zi)、人类活动(dong)对(dui)其(qi)的(de)(de)影响。结果表(biao)明,近(jin)34年来(lai),那(nei)曲地(di)区(qu)(qu)植被年际变(bian)化(hua)(hua)呈(cheng)不显著(zhu)波(bo)动(dong)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)(P>0.05);年代变(bian)化(hua)(hua)呈(cheng)显著(zhu)的(de)(de)周(zhou)期性波(bo)动(dong)上升趋势(P<0.05)。34年来(lai)那(nei)曲地(di)区(qu)(qu)植被整体趋于(yu)(yu)稳定态势,局(ju)部有(you)减少(shao)和(he)(he)改善趋势,研究区(qu)(qu)57.82%的(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)域植被呈(cheng)稳定状态,32.84%的(de)(de)区(qu)(qu)域呈(cheng)轻微改善趋势,轻微退化(hua)(hua)区(qu)(qu)占14.06%,显著(zhu)退化(hua)(hua)和(he)(he)改善区(qu)(qu)约占7%,退化(hua)(hua)区(qu)(qu)主要集中在那(nei)曲东部和(he)(he)东南(nan)部各(ge)县,稳定区(qu)(qu)在中西部和(he)(he)北部各(ge)县、部分区(qu)(qu)域甚至有(you)所改善。降水(shui)量、气(qi)温及牲畜数(shu)量的(de)(de)变(bian)化(hua)(hua)是(shi)引(yin)起那(nei)曲地(di)区(qu)(qu)植被趋于(yu)(yu)空间分布不均的(de)(de)主要原(yuan)(yuan)因。
黄河源区高寒草甸群落高度遥感模拟与评价
殷建鹏, 高金龙, 冯琦胜, 葛静, 孟宝平, 杨淑霞, 梁天刚, 孟小平
2018, 12(4): 737-748. doi:
[摘要](614) [HTML全文] (44) [PDF 893KB](142)
摘要:
草(cao)层(ceng)高(gao)度(du)是反映草(cao)地(di)生(sheng)长状况的(de)(de)重要指标之一,与草(cao)地(di)地(di)上生(sheng)物量的(de)(de)监测(ce)及(ji)载畜力的(de)(de)评估(gu)具有紧密联系(xi)(xi)。目前,对我国天然草(cao)地(di)群落高(gao)度(du)的(de)(de)监测(ce)尚缺乏精确的(de)(de)遥(yao)感方法。本(ben)研究以(yi)黄河(he)源(yuan)区(qu)(qu)高(gao)寒草(cao)甸(dian)为研究区(qu)(qu),分别基(ji)于(yu)(yu)MODIS植(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)指数、冠层(ceng)高(gao)度(du)模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)以(yi)及(ji)草(cao)地(di)冠层(ceng)高(gao)光(guang)谱(pu)反射率(lv),构建了高(gao)寒草(cao)甸(dian)草(cao)地(di)群落高(gao)度(du)的(de)(de)估(gu)算模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing),并(bing)对模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)精度(du)进(jin)行了评价(jia)。结(jie)果表明,1)12种(zhong)MODIS植(zhi)(zhi)被(bei)(bei)指数中,NDVI对草(cao)层(ceng)高(gao)度(du)的(de)(de)变化最为敏感,其4种(zhong)回(hui)归模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)R2均较(jiao)(jiao)低(di),介于(yu)(yu)0.203~0.241,NDVI指数模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)(y=0.789e3.186x,R2=0.241)的(de)(de)拟合效果最好(hao),但(dan)反演(yan)(yan)误差较(jiao)(jiao)大(RMSE=4.2 cm,CVRMSE=45.7%);2)冠层(ceng)高(gao)度(du)模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)在黄河(he)源(yuan)地(di)区(qu)(qu)高(gao)寒草(cao)甸(dian)试验(yan)区(qu)(qu)的(de)(de)反演(yan)(yan)精度(du)较(jiao)(jiao)低(di)(RMSE=5.8 cm,CVRMSE=62.1%),实际(ji)应用(yong)误差较(jiao)(jiao)大;3)高(gao)寒草(cao)甸(dian)群落高(gao)度(du)与519.4-583.17 nm波(bo)段(duan)之间的(de)(de)冠层(ceng)光(guang)谱(pu)反射率(lv)存在显著负(fu)相关关系(xi)(xi)(P0.05),基(ji)于(yu)(yu)光(guang)谱(pu)位置变量R'510.59的(de)(de)线性模(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)(y=-156.375x+20.384)相对最优(R2=0.489,RMSE=3.5 cm),较(jiao)(jiao)适合反演(yan)(yan)高(gao)寒草(cao)甸(dian)群落的(de)(de)草(cao)层(ceng)高(gao)度(du)。
青藏高原东部乡土植物对高寒沙化草地土壤性质的影响
张潇喜, 曾凯, 蔡义民, 马赛男, 宋洋, 刘琳, 陈冬明, 周春梅, 孙飞达, 陈有军
2018, 12(4): 749-759. doi:
[摘要](684) [HTML全文] (92) [PDF 981KB](150)
摘要:
以青(qing)藏高(gao)(gao)(gao)原东部高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)沙(sha)化(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)地(di)为(wei)(wei)研究对象,通过比较(jiao)分析狭(xia)(xia)叶(ye)(ye)红(hong)(hong)景(jing)(jing)天(Rhodiola rosea)、硬秆仲彬草(cao)(Kengyilia rigidula)、垂穗(sui)披碱草(cao)(Elymus nutans)和(he)(he)高(gao)(gao)(gao)山(shan)红(hong)(hong)柳(Salix cupularis)4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)乡土(tu)(tu)(tu)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)对沙(sha)化(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)地(di)的(de)(de)(de)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)理(li)(li)化(hua)(hua)(hua)性(xing)质(zhi)(zhi)、土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)酶(mei)活性(xing)及(ji)微生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)影响,旨在为(wei)(wei)高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)草(cao)地(di)沙(sha)化(hua)(hua)(hua)地(di)生态植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被的(de)(de)(de)重建与恢复(fu)(fu)选择(ze)适宜(yi)的(de)(de)(de)治理(li)(li)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)提(ti)供理(li)(li)论依(yi)据(ju)。结果显示:1)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)治理(li)(li)恢复(fu)(fu)5年后,土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)含水(shui)量(liang)(liang)均有(you)显著(zhu)升(sheng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(P<0.05),土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)容(rong)重和(he)(he)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)pH有(you)不同程度的(de)(de)(de)下降,垂穗(sui)披碱草(cao)处(chu)理(li)(li)下土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)含水(shui)量(liang)(liang)最高(gao)(gao)(gao),与对照(zhao)相较(jiao)增加(jia)了(le)357.70%;2)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被恢复(fu)(fu)显著(zhu)提(ti)高(gao)(gao)(gao)了(le)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)中与碳(tan)氮(dan)(dan)磷循(xun)环相关的(de)(de)(de)各种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)酶(mei)的(de)(de)(de)活性(xing)(P<0.05),其中狭(xia)(xia)叶(ye)(ye)红(hong)(hong)景(jing)(jing)天样(yang)(yang)地(di)中的(de)(de)(de)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)纤维素酶(mei)、过氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)酶(mei)、蔗糖酶(mei)、蛋白酶(mei)和(he)(he)磷酸(suan)酶(mei)活性(xing)最高(gao)(gao)(gao),分别(bie)为(wei)(wei)对照(zhao)的(de)(de)(de)3.19、1.98、3.22、1.87和(he)(he)4.59倍。3)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)治理(li)(li)恢复(fu)(fu)5年后,不同土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)微生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)碳(tan)(MBC)、微生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)氮(dan)(dan)(MBN)均有(you)显著(zhu)提(ti)高(gao)(gao)(gao)(P<0.05),狭(xia)(xia)叶(ye)(ye)红(hong)(hong)景(jing)(jing)天的(de)(de)(de)MBC、MBN和(he)(he)微生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)碳(tan)氮(dan)(dan)比(MBC/MBN)均为(wei)(wei)最高(gao)(gao)(gao),分别(bie)为(wei)(wei)对照(zhao)的(de)(de)(de)4.39、3.46和(he)(he)1.27倍;4)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)狭(xia)(xia)叶(ye)(ye)红(hong)(hong)景(jing)(jing)天和(he)(he)高(gao)(gao)(gao)山(shan)红(hong)(hong)柳样(yang)(yang)地(di),土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)酶(mei)活性(xing)与土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)理(li)(li)化(hua)(hua)(hua)性(xing)质(zhi)(zhi)及(ji)微生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)呈极显著(zhu)(P<0.01)和(he)(he)显著(zhu)(P<0.05)相关,种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)垂穗(sui)披碱草(cao)样(yang)(yang)地(di),土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)酶(mei)活性(xing)与土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)理(li)(li)化(hua)(hua)(hua)性(xing)质(zhi)(zhi)及(ji)微生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)生物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)相关性(xing)较(jiao)差(cha)。研究表明,4种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)5年后,狭(xia)(xia)叶(ye)(ye)红(hong)(hong)景(jing)(jing)天对高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒(han)沙(sha)化(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)地(di)的(de)(de)(de)土(tu)(tu)(tu)壤(rang)(rang)(rang)特性(xing)改善更明显。
35份草本植物镉吸收与富集特征比较
李希铭, 李金波, 宋桂龙, 李诗刚, 濮阳雪华
2018, 12(4): 760-770. doi:
[摘要](522) [HTML全文] (23) [PDF 641KB](122)
摘要:
选(xuan)取35份常见草(cao)(cao)(cao)本(ben)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu),在(zai)室外遮雨条(tiao)件下(xia)(xia)采用盆(pen)栽方法(fa),研(yan)究10 mg·kg-1镉(Cd)胁迫下(xia)(xia)草(cao)(cao)(cao)本(ben)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)Cd耐(nai)性和(he)(he)(he)富集特征。研(yan)究表明(ming):草(cao)(cao)(cao)本(ben)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)对10 mg·kg-1Cd胁迫有较高(gao)耐(nai)性,所选(xuan)35份植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)中(zhong)仅9种植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)生长(zhang)明(ming)显(xian)受到抑(yi)制,根(gen)冠比显(xian)著降(jiang)低(di)(P<0.05)的(de)仅有2种;不(bu)同植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)间(jian)Cd吸收和(he)(he)(he)积(ji)累(lei)差异较大,豆科(ke)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)以及暖季型草(cao)(cao)(cao)Cd转运能力优于(yu)冷(leng)季型草(cao)(cao)(cao),地(di)(di)上部(bu)和(he)(he)(he)地(di)(di)下(xia)(xia)部(bu)Cd含量最高(gao)的(de)分(fen)别为百脉根(gen)(Lotus corniculatus)和(he)(he)(he)草(cao)(cao)(cao)地(di)(di)早熟(shu)禾(Poa pratensis),Cd转运系(xi)数最大的(de)为披碱草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Elymus dahuricum);聚(ju)类分(fen)析得出,两种一年(nian)生黑麦草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Lolium multiflorum)地(di)(di)上部(bu)积(ji)累(lei)量较高(gao),属于(yu)高(gao)积(ji)累(lei)类型草(cao)(cao)(cao)本(ben)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)。
土地利用方式对豫西黄土丘陵区土壤团聚体微生物生物量及群落组成的影响
刘晶, 张跃伟, 张巧明, 徐少君
2018, 12(4): 771-780. doi:
[摘要](619) [HTML全文] (24) [PDF 695KB](83)
摘要:
采用熏蒸浸提和(he)(he)(he)磷脂脂肪酸(PLFA)法(fa)研究了豫西黄土丘陵区不(bu)(bu)同土地(di)(di)(di)(di)利用方式下土壤团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)中(zhong)(zhong)微生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)及其(qi)群(qun)落组成。结果表(biao)明,0.25~2 mm粒(li)(li)级(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)微生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)碳(MBC)和(he)(he)(he)微生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)氮(MBN)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)最(zui)(zui)高,0.053~0.25 mm粒(li)(li)级(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)MBC和(he)(he)(he)MBN含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)最(zui)(zui)低;阔杂(za)林、刺槐林和(he)(he)(he)灌草地(di)(di)(di)(di)>5、2~5和(he)(he)(he)0.25~2 mm 3个粒(li)(li)级(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)的(de)MBC和(he)(he)(he)MBN含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)较耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)显著(zhu)(zhu)提高(P<0.05),果园(yuan)与耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)之间(jian)无显著(zhu)(zhu)差异(P>0.05)。不(bu)(bu)同利用方式下,细菌(jun)(jun)PLFA含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)及其(qi)占(zhan)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)总PLFA的(de)比例分(fen)别以0.25~2和(he)(he)(he)0.053~0.25 mm粒(li)(li)级(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)最(zui)(zui)高;真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)PLFA含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)及其(qi)占(zhan)比为>5 mm粒(li)(li)级(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)最(zui)(zui)高,且(qie)随(sui)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)粒(li)(li)径的(de)减小而降低。MBC和(he)(he)(he)MBN含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)与PLFA总量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、表(biao)征细菌(jun)(jun)和(he)(he)(he)真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)PLFA含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)均显著(zhu)(zhu)或极(ji)显著(zhu)(zhu)正相(xiang)关(P<0.05或P<0.01)。与耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)和(he)(he)(he)果园(yuan)土壤相(xiang)比较,阔杂(za)林地(di)(di)(di)(di)、刺槐林地(di)(di)(di)(di)和(he)(he)(he)灌草地(di)(di)(di)(di)中(zhong)(zhong)>5、2~5和(he)(he)(he)0.25~2 mm粒(li)(li)级(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)体(ti)(ti)(ti)中(zhong)(zhong)表(biao)征真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)PLFA的(de)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)显著(zhu)(zhu)增加。综(zong)上(shang),阔杂(za)林、刺槐林和(he)(he)(he)灌草地(di)(di)(di)(di)较耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)和(he)(he)(he)果园(yuan)显著(zhu)(zhu)提高了>0.25 mm粒(li)(li)级(ji)团(tuan)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)中(zhong)(zhong)微生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)及真(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)含(han)(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)。
增温与氮沉降对高寒植物净光合速率的影响
冯憬, 张相锋, 董世魁, 赵金博, 赵珍珍, 韩雨晖, 沙威, 杨明岳, 李帅, 沈豪
2018, 12(4): 781-790. doi:
[摘要](872) [HTML全文] (62) [PDF 1543KB](88)
摘要:
在青藏高(gao)(gao)(gao)原地(di)区开展模(mo)拟增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)温试验(yan)和(he)模(mo)拟氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)沉(chen)(chen)降(jiang)试验(yan),在高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒草(cao)(cao)甸、高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒草(cao)(cao)原、高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒荒(huang)(huang)漠(mo)和(he)栽(zai)(zai)培草(cao)(cao)地(di)4类(lei)草(cao)(cao)地(di)上各设置(zhi)7组处理(li):对照(zhao)[CK,0 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、低(di)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)Ⅰ[NⅠ,8 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、低(di)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)Ⅱ[NⅡ,24 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、中(zhong)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)[NⅢ,40 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、高(gao)(gao)(gao)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)Ⅰ[NⅣ,56 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、高(gao)(gao)(gao)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)Ⅱ[NⅤ,72 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)温[W,0 kg·(hm2·a)-1]、增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)温增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)耦合(he)[W-NⅠ,8 kg·(hm2·a)-1],采用(yong)Li-6400光(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)仪,对各类(lei)草(cao)(cao)地(di)优势植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速(su)(su)率进行实测分析。结果表明,1)随氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)沉(chen)(chen)降(jiang)和(he)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)温的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)剧(ju),高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒草(cao)(cao)甸中(zhong)白花枝子花(Dracocephalum heterophyllum)和(he)针茅(Stipa capillata)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速(su)(su)率先增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)后减少(shao)(shao),高(gao)(gao)(gao)氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)沉(chen)(chen)降(jiang)条件下,猪毛蒿(Artemisia scoparia)、女(nv)娄菜(Silene aprica)等(deng)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速(su)(su)率显(xian)著增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)(jia);2)高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒草(cao)(cao)原中(zhong)披(pi)针叶黄华(Thermopsis lanceolate)、马(ma)蔺(Iris lactea var. chinensis)等(deng)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速(su)(su)率随氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)沉(chen)(chen)降(jiang)而增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)(jia),矮生嵩草(cao)(cao)(Kobresia humilis)、平(ping)车前(Plantago depressa)等(deng)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速(su)(su)率减少(shao)(shao);3)栽(zai)(zai)培草(cao)(cao)地(di)中(zhong)披(pi)针叶黄华、冷地(di)早熟禾(Poa crymophila)等(deng)植(zhi)物(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速(su)(su)率随氮(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)沉(chen)(chen)降(jiang)量(liang)的(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)呈现(xian)先下降(jiang)后增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)的(de)(de)趋(qu)势;4)在增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)温条件下,盐渍化草(cao)(cao)原中(zhong)的(de)(de)华扁穗草(cao)(cao)(Blysmus sinocompressus)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速(su)(su)率减少(shao)(shao),高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒荒(huang)(huang)漠(mo)中(zhong)垫(dian)状(zhuang)驼绒藜(Ceratoides compacta)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速(su)(su)率显(xian)著增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)(jia),高(gao)(gao)(gao)寒荒(huang)(huang)漠(mo)与盐渍化草(cao)(cao)原过渡带中(zhong)赖草(cao)(cao)(Leymus secalinus)的(de)(de)净(jing)光(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速(su)(su)率增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)。
不同放牧制度对土壤种子库的影响——以青藏高原东缘高寒草甸为例
申波, 马青青, 程云湘, 常生华, 李悦, 郭金梅, 侯扶江
2018, 12(4): 791-799. doi:
[摘要](630) [HTML全文] (29) [PDF 562KB](111)
摘要:
以(yi)青藏高原玛曲地(di)区高寒草甸为(wei)(wei)研究对(dui)象,通过(guo)对(dui)暖(nuan)季(ji)(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)与冷季(ji)(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)强(qiang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)比较分析(xi),探讨(tao)了可萌(meng)发(fa)土壤(rang)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)库的(de)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)、垂直分布规(gui)律及(ji)(ji)其与地(di)上植被的(de)关(guan)系(xi)。结果(guo)表明(ming),1)暖(nuan)季(ji)(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)土壤(rang)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)库中(zhong),轻(qing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)有12种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)(wei)2 307.66粒(li)(li)·m-2,重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)有6种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)(wei)1 065.08粒(li)(li)·m-2,禁(jin)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)有5种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)(wei)828.38粒(li)(li)·m-2,轻(qing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)的(de)物种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)丰富度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)及(ji)(ji)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)都显著大(da)(da)于(yu)重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)草地(di)(P<0.05);冷季(ji)(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)轻(qing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)有12种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)(wei)3 786.88粒(li)(li)·m-2,重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)有8种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)(wei)5 621.15粒(li)(li)·m-2,禁(jin)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)有5种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)为(wei)(wei)532.53粒(li)(li)·m-2,轻(qing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)小于(yu)重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)。2)无论是暖(nuan)季(ji)(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)还(hai)是冷季(ji)(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)轻(qing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)土壤(rang)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)库的(de)多样性(xing)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(shu)、均匀(yun)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(shu)、优势(shi)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(shu)和(he)丰富度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)(shu)均大(da)(da)于(yu)重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu),土壤(rang)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)库与地(di)上植被的(de)相似(si)(si)(si)性(xing)在(zai)(zai)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)的(de)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)强(qiang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)下(xia)都小于(yu)0.3,其中(zhong)不(bu)(bu)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)时(shi)的(de)相似(si)(si)(si)性(xing)最(zui)小,轻(qing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)时(shi)的(de)相似(si)(si)(si)性(xing)最(zui)高。而暖(nuan)季(ji)(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)和(he)冷季(ji)(ji)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)(chang)的(de)轻(qing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)和(he)重度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)两种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)放(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)强(qiang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)之间的(de)相似(si)(si)(si)性(xing)系(xi)数(shu)(shu)都最(zui)大(da)(da),分别为(wei)(wei)0.63和(he)0.67。3)土壤(rang)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)库在(zai)(zai)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)处理(li)间随着土层的(de)加深(shen)数(shu)(shu)量都呈现迅速减(jian)少的(de)趋势(shi),大(da)(da)部分集中(zhong)在(zai)(zai)0-5 cm。
放牧对小叶锦鸡儿种群数量特征的影响
王立红, 王悦, 王德凯, 解李娜, 马成仓
2018, 12(4): 800-806. doi:
[摘要](741) [HTML全文] (18) [PDF 584KB](98)
摘要:
本研究通过测定(ding)禁牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(CK)、轻度(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(LG)、中度(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(MG)和重度(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)(HG)下(xia)小(xiao)叶(ye)(ye)锦鸡儿(er)(Caragana microphylla)种(zhong)群(qun)总(zong)盖度(du)(du)(du)、密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)、高度(du)(du)(du)和总(zong)生物量(liang)(liang),旨在掌握(wo)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)对小(xiao)叶(ye)(ye)锦鸡儿(er)种(zhong)群(qun)数量(liang)(liang)特(te)征的(de)(de)影响。结(jie)果表(biao)明(ming):随(sui)着放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)强(qiang)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)增(zeng)加(jia),小(xiao)叶(ye)(ye)锦鸡儿(er)灌丛(cong)密(mi)(mi)度(du)(du)(du)呈现先增(zeng)加(jia)后减少的(de)(de)趋势,但各处理间无显(xian)著差异(P=0.11)。这说(shuo)明(ming)中度(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)在一定(ding)程度(du)(du)(du)上有(you)利于小(xiao)叶(ye)(ye)锦鸡儿(er)的(de)(de)繁殖。灌丛(cong)盖度(du)(du)(du)、高度(du)(du)(du)和总(zong)生物量(liang)(liang)随(sui)着放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)强(qiang)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)增(zeng)加(jia)而显(xian)著降低(P<0.05),这说(shuo)明(ming)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)对灌木种(zhong)群(qun)有(you)明(ming)显(xian)的(de)(de)负作用。综(zong)合考虑小(xiao)叶(ye)(ye)锦鸡儿(er)种(zhong)群(qun)的(de)(de)数量(liang)(liang)特(te)征和生产(chan)力,在荒漠草原(yuan)上适宜(yi)的(de)(de)载畜率(lv)应为中度(du)(du)(du)放(fang)(fang)(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)。
甘肃亚高山云杉人工林下植物种群生态位特征
冯宜明, 陈学龙, 齐瑞, 赵阳, 侯亚丽, 闫倩倩, 李社勤, 徐德才
2018, 12(4): 807-815. doi:
[摘要](650) [HTML全文] (52) [PDF 574KB](84)
摘要:
根据野(ye)外110个(ge)样方的(de)(de)(de)调查数据,应(ying)用(yong)Levins、Shannon-Wiener生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)宽度(du)指数和(he)(he)Levins生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)重(zhong)叠(die)指数对甘肃亚高山云杉(Picea asperata)人(ren)工林下30个(ge)种(zhong)(zhong)(包括(kuo)15种(zhong)(zhong)灌(guan)木(mu)和(he)(he)15 种(zhong)(zhong)草(cao)(cao)本植物)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)特(te)征进行定量分(fen)析。结果表明,灌(guan)木(mu)针刺悬钩子(zi)(Rubus pungens)、箭竹(Sinarundinaria nitida)、秀丽莓(mei)(Rubus amabilis)、草(cao)(cao)本东方草(cao)(cao)莓(mei)(Fragaria orientalis)、鸭茅(Dactylis glomerata)和(he)(he)紫花碎米荠(Cardamine tangutorum)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)宽度(du)较大,表明这些(xie)物种(zhong)(zhong)适应(ying)能(neng)力强(qiang),分(fen)布范围广,倾向(xiang)于泛化种(zhong)(zhong)。生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)宽的(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)群可(ke)能(neng)产生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)较小的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)重(zhong)叠(die),生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)较窄的(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)群间(jian)也会(hui)产生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)较大的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)重(zhong)叠(die),生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)宽度(du)与生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)重(zhong)叠(die)程度(du)无(wu)相关性。总(zong)体上看(kan),亚高山云杉人(ren)工林下物种(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)位(wei)(wei)重(zhong)叠(die)程度(du)均(jun)较小,种(zhong)(zhong)间(jian)竞争并不激烈。从生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)响应(ying)来看(kan),灌(guan)木(mu)层的(de)(de)(de)红桦(Betula albo-sinensis)幼苗和(he)(he)草(cao)(cao)本层的(de)(de)(de)老鹳草(cao)(cao)(Geranium wilfordii)发展性最(zui)强(qiang),今后可(ke)能(neng)会(hui)发展为云杉人(ren)工林下的(de)(de)(de)优势种(zhong)(zhong)群。
钝叶草盐胁迫的临界浓度初步研究
徐毓皎, 周宇杰, 罗瑛, 廖丽, 白昌军, 王志勇
2018, 12(4): 816-821. doi:
[摘要](844) [HTML全文] (93) [PDF 880KB](100)
摘要:
本研(yan)究拟通过水培法筛(shai)选钝(dun)叶(ye)草(cao)(Stenotaphrum secundatum)盐胁(xie)迫半致死浓(nong)(nong)度(du),为后(hou)期(qi)筛(shai)选耐盐钝(dun)叶(ye)草(cao)品(pin)系提供依据。研(yan)究分别以(yi)0、35、70、105、140、175、210、245、280和315 mmol·L-1 10个(ge)NaCl浓(nong)(nong)度(du)梯度(du)处(chu)理钝(dun)叶(ye)草(cao),以(yi)叶(ye)色(se)、枯黄(huang)率(lv)、坪用(yong)质(zhi)量、匍匐茎长度(du)和干物质(zhi)重量5个(ge)指(zhi)标(biao)进行综合评价,得出盐胁(xie)迫半致死临界浓(nong)(nong)度(du)。结果(guo)(guo)表明,不同NaCl浓(nong)(nong)度(du)处(chu)理下各(ge)指(zhi)标(biao)之间存在显(xian)(xian)著差异(P<0.05)。随着处(chu)理盐浓(nong)(nong)度(du)的(de)增加,枯黄(huang)率(lv)显(xian)(xian)著下降(jiang)(P<0.05),其(qi)他指(zhi)标(biao)均呈显(xian)(xian)著上升趋(qu)势(P<0.05)。以(yi)钝(dun)叶(ye)草(cao)枯黄(huang)率(lv)数据建立线性回归方程,以(yi)50%枯黄(huang)率(lv)为标(biao)准,确定钝(dun)叶(ye)草(cao)的(de)盐胁(xie)迫半致死临界浓(nong)(nong)度(du)为185 mmol·L-1,研(yan)究结果(guo)(guo)为今后(hou)钝(dun)叶(ye)草(cao)种质(zhi)资源大量筛(shai)选提供依据。
乙烯利对干旱胁迫下草地早熟禾生理指标的影响
隋永超, 冷暖, 姜赫男, 武雪, 罗智浩, 叶昊坤, 冯玉宇, 许立新
2018, 12(4): 822-828. doi:
[摘要](666) [HTML全文] (43) [PDF 509KB](101)
摘要:
以草(cao)地(di)早熟(shu)禾(he)(he)(Poa pratensis)‘Nuglade’品种(zhong)为试验材(cai)料,研究叶(ye)(ye)片喷施乙(yi)(yi)烯利对(dui)草(cao)地(di)早熟(shu)禾(he)(he)在水(shui)(shui)分充足、干(gan)旱(han)(han)及(ji)(ji)复(fu)(fu)水(shui)(shui)恢复(fu)(fu)3种(zhong)处(chu)理下叶(ye)(ye)片电(dian)解质渗透率(lv)、叶(ye)(ye)绿素、可溶性蛋白(bai)、丙二醛(MDA)等生(sheng)理指标的(de)影响。结(jie)果表明(ming)(ming),乙(yi)(yi)烯利与(yu)对(dui)照(zhao)组(CK)相比,乙(yi)(yi)烯利在干(gan)旱(han)(han)胁迫(po)下保持更(geng)高的(de)叶(ye)(ye)片相对(dui)含(han)(han)水(shui)(shui)量(liang)23.5%(对(dui)照(zhao)为11.5%)和更(geng)低的(de)电(dian)解质渗透率(lv)68.1%(对(dui)照(zhao)为90.7%)及(ji)(ji)MDA含(han)(han)量(liang)53.90 μmol·g-1(对(dui)照(zhao)检查131.62 μmol·g-1),且复(fu)(fu)水(shui)(shui)后的(de)电(dian)解质渗透率(lv)恢复(fu)(fu)程度(du)更(geng)好;此外乙(yi)(yi)烯利处(chu)理提高了复(fu)(fu)水(shui)(shui)恢复(fu)(fu)过(guo)程草(cao)地(di)早熟(shu)禾(he)(he)的(de)可溶性蛋白(bai)含(han)(han)量(liang);说(shuo)明(ming)(ming),叶(ye)(ye)片喷施乙(yi)(yi)烯利能够(gou)缓解草(cao)地(di)早熟(shu)禾(he)(he)的(de)干(gan)旱(han)(han)胁迫(po)损伤,并(bing)促进(jin)干(gan)旱(han)(han)后的(de)复(fu)(fu)水(shui)(shui)恢复(fu)(fu)。
植物生产层
水稻金属硫蛋白基因(rgMT)遗传转化的紫花苜蓿耐盐性分析
徐畅, 何好, 李国良, 金淑梅
2018, 12(4): 829-838. doi:
[摘要](813) [HTML全文] (11) [PDF 2154KB](83)
摘要:
采用根癌农(nong)杆(gan)菌介导法(fa)将从(cong)水稻(Oryza sativa)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)克隆出的(de)一个金属硫蛋白基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(rgMT)转(zhuan)化(hua)(hua)到紫花苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)(Medicago sativa)品种“农(nong)菁1号”中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),经PCR和Northern blot技术对获得的(de)抗性植株(zhu)进行了检测(ce)(ce),证明rgMT基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)已(yi)整(zheng)合到苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)组(zu)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)并在转(zhuan)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)植株(zhu)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)转(zhuan)录表(biao)达(da)。以野生(sheng)型(xing)(xing)(xing)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)为对照(zhao),对获得的(de)转(zhuan)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)株(zhu)系(xi)在不同浓度NaCl、NaHCO3胁(xie)迫(po)(po)下的(de)表(biao)型(xing)(xing)(xing)和生(sheng)理指标测(ce)(ce)定发现,NaCl、NaHCO3胁(xie)迫(po)(po)处(chu)理后,野生(sheng)型(xing)(xing)(xing)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)受(shou)胁(xie)迫(po)(po)严重甚至死亡,转(zhuan)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)受(shou)胁(xie)迫(po)(po)较(jiao)轻。转(zhuan)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)的(de)脯氨酸含量和超氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)物(wu)歧化(hua)(hua)酶活性显著(zhu)高(gao)于野生(sheng)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(P<0.05),细胞(bao)膜透性显著(zhu)低(di)于野生(sheng)型(xing)(xing)(xing),野生(sheng)型(xing)(xing)(xing)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)叶片中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)积累(lei)的(de)过氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)氢高(gao)于转(zhuan)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)的(de)叶片中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)积累(lei)的(de)过氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)氢。研究结果表(biao)明,rgMT基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)已(yi)在苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)表(biao)达(da),并且(qie)提高(gao)了转(zhuan)基(ji)因(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)(yin)苜(mu)(mu)(mu)蓿(xu)的(de)耐盐性。
内生真菌发酵液浸种对干旱胁迫下黑麦草种子萌发的影响
刘静, 周景乐, 陈振江, 魏学凯, 李涛, 李春杰
2018, 12(4): 839-847. doi:
[摘要](729) [HTML全文] (22) [PDF 663KB](119)
摘要:
为了探(tan)究离体Epichloë内(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)对萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)期多(duo)年(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)麦草(cao)(Lolium perenne)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)抗(kang)(kang)旱性的(de)影响。本研究以醉马草(cao)(Achnatherum inebrians)内(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(Epichloë gansuensis)、披碱草(cao)(Elymus dahuricus)雀麦内(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(E. bromicola)和(he)(he)中华羊(yang)茅(mao)(Festuca sinensis)内(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)(Epichloë sp.)3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)禾草(cao)内(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)液对多(duo)年(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)麦草(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)进行浸种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),采(cai)用纸上发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)法(TP)测定(ding)不(bu)同浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du)PEG处理下种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)指(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)。结果表明:随(sui)PEG浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)增大(da),黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)麦草(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)率(lv)、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)势、发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)和(he)(he)活力(li)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)均(jun)(jun)逐渐(jian)降低,幼苗(miao)(miao)苗(miao)(miao)长(zhang)(zhang)和(he)(he)幼苗(miao)(miao)含水(shui)量逐渐(jian)减小(xiao),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)霉(mei)变(bian)率(lv)先增大(da)后减小(xiao),根系长(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)均(jun)(jun)在(zai)-0.6 MPa时(shi)达到(dao)最(zui)大(da)值。PEG浓(nong)度(du)(du)(du)在(zai)-1.2 MPa时(shi),种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)活力(li)丧(sang)失(shi)。相与无浸种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)对照相比,内(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)液浸种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)可(ke)显著(P<0.05)促(cu)进黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)麦草(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)的(de)萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)、幼苗(miao)(miao)和(he)(he)根的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)长(zhang)(zhang),有(you)(you)效降低种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)的(de)霉(mei)变(bian)率(lv)。醉马草(cao)内(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)液浸种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)下,多(duo)年(nian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)麦草(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)芽(ya)(ya)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)、活力(li)指(zhi)(zhi)数(shu)、幼苗(miao)(miao)含水(shui)量、幼苗(miao)(miao)苗(miao)(miao)长(zhang)(zhang)和(he)(he)根系长(zhang)(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)大(da)于披碱草(cao)和(he)(he)中华羊(yang)茅(mao)浸种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)。综上所述,内(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)液对干旱胁迫下黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)麦草(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)子(zi)(zi)的(de)萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)具有(you)(you)一定(ding)的(de)促(cu)进作用,且3种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)液中,醉马草(cao)内(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)真(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)菌(jun)(jun)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)酵(jiao)(jiao)液抗(kang)(kang)旱效果比较明显。
干旱及复水对桑树叶片光合能力的影响
滕志远, 张栩涵, 张会慧, 马瑶, 张秀丽, 孙广玉
2018, 12(4): 848-856. doi:
[摘要](566) [HTML全文] (17) [PDF 847KB](89)
摘要:
为(wei)研究(jiu)干(gan)旱(han)及旱(han)后复(fu)水(shui)对桑(sang)(sang)(sang)(sang)(sang)树(shu)(shu)(shu)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)能(neng)力(li)的(de)影(ying)响,揭示其对干(gan)旱(han)的(de)适应(ying)性及复(fu)水(shui)后的(de)修(xiu)复(fu)机制,以秋雨桑(sang)(sang)(sang)(sang)(sang)(Morus alba ‘Qiuyu’)为(wei)试验(yan)材(cai)料,采用盆(pen)栽控水(shui)法(fa)探究(jiu)了桑(sang)(sang)(sang)(sang)(sang)树(shu)(shu)(shu)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)生长及光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)荧(ying)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)特性。结果表(biao)明:土壤含水(shui)量(liang)(liang)为(wei)26.7%时(shi),叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)含水(shui)量(liang)(liang)显著降(jiang)低(di),萎蔫下(xia)垂,卷曲度(du)、叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)基角增(zeng)大;桑(sang)(sang)(sang)(sang)(sang)树(shu)(shu)(shu)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)的(de)净光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速(su)(su)率(lv)、蒸腾(teng)速(su)(su)率(lv)以及气(qi)孔导度(du)等主要光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)气(qi)体(ti)交换(huan)参数(shu)近于0,而(er)胞间(jian)CO2浓度(du)和(he)(he)(he)气(qi)孔限制值(zhi)升(sheng)高。初始(shi)荧(ying)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)、过剩光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)能(neng)、失活PSⅡ反(fan)应(ying)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)热耗散量(liang)(liang)子(zi)产额(e)、维(wei)持类囊体(ti)膜两侧质子(zi)梯度(du)和(he)(he)(he)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)黄素(su)循环的(de)比例、荧(ying)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)量(liang)(liang)子(zi)产额(e)和(he)(he)(he)热耗散的(de)量(liang)(liang)子(zi)产额(e)值(zhi)均升(sheng)高,而(er)最大荧(ying)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)、电(dian)子(zi)传递效率(lv)和(he)(he)(he)吸收光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)能(neng)用于光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)化学反(fan)应(ying)量(liang)(liang)子(zi)产额(e)下(xia)降(jiang);复(fu)水(shui)后,叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)长势指标(biao)、主要光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)气(qi)体(ti)交换(huan)参数(shu)和(he)(he)(he)荧(ying)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)参数(shu)值(zhi)迅速(su)(su)恢复(fu)。这表(biao)明干(gan)旱(han)下(xia)桑(sang)(sang)(sang)(sang)(sang)树(shu)(shu)(shu)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)净光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)速(su)(su)率(lv)由气(qi)孔和(he)(he)(he)非气(qi)孔因素(su)共同限制,PSⅡ反(fan)应(ying)中(zhong)心(xin)部分失活,叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)通过增(zeng)加(jia)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)黄素(su)循环,荧(ying)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)量(liang)(liang)子(zi)产额(e)和(he)(he)(he)热耗散来消耗过剩光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)能(neng)。且复(fu)水(shui)后,桑(sang)(sang)(sang)(sang)(sang)树(shu)(shu)(shu)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片(pian)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)合(he)机构具有完善的(de)调节修(xiu)复(fu)机制,可在较短的(de)时(shi)间(jian)内修(xiu)复(fu)干(gan)旱(han)胁(xie)迫引(yin)起的(de)损伤。
基于生长度日和降水量的韩国饲用玉米产量预测模型构建
彭京伦, 王娟, 金抆主, 曹武焕, 金炳完, 成庆一
2018, 12(4): 857-866. doi:
[摘要](620) [HTML全文] (55) [PDF 1190KB](126)
摘要:
本研究基于(yu)(yu)韩(han)(han)国(guo)(guo)(guo)不同地(di)区的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)气(qi)象(xiang)数据和(he)(he)(he)饲(si)用(yong)(yong)(yong)全(quan)(quan)株(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)米(mi)(Zea mays)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)历(li)史记(ji)录数据,利用(yong)(yong)(yong)一(yi)(yi)般线(xian)性模(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)进(jin)行了(le)饲(si)用(yong)(yong)(yong)全(quan)(quan)株(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)米(mi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)干物(wu)质(zhi)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)预测模(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)构(gou)建。作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)等相(xiang)(xiang)关数据采集(ji)自(zi)韩(han)(han)国(guo)(guo)(guo)农业协同组(zu)合(he)中央会饲(si)料作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)研究课题(ti)报(bao)告,气(qi)象(xiang)数据采集(ji)自(zi)韩(han)(han)国(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)家气(qi)象(xiang)厅(ting)网站。经过4个步(bu)骤的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)数据整理(li),最终(zhong)用(yong)(yong)(yong)于(yu)(yu)模(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)构(gou)建的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)数据集(ji)包含(han)了(le)22年(nian)间(1988-2011年(nian))的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)775个数据点。以(yi)干物(wu)质(zhi)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)为因(yin)变(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang),通过逐步(bu)回归分(fen)析,两个气(qi)象(xiang)变(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)被选(xuan)定(ding)为构(gou)建产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)预测模(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)最适气(qi)象(xiang)变(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)。进(jin)一(yi)(yi)步(bu),通过一(yi)(yi)般线(xian)性模(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing),构(gou)建了(le)包含(han)两个选(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)气(qi)象(xiang)变(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)(he)(he)以(yi)虚拟变(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)形式考虑进(jin)模(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)栽培地(di)域变(bian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)韩(han)(han)国(guo)(guo)(guo)饲(si)用(yong)(yong)(yong)全(quan)(quan)株(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)米(mi)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)预测模(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing):DMY=11.298SHAGDD-3.651SHP+1 089.870+Location。其中,DMY为饲(si)用(yong)(yong)(yong)全(quan)(quan)株(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)米(mi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)干物(wu)质(zhi)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang),SHAGDD为播(bo)种(zhong)到(dao)收(shou)(shou)获累积(ji)生长度日,SHP为播(bo)种(zhong)到(dao)收(shou)(shou)获累积(ji)降水(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)。通过残(can)差分(fen)析和(he)(he)(he)10折交叉验(yan)证(zheng)对所(suo)构(gou)建的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)模(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing)进(jin)行了(le)检验(yan)。根据此(ci)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)预测模(mo)(mo)(mo)型(xing)(xing),可(ke)以(yi)发现(xian)作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)生长期(qi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)温(wen)度和(he)(he)(he)降水(shui)量(liang)(liang)(liang)对饲(si)用(yong)(yong)(yong)全(quan)(quan)株(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)米(mi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)干物(wu)质(zhi)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)有(you)着显著的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响。因(yin)此(ci),确(que)定(ding)合(he)理(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)播(bo)种(zhong)和(he)(he)(he)收(shou)(shou)获时间以(yi)使作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)获得充(chong)分(fen)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生长对确(que)保合(he)理(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)有(you)着重(zhong)要(yao)意义(yi)。此(ci)外,基于(yu)(yu)韩(han)(han)国(guo)(guo)(guo)夏(xia)季降水(shui)相(xiang)(xiang)对集(ji)中的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)气(qi)象(xiang)条件,选(xuan)择(ze)拥有(you)较(jiao)好排水(shui)性的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)土地(di)和(he)(he)(he)较(jiao)强耐涝性的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)品种(zhong),也是(shi)确(que)保饲(si)用(yong)(yong)(yong)全(quan)(quan)株(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)米(mi)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)因(yin)素。
13份柱花草品系生产性能比较
严琳玲, 张瑜, 白昌军
2018, 12(4): 867-875. doi:
[摘要](472) [HTML全文] (17) [PDF 541KB](75)
摘要:
为筛选出性状优(you)良的(de)柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(Stylosanthes)品(pin)种,2011-2014年对13份(fen)柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)品(pin)种(系)的(de)株高(gao)(gao)、存活率、茎叶比、抗炭疽病(bing)能(neng)力、干草(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)量、种子(zi)千粒(li)重和(he)产(chan)(chan)量及养分进行(xing)(xing)测定(ding)分析,并采(cai)用隶(li)属函数法对其综(zong)合(he)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)性能(neng)进行(xing)(xing)评价(jia)。结果表(biao)明,13份(fen)柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)品(pin)系初花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)期在9-11月;TPRC2001-84柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)植株存活率最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(72.6%),TPRC 2001-81其次(ci)(56.6%);13份(fen)柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)品(pin)系均较(jiao)抗柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)炭疽病(bing);TPRC 2001-84柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)年均干草(cao)(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)量最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(15 968 kg·hm-2),TPRC 2001-81和(he)热(re)(re)(re)研(yan)20号其次(ci)(12 206和(he)12 724 kg·hm-2);TPRC 2001-85柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)种子(zi)产(chan)(chan)量最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(56.7 kg·hm-2);热(re)(re)(re)研(yan)21号柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)粗蛋白含(han)(han)量最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)(21.57%),热(re)(re)(re)研(yan)20号和(he)热(re)(re)(re)研(yan)21号柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)粗脂(zhi)肪和(he)磷(lin)含(han)(han)量较(jiao)高(gao)(gao),热(re)(re)(re)研(yan)20号(CK)柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)钙含(han)(han)量最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao),TPRC 2001-85柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)钾含(han)(han)量最(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)。TPRC 2001-84、热(re)(re)(re)研(yan)21号、TPRC 2001-85和(he)TPRC 2001-1柱(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)花(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)草(cao)(cao)(cao)的(de)综(zong)合(he)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)性能(neng)较(jiao)优(you),适(shi)于在热(re)(re)(re)带(dai)亚热(re)(re)(re)带(dai)地区(qu)推广种植。
甘引1号黑麦在天祝县高寒区的最佳刈割期
孟祥君, 韩天虎, 武慧娟, 俞慧云
2018, 12(4): 876-881. doi:
[摘要](611) [HTML全文] (32) [PDF 508KB](83)
摘要:
牧草(cao)在(zai)(zai)适宜时期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)刈(yi)(yi)割(ge),可确(que)保其(qi)草(cao)产量(liang)(liang)和营养品质达(da)到最(zui)优(you)组合。本研(yan)究通(tong)过对甘引1号黑(hei)麦(mai)(Secale cereale‘Ganyin No.1’)在(zai)(zai)天祝县高(gao)(gao)寒区不同生(sheng)育期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)株(zhu)高(gao)(gao)、草(cao)产量(liang)(liang)、茎叶比、鲜干(gan)比、粗(cu)蛋(dan)白、酸性(xing)洗(xi)涤(di)纤(xian)(xian)维(wei)、中性(xing)洗(xi)涤(di)纤(xian)(xian)维(wei)等指标的测定(ding),确(que)定(ding)其(qi)最(zui)佳刈(yi)(yi)割(ge)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)。结果表(biao)明(ming),甘引1号黑(hei)麦(mai)株(zhu)高(gao)(gao)、干(gan)草(cao)产量(liang)(liang)及酸性(xing)洗(xi)涤(di)纤(xian)(xian)维(wei)和中性(xing)洗(xi)涤(di)纤(xian)(xian)维(wei)含(han)量(liang)(liang)随生(sheng)育期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)推移逐渐(jian)增加,粗(cu)蛋(dan)白含(han)量(liang)(liang)逐渐(jian)降低,粗(cu)蛋(dan)白产量(liang)(liang)先增后减。从拔(ba)节到抽穗期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi),甘引1号黑(hei)麦(mai)生(sheng)长速度(du)最(zui)快(kuai),开(kai)花(hua)(hua)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)和乳(ru)熟(shu)(shu)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)鲜草(cao)产量(liang)(liang)无(wu)显著差异(P>0.05),虽然开(kai)花(hua)(hua)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)干(gan)草(cao)产量(liang)(liang)不及乳(ru)熟(shu)(shu)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi),但其(qi)粗(cu)蛋(dan)白产量(liang)(liang)最(zui)高(gao)(gao),达(da)2.16 t·hm-2。经隶属函数(shu)法(fa)分(fen)析4个(ge)刈(yi)(yi)割(ge)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)综合评(ping)价值为抽穗期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)>开(kai)花(hua)(hua)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)>孕穗期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)>乳(ru)熟(shu)(shu)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi),因此选择抽穗期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)至开(kai)花(hua)(hua)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)刈(yi)(yi)割(ge)最(zui)为适宜。
科尔沁沙地苜蓿-禾草混播组合对播种当年牧草生产性能的影响
张永亮, 骆秀梅, 吴明浩, 潘东
2018, 12(4): 882-890. doi:
[摘要](657) [HTML全文] (46) [PDF 513KB](81)
摘要:
以(yi)(yi)紫(zi)花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)、无芒雀麦(Bromus inermis)、垂穗(sui)披碱(jian)草(cao)(cao)(Elymus nutans)、虉草(cao)(cao)(Phalaris arundinacea)4种牧草(cao)(cao)按(an)豆(dou)禾(he)(he)(he)比(bi)1:1、1:2、2:2和(he)2:1间行种植,分(fen)析其(qi)播(bo)(bo)(bo)种年(nian)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)组(zu)(zu)分(fen)株(zhu)高(gao)与产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)变(bian)化(hua)。结果(guo)表明,禾(he)(he)(he)草(cao)(cao)种类(lei)对(dui)(dui)(dui)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)禾(he)(he)(he)草(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)影(ying)响(xiang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05),而对(dui)(dui)(dui)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)苜蓿产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)影(ying)响(xiang)不显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P>0.05)。禾(he)(he)(he)草(cao)(cao)种类(lei)对(dui)(dui)(dui)禾(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)总(zong)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)影(ying)响(xiang)不显(xian)(xian)著(zhu),而混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)比(bi)例对(dui)(dui)(dui)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)组(zu)(zu)分(fen)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)及(ji)禾(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)总(zong)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)影(ying)响(xiang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(P<0.05)。单播(bo)(bo)(bo)苜蓿全(quan)年(nian)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)高(gao)于混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)草(cao)(cao)地禾(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)总(zong)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(P<0.05)。在(zai)混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)处理(li)中(zhong),头茬(cha)(cha)禾(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)总(zong)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)以(yi)(yi)1:1混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)最高(gao),二茬(cha)(cha)和(he)全(quan)年(nian)禾(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)总(zong)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)以(yi)(yi)2:1混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)最高(gao),1:2混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)各茬(cha)(cha)次及(ji)全(quan)年(nian)禾(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)总(zong)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)低于其(qi)他混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)组(zu)(zu)合(he)(P<0.05)。豆(dou)禾(he)(he)(he)比(bi)例对(dui)(dui)(dui)禾(he)(he)(he)草(cao)(cao)生(sheng)长(zhang)及(ji)禾(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)比(bi)有明显(xian)(xian)影(ying)响(xiang),1:2和(he)2:2混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)禾(he)(he)(he)草(cao)(cao)生(sheng)长(zhang)良好,全(quan)年(nian)禾(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)比(bi)为0.28~0.81;而1:1和(he)2:1混(hun)(hun)播(bo)(bo)(bo)组(zu)(zu)合(he)二茬(cha)(cha)禾(he)(he)(he)草(cao)(cao)生(sheng)长(zhang)受到(dao)明显(xian)(xian)抑制,全(quan)年(nian)禾(he)(he)(he)豆(dou)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)比(bi)为0.11~0.30。
不同栽培模式下青贮玉米的农艺性状
段震宇, 王婷, 桑志勤, 王友德, 陈树宾, 郭斌, 李玉梅, 张小伟
2018, 12(4): 891-899. doi:
[摘要](584) [HTML全文] (32) [PDF 710KB](101)
摘要:
为探(tan)究(jiu)不同的(de)(de)栽(zai)培(pei)(pei)模(mo)(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)对(dui)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)玉(yu)米(Zea mays)农艺(yi)性状(zhuang)及产量(liang)(liang)形成(cheng)的(de)(de)影响(xiang),选用新饲玉(yu)19号在(30+60)、(10+66)、(17+50)、(60+60)、(76+76)、(40+60)和(30+90) cm 7种行距栽(zai)培(pei)(pei)模(mo)(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)下对(dui)比(bi)研究(jiu)。结果表(biao)明,(60+60) cm的(de)(de)栽(zai)培(pei)(pei)模(mo)(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)中(zhong)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)玉(yu)米株高(gao)、穗位高(gao)等(deng)(deng)农艺(yi)性状(zhuang)以及单(dan)株叶面(mian)积(ji)、倒四叶SPAD值和单(dan)株干鲜重均高(gao)于(yu)其(qi)他栽(zai)培(pei)(pei)模(mo)(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi),随(sui)着栽(zai)培(pei)(pei)行距的(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)加,青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)玉(yu)米冠(guan)(guan)层(ceng)中(zhong)下部透光(guang)率有所(suo)增(zeng)(zeng)加,(60+60) cm等(deng)(deng)行距栽(zai)培(pei)(pei)下青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)玉(yu)米冠(guan)(guan)层(ceng)结构(gou)布局(ju)合理,生(sheng)物量(liang)(liang)显著(zhu)高(gao)于(yu)其(qi)他栽(zai)培(pei)(pei)模(mo)(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)(P=0.003)。不同的(de)(de)栽(zai)培(pei)(pei)模(mo)(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)中(zhong),随(sui)着行距的(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)加玉(yu)米农艺(yi)性状(zhuang)表(biao)现良好,(60+60) cm等(deng)(deng)行距栽(zai)培(pei)(pei)时有利于(yu)青(qing)(qing)贮(zhu)玉(yu)米产量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)形成(cheng)。
动物生产层
日粮中添加乡土草对獭兔健康、屠宰性能和消化系统的影响
谢荣菊, 王建平, 刘宁, 张飞可
2018, 12(4): 900-905. doi:
[摘要](577) [HTML全文] (22) [PDF 517KB](84)
摘要:
为研(yan)究(jiu)不(bu)同比(bi)(bi)例乡(xiang)(xiang)土(tu)(tu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)对獭(ta)(ta)(ta)兔(tu)免疫指标、碱(jian)性磷酸(suan)酶(alkaline phosphatase,AKP)、屠宰性能、消(xiao)化(hua)器官(guan)发育指标的影(ying)响,从而探(tan)讨獭(ta)(ta)(ta)兔(tu)日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)中乡(xiang)(xiang)土(tu)(tu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)的适宜替代比(bi)(bi)例。试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)选用(yong)健(jian)(jian)康无病、精(jing)神(shen)状(zhuang)态良好的110日(ri)(ri)龄试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)兔(tu)30只(zhi)(公母各(ge)半),按性别随机分(fen)(fen)(fen)为3组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu),每(mei)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)10只(zhi)。试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)饲喂(wei)(wei)(wei)基础(chu)日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)(对照组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)),试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)饲喂(wei)(wei)(wei)15%乡(xiang)(xiang)土(tu)(tu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)粉(fen)+85%基础(chu)日(ri)(ri)粮(liang),试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)饲喂(wei)(wei)(wei)30%乡(xiang)(xiang)土(tu)(tu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)粉(fen)+70%基础(chu)日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)。预试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)期(qi)(qi)7 d,正(zheng)试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)期(qi)(qi)30 d。结果(guo)表明,试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)和(he)试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)脾脏指数、血清免疫球蛋白A(immunoglobulin A,IgA)含量均(jun)显(xian)著(zhu)高于试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.05)。试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)活重(zhong)、胴体重(zhong)分(fen)(fen)(fen)别显(xian)著(zhu)高于试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)11.5%、13.1%(P<0.05)。3个试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)獭(ta)(ta)(ta)兔(tu)AKP活性随着日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)乡(xiang)(xiang)土(tu)(tu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)含量的升高而降低(di)(P>0.05)。3个试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)均(jun)未出现(xian)腹泻、死亡现(xian)象。试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)十二指肠(chang)比(bi)(bi)重(zhong)、空肠(chang)比(bi)(bi)重(zhong)分(fen)(fen)(fen)别显(xian)著(zhu)高于试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)16.2%、39.2%(P<0.05);试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)盲肠(chang)比(bi)(bi)重(zhong)低(di)于试(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)验(yan)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)26.7%(P<0.05);其(qi)余消(xiao)化(hua)器官(guan)发育指标各(ge)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)间差异不(bu)显(xian)著(zhu)(P>0.05)。综上所(suo)述,獭(ta)(ta)(ta)兔(tu)自(zi)由采食30%乡(xiang)(xiang)土(tu)(tu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)草(cao)(cao)(cao)粉(fen)有利(li)于体质健(jian)(jian)康和(he)提(ti)高屠宰性能,乡(xiang)(xiang)土(tu)(tu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)可以用(yong)作獭(ta)(ta)(ta)兔(tu)的基础(chu)日(ri)(ri)粮(liang)原料使(shi)用(yong)。
补饲水平对甘肃高山细毛羊生产性能的影响
靳继鹏, 王春辉, 张利平, 张筱艳, 张昌吉
2018, 12(4): 906-915. doi:
[摘要](583) [HTML全文] (48) [PDF 878KB](106)
摘要:
为了探讨补(bu)饲(si)水(shui)平对(dui)高(gao)寒牧(mu)(mu)区(qu)甘(gan)肃高(gao)山细(xi)毛羊(yang)生产性能的(de)影(ying)响,本研究选择12月龄甘(gan)肃高(gao)山细(xi)毛后(hou)备(bei)(bei)母(mu)羊(yang)48只(zhi)(zhi),随机分为补(bu)饲(si)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(颗粒饲(si)料)、Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)[玉(yu)米(mi)(Zea mays)和(he)(he)(he)苜蓿(Medicago sativa)干(gan)草]、Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)[玉(yu)米(mi)、苜蓿干(gan)草和(he)(he)(he)燕麦(Avena sativa)干(gan)草]和(he)(he)(he)对(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(不(bu)补(bu)饲(si)),进行冬春季“放牧(mu)(mu)”+“补(bu)饲(si)”试(shi)验(yan),比(bi)较了后(hou)备(bei)(bei)母(mu)羊(yang)体重(zhong)(zhong),剪(jian)毛量(liang),毛纤维长(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)、细(xi)度(du)(du)(du)、白度(du)(du)(du)、强度(du)(du)(du)和(he)(he)(he)伸度(du)(du)(du)等物理(li)指标。结果表明,试(shi)验(yan)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)、Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)和(he)(he)(he)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)试(shi)验(yan)羊(yang)平均(jun)(jun)日增重(zhong)(zhong)分别比(bi)对(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)高(gao)148.29%、133.09%、96.76%;剪(jian)毛量(liang)各组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)之间差(cha)异不(bu)显著(zhu)(P>0.05);自然长(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)和(he)(he)(he)伸直长(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)对(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)均(jun)(jun)极(ji)(ji)显著(zhu)低于(yu)(yu)Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.01),且(qie)(qie)自然长(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)极(ji)(ji)显著(zhu)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)和(he)(he)(he)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.01),伸直长(zhang)度(du)(du)(du)Ⅲ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)极(ji)(ji)显著(zhu)低于(yu)(yu)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)和(he)(he)(he)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.01),Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)显著(zhu)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.05);细(xi)度(du)(du)(du)(直径)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)最大(da),Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)极(ji)(ji)显著(zhu)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)对(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.01),且(qie)(qie)显著(zhu)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.05);白度(du)(du)(du)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)最高(gao),Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)显著(zhu)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)对(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.05),其他各组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)之间均(jun)(jun)差(cha)异不(bu)显著(zhu)(P>0.05);强度(du)(du)(du)和(he)(he)(he)伸度(du)(du)(du)补(bu)饲(si)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)均(jun)(jun)极(ji)(ji)显著(zhu)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)对(dui)照(zhao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.01),且(qie)(qie)强度(du)(du)(du)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)极(ji)(ji)显著(zhu)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.01),伸度(du)(du)(du)Ⅰ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)显著(zhu)高(gao)于(yu)(yu)Ⅱ组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)(P<0.05)。由此(ci)可见(jian),补(bu)饲(si)对(dui)体重(zhong)(zhong)、羊(yang)毛品质都有(you)显著(zhu)正向影(ying)响,高(gao)寒牧(mu)(mu)区(qu)冬春季节牧(mu)(mu)草营(ying)养缺乏,为了满足羊(yang)只(zhi)(zhi)营(ying)养需要(yao),使甘(gan)肃高(gao)山细(xi)毛羊(yang)后(hou)备(bei)(bei)母(mu)羊(yang)能在(zai)1.5岁(sui)进行配种繁殖,在(zai)冷(leng)季放牧(mu)(mu)的(de)基础上补(bu)饲(si)1号料为最佳(jia)选择。
后生物生产层
青海省牧区雪灾监测与预警系统的设计
费建瑶, 黄晓东, 高金龙, 梁天刚
2018, 12(4): 916-923. doi:
[摘要](686) [HTML全文] (171) [PDF 886KB](97)
摘要:
本研究欲通过改(gai)进数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)据存取方(fang)式、增加矩阵(zhen)运(yun)算(suan)以(yi)(yi)提(ti)高(gao)雪(xue)灾(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)监测(ce)(ce)与(yu)预警(jing)(jing)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)对数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)据的更(geng)(geng)新效率(lv)和(he)对矩阵(zhen)的处理能力(li)(li)。使用Tomcat Web服务(wu)、GeoServer地图(tu)服务(wu)、PostgreSQL数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)据库(ku)、OpenLayers地图(tu)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)据访问框架、J2EE技术架构、雪(xue)灾(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)风险评(ping)估Logistic线性回归模型、雪(xue)灾(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)家(jia)畜死亡率(lv)估测(ce)(ce)BP-ANN模型以(yi)(yi)及(ji)(ji)MATLAB矩阵(zhen)运(yun)算(suan)功能设(she)计开发青(qing)海省牧(mu)区(qu)雪(xue)灾(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)监测(ce)(ce)与(yu)预警(jing)(jing)系(xi)(xi)统(tong),以(yi)(yi)实现雪(xue)灾(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)监测(ce)(ce)与(yu)预警(jing)(jing)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)据、区(qu)域属性信息(xi)的web页面(mian)展示及(ji)(ji)查(cha)询,雪(xue)灾(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)风险概率(lv)运(yun)算(suan),雪(xue)灾(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)家(jia)畜死亡率(lv)运(yun)算(suan)以(yi)(yi)及(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)据导入等功能,解决以(yi)(yi)往雪(xue)灾(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)风险监测(ce)(ce)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)对数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)据资料更(geng)(geng)新不及(ji)(ji)时的问题,提(ti)高(gao)风险监测(ce)(ce)与(yu)预警(jing)(jing)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的矩阵(zhen)运(yun)算(suan)能力(li)(li),同时减少重(zhong)复的数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)据操作,方(fang)便用户对青(qing)海省牧(mu)区(qu)雪(xue)灾(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)监测(ce)(ce)及(ji)(ji)预警(jing)(jing)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)据的管(guan)理。
基于GIS的牧场载畜量评估系统设计与实现
闵志强, 苏晓慧, 吴保国, 闫瑞瑞, 张利飞
2018, 12(4): 924-932. doi:
[摘要](575) [HTML全文] (19) [PDF 1095KB](81)
摘要:
我国(guo)北方草地(di)资源过牧(mu)(mu)(mu)现(xian)象和荒漠化严重,在数(shu)(shu)(shu)字化牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)方面,目前(qian)尚处在理(li)(li)(li)论(lun)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)阶段,还(hai)未有一套完善的牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)系(xi)统(tong)推(tui)广使用(yong)。为提(ti)高数(shu)(shu)(shu)字化牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)水平(ping),合理(li)(li)(li)利用(yong)草地(di)资源,利用(yong)载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)预(yu)(yu)估(gu)模(mo)型对(dui)(dui)草地(di)进行(xing)载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)预(yu)(yu)估(gu)和载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)平(ping)衡(heng)预(yu)(yu)估(gu),设计并实(shi)现(xian)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)畜(chu)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)评(ping)估(gu)系(xi)统(tong)。以呼伦贝尔(er)(er)谢(xie)尔(er)(er)塔拉国(guo)营(ying)(ying)农(nong)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)为研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)示范(fan)区域,基于组件GIS开(kai)(kai)发(fa)技(ji)术对(dui)(dui)草地(di)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)、载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)预(yu)(yu)估(gu)与载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)平(ping)衡(heng)评(ping)价进行(xing)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)。系(xi)统(tong)开(kai)(kai)发(fa)了(le)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)量(liang)(liang)(liang)预(yu)(yu)估(gu)、载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)平(ping)衡(heng)评(ping)价、专题图生成等功能模(mo)块,如,实(shi)现(xian)了(le)用(yong)户(hu)选择地(di)块输入牲(sheng)畜(chu)日食量(liang)(liang)(liang)、放(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)天数(shu)(shu)(shu)预(yu)(yu)估(gu)该(gai)地(di)块理(li)(li)(li)论(lun)载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)量(liang)(liang)(liang),以及通过用(yong)户(hu)输入基本放(fang)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)情况评(ping)价当前(qian)选择地(di)块或整个牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)载(zai)(zai)(zai)畜(chu)平(ping)衡(heng)情况等核(he)心功能。研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)结果表明,该(gai)系(xi)统(tong)能够(gou)满(man)足数(shu)(shu)(shu)字化牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)需求,辅助谢(xie)尔(er)(er)塔拉国(guo)营(ying)(ying)农(nong)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)进行(xing)经营(ying)(ying)决策,可以对(dui)(dui)今后数(shu)(shu)(shu)字化经营(ying)(ying)牧(mu)(mu)(mu)场(chang)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)系(xi)统(tong)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)提(ti)供一些指导(dao)性(xing)意(yi)见。
基于“互联网+”的草业企业经营管理模式——以草都易牧连锁超市为例
吴渊, 林慧龙
2018, 12(4): 933-939. doi:
[摘要](789) [HTML全文] (30) [PDF 603KB](107)
摘要:
在“互联(lian)网(wang)(wang)+”大潮改造着各行(xing)各业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)背(bei)景(jing)下(xia),新时期的(de)(de)草(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)经(jing)营管理模(mo)(mo)(mo)式(shi)正(zheng)发生着深刻的(de)(de)变(bian)化(hua)。基于(yu)此,以草(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)电商的(de)(de)实(shi)例(li)——草(cao)都(dou)易牧(mu)连锁超市(shi)(shi)为(wei)例(li),分析其经(jing)营管理模(mo)(mo)(mo)式(shi),并运(yun)用成本效益(yi)分析法(fa)从理论上(shang)(shang)(shang)探(tan)讨其经(jing)济可(ke)行(xing)性。结(jie)果表(biao)明,草(cao)都(dou)易牧(mu)连锁超市(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)经(jing)营管理模(mo)(mo)(mo)式(shi)为(wei)“互联(lian)网(wang)(wang)+草(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)”模(mo)(mo)(mo)式(shi)。该(gai)模(mo)(mo)(mo)式(shi)能将(jiang)牧(mu)区饲草(cao)料的(de)(de)需求(qiu)和供给对接(jie)起来,增加(jia)参与其中(zhong)的(de)(de)线上(shang)(shang)(shang)牧(mu)户与入驻(zhu)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)利润,实(shi)现二者(zhe)的(de)(de)共赢,在理论上(shang)(shang)(shang)具(ju)有经(jing)济可(ke)行(xing)性。草(cao)都(dou)易牧(mu)连锁超市(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)大胆(dan)尝试(shi)是(shi)草(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)在当前经(jing)济社(she)会(hui)环境下(xia)一(yi)种(zhong)重要的(de)(de)“互联(lian)网(wang)(wang)+草(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)”创新模(mo)(mo)(mo)式(shi)。通(tong)过对“互联(lian)网(wang)(wang)+”在草(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)中(zhong)具(ju)体(ti)应用的(de)(de)深入探(tan)讨,认(ren)为(wei)草(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)“互联(lian)网(wang)(wang)+草(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)”模(mo)(mo)(mo)式(shi)多主(zhu)体(ti)分析、实(shi)证(zheng)分析以及草(cao)产(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)链尺(chi)度分析或将(jiang)成为(wei)“互联(lian)网(wang)(wang)+草(cao)业(ye)(ye)(ye)”未来的(de)(de)3个重点研究方向。
欧宝体育