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2018年35卷8期

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前植物生产层
草坪草红丝病与粉斑病的研究进展
章武, 黄俊文, 林金梅, 黎宇婷, 刘金祥, 牛学礼
2018, 35(8): 1819-1828. doi:
[摘要](74) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)红(hong)丝病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(Laetisariafuciform is)与粉(fen)斑(ban)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(Limonomyces roseipellis)是发(fa)生于世界(jie)各地(di)温(wen)带(dai)地(di)区的重要草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)害,L.fuciormis和(he)Li.roseipellis可侵染大(da)(da)部分禾本科冷季型草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao),其中对(dui)(dui)多年生黑麦草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Lolium perenne)及紫(zi)羊茅(Festuca rubra)危害最为严重,极大(da)(da)地(di)影响了(le)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)观赏价值和(he)使用价值.近年来,这(zhei)两种病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)害首次在我国(guo)热带(dai)地(di)区相继(ji)报道,对(dui)(dui)海滨(bin)雀稗(Paspalum vaginatum)、结缕草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Zoysia spp.)和(he)杂交狗牙(ya)根(C.dactylon×C.trans vaalensis)等多种暖季型草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)产生较(jiao)(jiao)大(da)(da)危害,然(ran)而我国(guo)对(dui)(dui)这(zhei)两种病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)害的系统研究较(jiao)(jiao)少,因此,本文综(zong)述了(le)这(zhei)两种病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)害在世界(jie)范围内(nei)的发(fa)生分布、症(zheng)状、病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)原以及病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)害发(fa)生规律,并对(dui)(dui)国(guo)内(nei)外草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)红(hong)丝病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)和(he)粉(fen)斑(ban)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)的生态防治(zhi)(zhi)、化学防治(zhi)(zhi)和(he)寄主的抗(kang)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)性等方(fang)面(mian)进行了(le)总结,以期(qi)为草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)红(hong)丝病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)和(he)粉(fen)斑(ban)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)的快速诊断、预防和(he)治(zhi)(zhi)理提供科学依据(ju),为进一步深入研究红(hong)丝病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)和(he)粉(fen)斑(ban)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)提供基础资料(liao).
黄土高原不同土地利用方式下土壤干层差异
井乐, 李建平, 张翼, 马红英, 李剑
2018, 35(8): 1829-1835. doi:
[摘要](93) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
为研究黄土高原不同土地利用方式下土壤干层差异特征,本研究以放牧草地、封育15年草地、15年柠条地和封育30年草地为研究对象,定量分析不同土地利用方式下深层土壤水分特征.结果表明:放牧草地、封育15年草地、15年柠条地、封育30年草地0-500 cm土层土壤含水量平均变异系数分别为0.142、0.107、0.067、0.078;土壤干层起始深度分别为80、100、120、360 cm;干层厚度分别为380、180、120、100 cm;干层内土壤平均含水量分别为9%、8.9%、8.1%、9.7%.4种土地利用类型的土壤剖面均出现了不同程度的干燥化现象,放牧草地和15年柠条地土壤干燥化尤为严重,封育15年草地0-500 cm土层土壤含水量显著高于放牧草地(P<0.05),封育30年草地0-500 cm土层土壤含水量则极显著高于放牧草地(P<0.01).随着封育年限的增加,天然草地土壤含水量显著增加,土壤干层逐渐减轻变薄,向下深移,干层强度下降.
北疆荒漠心叶驼绒藜种子的萌发行为
王梦茹, 魏岩
2018, 35(8): 1836-1842. doi:
[摘要](75) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
心叶驼绒(rong)(rong)(rong)藜(Ceratoides ewersmanniana)是藜科驼绒(rong)(rong)(rong)藜属植物,优良牧(mu)草,在我国仅分布于新疆(jiang).通过(guo)调(diao)查(cha)温(wen)(wen)度(du)、盐分、苞片及贮藏(zang)时(shi)间对(dui)心叶驼绒(rong)(rong)(rong)藜种子(zi)萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)的(de)影(ying)响(xiang),为新疆(jiang)地区心叶驼绒(rong)(rong)(rong)藜的(de)引种驯化(hua)和良种繁育提供理论依据.结(jie)果(guo)表(biao)明:心叶驼绒(rong)(rong)(rong)藜种子(zi)的(de)最适萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)温(wen)(wen)度(du)为20/30℃变(bian)温(wen)(wen);浓(nong)度(du)低(di)于0.2 mol·L-1的(de)NaC1溶(rong)(rong)液对(dui)心叶驼绒(rong)(rong)(rong)藜种子(zi)萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)率无(wu)显(xian)著影(ying)响(xiang)(P>0.05),但从0.4 mol· L-1开始,萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)率随NaCl浓(nong)度(du)的(de)升(sheng)高而降低(di);将经过(guo)不同NaCl溶(rong)(rong)液处理14 d的(de)种子(zi)转移至(zhi)蒸馏(liu)水(shui)后,种子(zi)具有(you)较(jiao)高的(de)恢复萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)率;苞片对(dui)种子(zi)萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)无(wu)显(xian)著影(ying)响(xiang)(P>0.05);种子(zi)在室温(wen)(wen)下贮藏(zang)10个月萌(meng)发(fa)(fa)(fa)率降低(di)至(zhi)24%.
生态政策驱动下的内蒙古自治区杭锦旗植被覆盖变化
郭秀丽, 李旺平, 周立华
2018, 35(8): 1843-1851. doi:
[摘要](84) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
采用(yong)1991、2001和(he)2011年(nian)(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)Landsat-TM卫星遥感影(ying)像数(shu)据(ju),基于NDVI像元二分模型,对生(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)政(zheng)(zheng)策实(shi)施(shi)前(1991-2001年(nian)(nian)(nian))与实(shi)施(shi)后(2001-2011年(nian)(nian)(nian))杭锦(jin)旗(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)植(zhi)被(bei)覆(fu)盖(gai)变化(hua)进行(xing)了对比分析(xi),并结合研究区(qu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)气(qi)候变化(hua)和(he)生(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)建(jian)设历程对影(ying)响植(zhi)被(bei)覆(fu)盖(gai)变化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)因素进行(xing)了探究.结果表明,生(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)政(zheng)(zheng)策实(shi)施(shi)后,杭锦(jin)旗(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)植(zhi)被(bei)覆(fu)盖(gai)度(du)(du)显著提高,植(zhi)被(bei)覆(fu)盖(gai)度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)年(nian)(nian)(nian)际平均增长(zhang)速(su)度(du)(du)约为实(shi)施(shi)前的(de)(de)(de)(de)10倍;植(zhi)被(bei)覆(fu)盖(gai)状况显著好(hao)转,年(nian)(nian)(nian)净好(hao)转面(mian)积占区(qu)域总面(mian)积的(de)(de)(de)(de)18.83%.生(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)政(zheng)(zheng)策是驱动2001 2011年(nian)(nian)(nian)间杭锦(jin)旗(qi)植(zhi)被(bei)覆(fu)盖(gai)好(hao)转的(de)(de)(de)(de)主要因素,降水和(he)气(qi)温等对植(zhi)被(bei)覆(fu)盖(gai)变化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响并不显著.
修剪对土壤Pb形态及高羊茅Pb含量的影响
薛博晗, 李娜, 宋桂龙, 李诗刚, 濮阳雪华, 李金波
2018, 35(8): 1852-1861. doi:
[摘要](94) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
采用盆栽试验研究了4种铅(Pb)浓度(0、500、1 000、1 500 mg· kg-1)、不同修剪次数(不修剪、1次、2次、5次)下高羊茅(Festuca elata)Pb含量变化、土壤中Pb形态变化以及亚细胞形态结构变化.结果表明:Pb胁迫下,修剪处理提高土壤酸度,土壤中Pb酸溶态及可还原态含量随修剪次数的增加呈现增加趋势,其中5次修剪的酸溶态及可还原态含量显著大于其他修剪处理(P<0.05).修剪显著提高了高羊茅根系及留茬部位Pb含量,且转运到地上的Pb主要积累在留茬部分.修剪处理下的高羊茅根尖细胞壁积累了大量Pb,致密电子层更加明显.留茬成熟叶片叶绿体内质体小球数量骤增,氧化伤害加重.综合分析表明,修剪处理可以提高土壤中Pb的生物有效性,促进高羊茅根系对Pb的吸收,以及向留茬部分的转运及积累.
坪床排水管进水孔与过滤层材料颗粒的搭桥作用初探
曹有存, 焦羽鹏, 崔涛, 张小虎
2018, 35(8): 1862-1869. doi:
[摘要](70) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
在草坪坪床排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)系统中,由于排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)周(zhou)围(wei)(wei)填充的(de)(de)(de)(de)过(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)滤(lv)(lv)层(ceng)(ceng)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)与排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)进(jin)(jin)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)径(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)不(bu)匹配(pei),过(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)滤(lv)(lv)层(ceng)(ceng)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)中的(de)(de)(de)(de)细小颗(ke)粒(li)通过(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)进(jin)(jin)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)进(jin)(jin)入(ru)排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)发(fa)生沉(chen)积(ji)引发(fa)堵(du)塞是导致排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)系统失效(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主要原(yuan)因.本研(yan)究选(xuan)用管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)径(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)75 mm的(de)(de)(de)(de)单壁(bi)PVC排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan),在其一侧打(da)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong),孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)径(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)分别(bie)为(wei)2.5、4.0、5.0和(he)6.0 mm,选(xuan)择当地3种不(bu)同种类的(de)(de)(de)(de)细沙(sha)、中沙(sha)和(he)粗(cu)沙(sha)作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)过(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)滤(lv)(lv)层(ceng)(ceng)材(cai)(cai)料(liao),在实(shi)验(yan)室条件下将(jiang)排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)两(liang)端封堵(du)并(bing)置于容器(qi)中保持水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)向上(shang),用风干过(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)滤(lv)(lv)层(ceng)(ceng)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)完全覆盖排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan),容器(qi)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)方向振动20和(he)40 s,以此(ci)模拟排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)系统在实(shi)际工程中在受到外力(li)作(zuo)(zuo)用下过(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)滤(lv)(lv)层(ceng)(ceng)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)进(jin)(jin)入(ru)排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)道的(de)(de)(de)(de)情况(kuang),探讨(tao)过(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)滤(lv)(lv)层(ceng)(ceng)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)粒(li)径(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)分布特点与进(jin)(jin)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)径(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)之间的(de)(de)(de)(de)关系.结果表明,进(jin)(jin)入(ru)排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)沙(sha)子(zi)数量(liang)随(sui)着孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)径(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)大,其沉(chen)积(ji)量(liang)会(hui)以指(zhi)数函数的(de)(de)(de)(de)量(liang)级(ji)而上(shang)升.级(ji)配(pei)较(jiao)好(hao)且(qie)粒(li)径(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)较(jiao)粗(cu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)中沙(sha)的(de)(de)(de)(de)沉(chen)积(ji)量(liang)最(zui)少,最(zui)适合作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)周(zhou)围(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)过(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)滤(lv)(lv)层(ceng)(ceng)材(cai)(cai)料(liao),但排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)进(jin)(jin)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)径(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)不(bu)能超过(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)5.0 mm;级(ji)配(pei)差且(qie)粒(li)径(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)小的(de)(de)(de)(de)细沙(sha)掉(diao)落到管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi)里(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)沉(chen)积(ji)量(liang)最(zui)多,不(bu)能作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)排(pai)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)周(zhou)围(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)过(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)滤(lv)(lv)层(ceng)(ceng)材(cai)(cai)料(liao);粗(cu)沙(sha)可以作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)过(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)滤(lv)(lv)层(ceng)(ceng)材(cai)(cai)料(liao),但进(jin)(jin)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)径(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)不(bu)能超过(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)4.0 mm.
生物污泥对草地早熟禾耐旱及细胞抗氧化能力的影响
于安东, 于芳芳, 滕珂, 常智慧
2018, 35(8): 1870-1878. doi:
[摘要](65) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
为明确污泥对草地早熟禾(Poa pratensis)抗氧化酶和耐旱性的影响,本试验采用裂区设计,主处理为充分浇水、干旱2种水分条件,副处理包括对照(硝酸铵提供75 mg·kg-1的氮素)、半污泥(硝酸铵和污泥各提供1/2的草地早熟禾所需的75 mg·kg1的氮素)和全污泥(污泥提供75 mg·kg-1的氮素).结果表明,与对照相比,充分浇水条件下,全污泥和半污泥均能显著提高草地早熟禾的坪观质量、根重及可溶性糖含量,降低叶片萎蔫度;干旱胁迫下,全污泥和半污泥均能显著提高草地早熟禾的坪观质量、相对含水量并降低其叶片萎蔫度,这表明施用污泥可以促进草地早熟禾在干旱胁迫下的生长状态.充分浇水时,全污泥和半污泥处理的草地早熟禾试验后期叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性与对照相比显著提高了39.5%和50% (P<0.05),且半污泥处理叶片过氧化物酶(POD)活性也比对照显著增加了14.2%;极度干旱(土壤含水量为25%)时,施用全污泥和半污泥的草地早熟禾叶片SOD、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性均显著升高,且半污泥处理的草地早熟禾叶片POD活性显著提高,为对照的1.3倍.研究结果表明,生物污泥可以增强草地早熟禾耐旱性,提高其细胞抗氧化能力.
滇西北地区野生禾草种质资源调查及评价
张美艳, 蔡明, 牟兰, 袁福锦, 黄梅芬, 侯洁琼, 于应文, 钟声, 薛世明
2018, 35(8): 1879-1889. doi:
[摘要](77) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
为了(le)(le)解云南西(xi)北部野(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)禾(he)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)利用(yong)现(xian)(xian)状,选择(ze)迪(di)(di)庆(qing)藏族自(zi)治(zhi)州(zhou)和(he)(he)(he)丽江(jiang)等地州(zhou)开展野(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)禾(he)本科牧草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)的(de)野(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)外调(diao)查和(he)(he)(he)采集(ji).调(diao)查发现(xian)(xian)迪(di)(di)庆(qing)和(he)(he)(he)丽江(jiang)野(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)禾(he)草(cao)(cao)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)丰富多样,共采集(ji)到包括剪股颖属(Agrostis)、雀麦(mai)属(Bromus)、羊茅属(Festuca)、披碱(jian)草(cao)(cao)属(Elym us)、早(zao)熟禾(he)属(Poa)、野(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)古(gu)草(cao)(cao)属(Arundinella)等24属51份野(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)禾(he)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan),并对重(zhong)要(yao)野(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)禾(he)草(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)的(de)属种(zhong)(zhong)组(zu)成、生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活型类(lei)群、适(shi)口(kou)性(xing)(xing)和(he)(he)(he)营(ying)养品(pin)质(zhi)等进行了(le)(le)分(fen)析和(he)(he)(he)评(ping)价.结果显示,迪(di)(di)庆(qing)和(he)(he)(he)丽江(jiang)野(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)禾(he)草(cao)(cao)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)营(ying)养价值较高,具(ju)有较高的(de)开发利用(yong)潜(qian)力;牧草(cao)(cao)质(zhi)量(liang)与其(qi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)育期、营(ying)养品(pin)质(zhi)和(he)(he)(he)适(shi)口(kou)性(xing)(xing)有关.今后(hou)应根据野(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)的(de)本身(shen)特性(xing)(xing)、生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)境特点和(he)(he)(he)所(suo)需(xu)用(yong)途来(lai)选择(ze)适(shi)宜的(de)保(bao)(bao)护和(he)(he)(he)利用(yong)措施.尤(you)其(qi)是加大对藏黄(huang)花(hua)茅(Anthoxanthum hookeri)、小花(hua)野(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)青茅(Deyeuxia neglecta)、甜茅(Gl yceria acuti flora)、西(xi)南野(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)古(gu)草(cao)(cao)(Arundinella hookeri)、虉(yi)草(cao)(cao)(Phalaris arundinacea)和(he)(he)(he)发草(cao)(cao)(Deschampsia caespitosa)等野(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)种(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)的(de)开发利用(yong).这对保(bao)(bao)障滇西(xi)北迪(di)(di)庆(qing)等地区草(cao)(cao)地生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)系统(tong)的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物多样性(xing)(xing)和(he)(he)(he)稳定性(xing)(xing)具(ju)有重(zhong)要(yao)意义.
岭南乡土植物链荚豆、丁葵草、酢浆草的坪用价值
袁丽丽, 樊波, 邹佩, 邓惠娟, 刘卓成, 何国强
2018, 35(8): 1890-1898. doi:
[摘要](71) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
乡(xiang)土(tu)(tu)地被植物(wu)(wu)(wu)因其适(shi)(shi)应(ying)(ying)性(xing)(xing)强(qiang)、病虫(chong)害少及(ji)养护(hu)成本(ben)(ben)低(di)等优势在城市(shi)园林(lin)(lin)绿化应(ying)(ying)用(yong)中(zhong)逐渐受到人们的(de)关注.本(ben)(ben)研(yan)究选(xuan)择深圳地区(qu)常见(jian)的(de)3种(zhong)(zhong)乡(xiang)土(tu)(tu)植物(wu)(wu)(wu)链荚豆(Al ysicarpus vaginalis)、丁(ding)癸草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Zornia gibbosa)和酢(zuo)浆(jiang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)(Oxalis corniculata),通过测定其株高、质地、密(mi)度(du)(du)、绿度(du)(du)、均一性(xing)(xing)、绿期、盖度(du)(du)、建植速(su)率以及(ji)耐践(jian)踏性(xing)(xing)共9项(xiang)指(zhi)标,并(bing)按照“景(jing)(jing)观-性(xing)(xing)能-应(ying)(ying)用(yong)适(shi)(shi)合(he)度(du)(du)”综合(he)评价(jia)(jia)指(zhi)标体(ti)系进行评价(jia)(jia).结果表明,链荚豆耐践(jian)踏性(xing)(xing)较(jiao)强(qiang)、草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)强(qiang)度(du)(du)高、建植速(su)率较(jiao)快,可作为游憩草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)以及(ji)保土(tu)(tu)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)替(ti)代(dai)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)推(tui)广(guang)(guang);丁(ding)癸草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)耐践(jian)踏性(xing)(xing)强(qiang)、草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)强(qiang)度(du)(du)高,可作为游憩草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)替(ti)代(dai)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)进行推(tui)广(guang)(guang);酢(zuo)浆(jiang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)则因为叶形美、密(mi)度(du)(du)高、生长均匀,适(shi)(shi)宜作为观赏草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)替(ti)代(dai)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)进行推(tui)广(guang)(guang).坪(ping)用(yong)价(jia)(jia)值(zhi)综合(he)评分以链荚豆在3种(zhong)(zhong)植物(wu)(wu)(wu)中(zhong)最(zui)高,为14.550分;丁(ding)癸草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)次之(13.850);酢(zuo)浆(jiang)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)最(zui)低(di)(12.650).3种(zhong)(zhong)乡(xiang)土(tu)(tu)植物(wu)(wu)(wu)均具(ju)有较(jiao)好的(de)园林(lin)(lin)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)应(ying)(ying)用(yong)前景(jing)(jing),为深圳市(shi)及(ji)我国(guo)南(nan)方地区(qu)绿化工作提供了草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)坪(ping)草(cao)(cao)(cao)(cao)种(zhong)(zhong)新选(xuan)择.
植物生产层
9种豆科饲草越冬性能对晚播期的响应
李强, 周道玮, 张慧
2018, 35(8): 1899-1909. doi:
[摘要](72) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
以中国(guo)北(bei)方9种豆(dou)(dou)科(ke)(ke)饲(si)草(cao)为试验材料,在7月(yue)(yue)15日至8月(yue)(yue)25日间(jian)5个播期下,检测了9种豆(dou)(dou)科(ke)(ke)饲(si)草(cao)越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)(dong)前(qian)形态和(he)(he)生(sheng)理特(te)征(zheng)及越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)(dong)率.结(jie)果表明,播期延后显(xian)著降低越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)(dong)前(qian)各豆(dou)(dou)科(ke)(ke)饲(si)草(cao)株高、叶片(pian)数量(liang)、根颈直(zhi)径、主根长度(du)、地(di)(di)上和(he)(he)根生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)、根系可(ke)(ke)溶(rong)性糖(tang)和(he)(he)总氮含(han)量(liang),增(zeng)加地(di)(di)上生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)/根系生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)比值(zhi).与播期7月(yue)(yue)15日相比,7月(yue)(yue)25日、8月(yue)(yue)5日、8月(yue)(yue)15日、8月(yue)(yue)25日播期下,豆(dou)(dou)科(ke)(ke)饲(si)草(cao)平均越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)(dong)率分别降低了35%、56%、91%和(he)(he)96%.由(you)于(yu)越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)(dong)前(qian)根系生(sheng)物(wu)量(liang)分配及根系可(ke)(ke)溶(rong)性糖(tang)和(he)(he)氮素含(han)量(liang)更高,龙牧801苜蓿(xu)(Melilotoides ruthenicus×Medicago sativa'Longmu No.801')、扁蓿(xu)豆(dou)(dou)(Medicago ruthenica)、沙打旺(wang)(wang)(Astragalus adsurgens)和(he)(he)兴安(an)胡枝子(Lespedeza daurica)的越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)(dong)性能明显(xian)优(you)于(yu)其他豆(dou)(dou)科(ke)(ke)饲(si)草(cao).基于(yu)本研究结(jie)果和(he)(he)草(cao)地(di)(di)管理实践,建议松嫩平原天然割草(cao)地(di)(di)在8月(yue)(yue)5日前(qian)后进行豆(dou)(dou)科(ke)(ke)补播;从越(yue)(yue)冬(dong)(dong)性能考(kao)虑,龙牧801苜蓿(xu)、扁蓿(xu)豆(dou)(dou)、沙打旺(wang)(wang)和(he)(he)兴安(an)胡枝子是补播优(you)选植(zhi)物(wu);为促进补播豆(dou)(dou)科(ke)(ke)植(zhi)物(wu)建植(zhi),建议将(jiang)补播当年(nian)草(cao)地(di)(di)割草(cao)时(shi)间(jian)从传统的8月(yue)(yue)中旬(xun)适当提(ti)前(qian).
植物根际促生菌(PGPR)对非宿主植物猫尾草和小黑麦生长的促生作用
蒋永梅, 高亚敏, 姚拓, 段淇斌, 赵冬青, 李政璇, 李海云, 杨晓玫, 张建贵
2018, 35(8): 1910-1918. doi:
[摘要](72) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
为了探究根际促生菌(PGPR)对非宿主植物[猫尾草(Uraria crinita)、小黑麦(×Triticale Wittmack)]生长的影响,本研究采用甘肃农业大学草业学院微生物实验室提供的10株具有固氮、溶磷、分泌激素和生防特性的PGPR菌株为供试菌株,筛选最佳菌种组合,并按一定比例混合制作微生物复合菌肥,在盆栽条件下,研究菌肥对非宿主植物小黑麦、猫尾草生长的影响.结果表明:1)通过试验筛选出的最佳菌种组合为NCRP2+ PPRS3+ G+ ZKRP2;2)宿主植物菌肥(NF1)处理对小黑麦地上生物量鲜重影响显著(P<0.05),施用非宿主植物菌肥(NF2)后与施用NF1相比,猫尾草茎粗增加33.74%,且差异显著(P<0.05);3)NF2处理影响小黑麦根平均直径、根体积,与对照相比分别增加22.54%和125%,差异显著(P<0.05),NF2处理对根直径0.5~1.0和1.0~1.5 mm小黑麦根长影响显著(P<0.05).PGPR菌肥对非宿主植物猫尾草和小黑麦生长具有明显的促生效果.
模拟增温增雨对典型草原优势种羊草功能性状的影响
张东, 钞然, 万志强, 杨劼, 包铁军, 高清竹
2018, 35(8): 1919-1928. doi:
[摘要](85) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
全球气(qi)候变化(hua)情景下(xia)(xia),植(zhi)(zhi)物功(gong)能(neng)属(shu)性对(dui)(dui)于(yu)揭示(shi)植(zhi)(zhi)物对(dui)(dui)环境变化(hua)的响(xiang)应和(he)(he)适应规律至关(guan)重要(yao).本(ben)研究(jiu)(jiu)以内(nei)蒙古(gu)典(dian)型草(cao)(cao)原(yuan)优势种(zhong)羊(yang)草(cao)(cao)(Leymus chinensis)为研究(jiu)(jiu)对(dui)(dui)象,通过开顶式生长室(open top chamber,OTC)人工模(mo)拟增(zeng)(zeng)温(wen)和(he)(he)降雨,量化(hua)分析(xi)(xi)了羊(yang)草(cao)(cao)植(zhi)(zhi)物功(gong)能(neng)性状(zhuang)对(dui)(dui)增(zeng)(zeng)温(wen)和(he)(he)增(zeng)(zeng)雨处理(li)的响(xiang)应.得到(dao)以下(xia)(xia)结果(guo):1)单因(yin)素(su)方差分析(xi)(xi)表明,增(zeng)(zeng)温(wen)增(zeng)(zeng)水(shui)和(he)(he)增(zeng)(zeng)温(wen)处理(li)都显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)增(zeng)(zeng)加了羊(yang)草(cao)(cao)植(zhi)(zhi)物株高、茎鲜质(zhi)(zhi)量和(he)(he)茎干(gan)质(zhi)(zhi)量,对(dui)(dui)其余指标没(mei)有显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)影(ying)响(xiang);增(zeng)(zeng)水(shui)处理(li)对(dui)(dui)羊(yang)草(cao)(cao)所有指标都没(mei)有显(xian)(xian)著(zhu)(zhu)影(ying)响(xiang)(P>0.05).2)双因(yin)素(su)方差分析(xi)(xi)结果(guo)显(xian)(xian)示(shi),增(zeng)(zeng)温(wen)增(zeng)(zeng)水(shui)对(dui)(dui)植(zhi)(zhi)物的功(gong)能(neng)性状(zhuang)不存在(zai)明显(xian)(xian)的交互作(zuo)用(yong)(P>0.05).3)各处理(li)下(xia)(xia),叶片(pian)干(gan)物质(zhi)(zhi)含(han)量与比叶面(mian)积(ji)呈负相关(guan)关(guan)系.在(zai)内(nei)蒙古(gu)典(dian)型草(cao)(cao)原(yuan),未来气(qi)候暖湿(shi)化(hua)对(dui)(dui)羊(yang)草(cao)(cao)的生长在(zai)一定程度上起促(cu)进作(zuo)用(yong).
采用播期、轮作和刈割防治光叶紫花苕病害
刘勇, 周俗, 陈莉敏, 康晓慧, 白春海, 胡蓉, 罗飚
2018, 35(8): 1929-1936. doi:
[摘要](75) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
在凉山州光(guang)(guang)(guang)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苕(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(Vicia villosa)主要种植区,设(she)置(zhi)早(zao)(zao)播(bo)(bo)、中播(bo)(bo)和(he)(he)晚播(bo)(bo)3个播(bo)(bo)期,轮(lun)作(zuo)、混(hun)播(bo)(bo)和(he)(he)单(dan)播(bo)(bo)3种植模式以(yi)及不刈(yi)割和(he)(he)刈(yi)割1~5次等农业(ye)措施(shi)(shi),研究其对(dui)光(guang)(guang)(guang)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苕(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)白(bai)粉(fen)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(Leveillula legum inosarum)、斑(ban)(ban)枯(ku)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(Fusarium equiseti)和(he)(he)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)斑(ban)(ban)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(Septoria medicaginis)的(de)(de)影响.结果表明,光(guang)(guang)(guang)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苕(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)害的(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)(fa)生与不同的(de)(de)农业(ye)措施(shi)(shi)有(you)着直接或间接的(de)(de)关(guan)系(xi).适宜的(de)(de)延迟播(bo)(bo)期、增加刈(yi)割强度、混(hun)播(bo)(bo)可降低光(guang)(guang)(guang)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苕(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)害的(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)(fa)生,中播(bo)(bo)的(de)(de)光(guang)(guang)(guang)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苕(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)白(bai)粉(fen)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)、斑(ban)(ban)枯(ku)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)和(he)(he)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)斑(ban)(ban)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)的(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)(fa)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)率(lv)较早(zao)(zao)播(bo)(bo)的(de)(de)分别(bie)降低了15.4%、43.5%和(he)(he)50.5%.光(guang)(guang)(guang)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苕(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)刈(yi)割3次以(yi)上,各(ge)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)害发(fa)(fa)(fa)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)率(lv)降低至10%以(yi)下,甚至不发(fa)(fa)(fa)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing).与单(dan)播(bo)(bo)光(guang)(guang)(guang)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苕(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)相(xiang)比(bi),光(guang)(guang)(guang)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苕(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)与黑麦草混(hun)播(bo)(bo)的(de)(de)白(bai)粉(fen)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)、斑(ban)(ban)枯(ku)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)和(he)(he)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)斑(ban)(ban)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)的(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)(fa)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)率(lv)分别(bie)降低8.2%、41.9%和(he)(he)25.6%;与单(dan)播(bo)(bo)光(guang)(guang)(guang)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苕(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)相(xiang)比(bi),轮(lun)作(zuo)使光(guang)(guang)(guang)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)紫(zi)花(hua)(hua)苕(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)斑(ban)(ban)枯(ku)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)和(he)(he)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)斑(ban)(ban)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)发(fa)(fa)(fa)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)率(lv)分别(bie)降低23.8%~30.6%和(he)(he)6.8%~19.7%,病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)情指数分别(bie)降低17.2~20.3和(he)(he)6.2~9.3,但对(dui)白(bai)粉(fen)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)无显著(zhu)影响(P>0.05).
11个紫花苜蓿品种在庆阳南部的适应性
曹宏, 耿智广, 李茜, 韩雍
2018, 35(8): 1937-1947. doi:
[摘要](80) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
2013-2015年,在庆(qing)(qing)阳(yang)南部的(de)宁县引进10个苜蓿(xu)(xu)(Medicago sativa)品(pin)(pin)(pin)种(zhong),与当地品(pin)(pin)(pin)种(zhong)陇东(dong)苜蓿(xu)(xu)进行(xing)生产(chan)(chan)性能的(de)比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)及(ji)营(ying)养成分测定,并应(ying)用层次(ci)分析法对(dui)(dui)参试品(pin)(pin)(pin)种(zhong)进行(xing)综合评价.结果(guo)表明:1)三(san)(san)得利(li)、55V48、哥(ge)萨(sa)克、甘(gan)(gan)农5号(hao)(hao)优点(dian)突出(chu),其中,55V48、甘(gan)(gan)农5号(hao)(hao)、三(san)(san)得利(li)具产(chan)(chan)量优势,3年平均(jun)干草产(chan)(chan)量分别(bie)达15.92、15.35、15.25 t·hm-2,比(bi)(bi)(bi)对(dui)(dui)照陇东(dong)苜蓿(xu)(xu)依次(ci)增产(chan)(chan)7.35%、3.51%、2.83%;哥(ge)萨(sa)克品(pin)(pin)(pin)质优异,蛋白质含量为最高(gao),达到(dao)15.21%,茎叶比(bi)(bi)(bi)最低(di),低(di)于(yu)对(dui)(dui)照17.1%;三(san)(san)得利(li)抗旱性较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)好,2015年的(de)干草产(chan)(chan)量达15.11 t·hm-2,仅次(ci)于(yu)对(dui)(dui)照.这4个品(pin)(pin)(pin)种(zhong)综合性状优良,对(dui)(dui)庆(qing)(qing)阳(yang)南部的(de)气候比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)适应(ying),可(ke)重(zhong)点(dian)示范(fan)推广.2)55V12、甘(gan)(gan)农3号(hao)(hao)、皇后、甘(gan)(gan)农4号(hao)(hao)优点(dian)不(bu)同,总体性状良好,综合表现与对(dui)(dui)照陇东(dong)苜蓿(xu)(xu)类似,可(ke)针对(dui)(dui)其优势示范(fan)推广.3)甘(gan)(gan)农1号(hao)(hao)和新疆(jiang)大叶优点(dian)不(bu)明显,稳产(chan)(chan)性和品(pin)(pin)(pin)质都较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)差(cha),综合性状一般(ban),应(ying)慎(shen)重(zhong)示范(fan)推广.
不同扁蓿豆种质在甘肃天祝高寒地区的农艺性状表现
张鹏, 徐长林, 张建文, 杨海磊, 肖红, 柴锦隆, 鱼小军
2018, 35(8): 1948-1958. doi:
[摘要](104) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)筛选适宜在(zai)(zai)高(gao)(gao)寒区种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植的(de)(de)扁(bian)蓿(xu)(xu)豆(dou)(Medicago ruthenica)的(de)(de)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),在(zai)(zai)甘肃(su)省天祝高(gao)(gao)寒区种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植了23份(fen)扁(bian)蓿(xu)(xu)豆(dou)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),对其农(nong)艺性(xing)状进行(xing)了综合分(fen)析(xi).结果表(biao)明,供试扁(bian)蓿(xu)(xu)豆(dou)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)中(zhong)自然高(gao)(gao)度最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)景(jing)泰(27.7 cm),最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di)(di)的(de)(de)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)会宁(ning)(6.0cm),绝对高(gao)(gao)度最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)和(he)(he)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di)(di)的(de)(de)分(fen)别为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)蒙(meng)99 102(47.4 cm)、B-509(26.7 cm)与渭(wei)源(yuan)(yuan)(26.7 cm);单株产(chan)量以中(zhong)畜(chu)545种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)2.57 g,渭(wei)源(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)小,为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)0.62 g;单株地下(xia)生物(wu)量较(jiao)高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)(shi)中(zhong)畜(chu)545种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(1.32 g)、镇(zhen)原(1.31 g)、蒙(meng)99-10(1.32g),最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di)(di)的(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)(shi)渭(wei)源(yuan)(yuan)(0.52 g);粗蛋(dan)白(bai)含(han)(han)(han)量较(jiao)高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)(shi)会宁(ning)(15.81%)和(he)(he)永昌-2(15.76%),Q8508扁(bian)蓿(xu)(xu)豆(dou)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)含(han)(han)(han)量最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di)(di),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)1o.02%;酸性(xing)洗(xi)涤(di)纤维含(han)(han)(han)量最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)(shi)土默特35.16%,最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di)(di)的(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)(shi)会宁(ning)(21.24%);榆中(zhong)的(de)(de)中(zhong)性(xing)洗(xi)涤(di)纤维含(han)(han)(han)量最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)高(gao)(gao),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)43.07%,会宁(ning)最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)低(di)(di),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)26.83%.根据灰(hui)色关联度分(fen)析(xi),蒙(meng)99-10和(he)(he)中(zhong)畜(chu)545扁(bian)蓿(xu)(xu)豆(dou)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)综合表(biao)现最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)佳,宁(ning)县扁(bian)蓿(xu)(xu)豆(dou)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)次(ci)之;景(jing)泰扁(bian)蓿(xu)(xu)豆(dou)的(de)(de)直立性(xing)在(zai)(zai)所有参(can)试种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)中(zhong)表(biao)现最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)好(hao),会宁(ning)在(zai)(zai)参(can)试的(de)(de)23份(fen)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)中(zhong)排名(ming)第8,但在(zai)(zai)营养指标方面(mian)表(biao)现良(liang)好(hao);渭(wei)源(yuan)(yuan)和(he)(he)Q8508种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)相对其他种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)来说表(biao)现最(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)(zui)差.
3种生长抑制剂对多花黑麦草种子产量的影响
孙旭春, 顾洪如, 张霞, 董臣飞, 许能祥
2018, 35(8): 1959-1964. doi:
[摘要](67) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
多花(hua)(hua)黑麦草(cao)(Loliumm ultiflorum)为(wei)(wei)南方优质(zhi)的禾本(ben)科牧(mu)草(cao),由(you)于(yu)其在收(shou)获期易倒(dao)伏(fu)(fu)(fu),种(zhong)(zhong)子产(chan)(chan)量(liang)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)低,而生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)中应用植物生(sheng)长抑(yi)制剂可调节植物生(sheng)长,降低倒(dao)伏(fu)(fu)(fu)率(lv),提高(gao)种(zhong)(zhong)子产(chan)(chan)量(liang).为(wei)(wei)此选用3种(zhong)(zhong)生(sheng)长抑(yi)制剂对多花(hua)(hua)黑麦草(cao)进行喷施(shi),结果(guo)发现,多花(hua)(hua)黑麦草(cao)生(sheng)殖(zhi)枝数增(zeng)(zeng)加,穗长缩短(多效唑除外),倒(dao)伏(fu)(fu)(fu)率(lv)降低,种(zhong)(zhong)子实际产(chan)(chan)量(liang)增(zeng)(zeng)加.当(dang)多效唑施(shi)药(yao)量(liang)为(wei)(wei)200 g·hm-2时(shi),种(zhong)(zhong)子实际产(chan)(chan)量(liang)最高(gao),为(wei)(wei)2 267 kg·hm-2,较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)对照(zhao)(zhao)提高(gao)了(le)3%;抗(kang)倒(dao)酯施(shi)药(yao)量(liang)为(wei)(wei)423 g·hm-2时(shi)种(zhong)(zhong)子实际产(chan)(chan)量(liang)最高(gao),为(wei)(wei)2 842 kg·hm-2,较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)对照(zhao)(zhao)提高(gao)了(le)29%;稀施(shi)保(bao)施(shi)药(yao)量(liang)为(wei)(wei)1 770 mL·hm-2时(shi)种(zhong)(zhong)子实际产(chan)(chan)量(liang)最高(gao),为(wei)(wei)2 508kg·hm-2,较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)对照(zhao)(zhao)提高(gao)了(le)14%.3种(zhong)(zhong)生(sheng)长抑(yi)制中,抗(kang)倒(dao)酯药(yao)效持续时(shi)间较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)长,在抑(yi)制节间长度(du)、防(fang)止倒(dao)伏(fu)(fu)(fu)方面效果(guo)显著,增(zeng)(zeng)产(chan)(chan)效果(guo)最好.
分光光度法测定叶绿素含量的提取液的适宜浓度
胡秉芬, 黄华梨, 季元祖, 赵晓芳, 戚建莉, 张露荷, 张广忠
2018, 35(8): 1965-1974. doi:
[摘要](100) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
分(fen)(fen)光(guang)(guang)光(guang)(guang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)法(fa)是测(ce)定(ding)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)最常用(yong)(yong)方法(fa)之一,但是运(yun)用(yong)(yong)该方法(fa)所(suo)测(ce)得(de)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)往往随叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)提(ti)(ti)取液(ye)浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)变化而波动,进而影响对叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)测(ce)定(ding)的(de)(de)准(zhun)确性(xing)(xing).因此(ci),使用(yong)(yong)适(shi)宜浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)提(ti)(ti)取液(ye)浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du),对准(zhun)确测(ce)定(ding)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)至关重(zhong)要(yao).本(ben)研究为了探(tan)索问题(ti),以枣树(Ziziphus jujuba)“金昌一号”叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片为材料(liao),用(yong)(yong)乙醇(chun)和丙酮-乙醇(chun)混合(he)液(ye)(1∶1)分(fen)(fen)别提(ti)(ti)取叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)片叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su),将(jiang)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)提(ti)(ti)取液(ye)稀(xi)释(shi)成不同的(de)(de)浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)梯度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du),用(yong)(yong)分(fen)(fen)光(guang)(guang)光(guang)(guang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)法(fa)测(ce)定(ding)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang).研究发现(xian)在(zai)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)提(ti)(ti)取液(ye)浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)低于(yu)0.80 cm2·mL-1(或14.67 mg·mL-1)时(shi),所(suo)测(ce)得(de)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)趋于(yu)平稳,与Excel二次曲(qu)线拟合(he)分(fen)(fen)析结果基(ji)本(ben)一致.这表明运(yun)用(yong)(yong)分(fen)(fen)光(guang)(guang)光(guang)(guang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)法(fa)测(ce)定(ding)枣树叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)提(ti)(ti)取液(ye)适(shi)宜浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)应低于(yu)该浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du).而且(qie)还(hai)发现(xian)吸(xi)光(guang)(guang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(A)比值的(de)(de)平稳性(xing)(xing)与叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)测(ce)定(ding)的(de)(de)准(zhun)确性(xing)(xing)密(mi)切相关;叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)绿(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)素(su)(su)(su)(su)提(ti)(ti)取液(ye)浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)越低,吸(xi)光(guang)(guang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)越稳定(ding),当提(ti)(ti)取液(ye)浓(nong)(nong)(nong)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)低于(yu)0.68 cm2·mL-1时(shi),吸(xi)光(guang)(guang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)不再变化.
动物生产层
不同寄主植物对牧草盲蝽生长发育、繁殖及消化酶活性的影响
贾冰, 谭瑶, 付晓彤, 韩海斌, 常静, 庞保平
2018, 35(8): 1975-1984. doi:
[摘要](73) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
室内条件下测定了8种寄主植物饲养牧草盲蝽(L ygus pratensis)后,其若、成虫发育历期、存活率、产卵量、体重及性比等生命参数变化,并测定了牧草盲蝽成虫淀粉酶及海藻糖酶的活性.结果表明,在黑豆(Glycine max)上饲养,牧草盲蝽不能发育存活;在苜蓿(Medicago sativa)和大豆(Glycinemax)上饲养,若虫发育期最短,分别为14.27和17.24 d;在苜蓿和玉米(Zea mays)上饲养,若虫存活率最高.在四季豆(Phaseolus vulgaris)及苜蓿上饲养,成虫的发育期最长,雌成虫均为29.40 d,雄成虫分别为28.87及30.00 d;在四季豆、大豆及玉米上饲养,单雌产卵量最高,均超过了每雌120粒;在四季豆上饲养成虫产卵期最长,为22.53 d.在棉花(Gossypium hirsutum)和苜蓿上饲养,牧草盲蝽成虫的淀粉酶活性显著高于其他供试植物(P<0.05),而海藻糖酶活性无显著变化(P>0.05).因此,不同寄主植物对牧草盲蝽生长发育与繁殖及淀粉酶活性有显著的影响,但对海藻糖酶活性影响不显著.
西伯利亚蝗越冬卵的发育特征及胚胎发育规律
闫蒙云, 何立志, 王晗, 于非, 何岚, 袁亮, 廖成敏, 刘余平, 李占武, 季荣, 叶小芳
2018, 35(8): 1985-1993. doi:
[摘要](103) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
西伯(bo)(bo)(bo)利亚(ya)蝗(huang)(huang)(Gomphocerus sibiricus)是(shi)新(xin)疆(jiang)亚(ya)高山草(cao)原和(he)林间(jian)(jian)草(cao)地的(de)(de)(de)危(wei)害种之一(yi),给新(xin)疆(jiang)的(de)(de)(de)经济、社会和(he)生态造成(cheng)了严重的(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响.为(wei)(wei)摸清(qing)西伯(bo)(bo)(bo)利亚(ya)蝗(huang)(huang)卵(luan)(luan)的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)特征(zheng)及胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)规律,本(ben)研(yan)究采用(yong)体式显微(wei)镜(jing)观(guan)察(cha)室内孵化西伯(bo)(bo)(bo)利亚(ya)蝗(huang)(huang)卵(luan)(luan)的(de)(de)(de)不同发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)时(shi)(shi)(shi)期(qi)胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)的(de)(de)(de)形态结构并(bing)进行阶(jie)段(duan)划(hua)分(fen),结果发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)现:在30℃恒温(wen)培养下(xia),西伯(bo)(bo)(bo)利亚(ya)蝗(huang)(huang)的(de)(de)(de)胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)共分(fen)为(wei)(wei)12个(ge)时(shi)(shi)(shi)期(qi):Ⅰ-Ⅶ期(qi)(滞(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)前发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)),发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)约为(wei)(wei)20 d,Ⅷ期(qi)(滞(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)期(qi)),滞(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)约为(wei)(wei)193 d,Ⅸ-Ⅻ期(qi)(滞(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)后发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)),发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)约为(wei)(wei)6d.同时(shi)(shi)(shi),跟踪调查自(zi)然(ran)(ran)条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)野外越冬(dong)卵(luan)(luan)的(de)(de)(de)胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)情况,并(bing)通(tong)过(guo)电(dian)子(zi)温(wen)度记录器实(shi)时(shi)(shi)(shi)监测蝗(huang)(huang)卵(luan)(luan)周围环境(jing)的(de)(de)(de)5 cm土层地温(wen).结果发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)现,自(zi)然(ran)(ran)条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia),越冬(dong)卵(luan)(luan)的(de)(de)(de)胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)可分(fen)为(wei)(wei)3个(ge)主(zhu)要(yao)阶(jie)段(duan):7-9月(yue)(yue)末为(wei)(wei)胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)早期(qi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)时(shi)(shi)(shi)期(qi)(对(dui)应(ying)(ying)胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)Ⅰ-Ⅶ期(qi));9月(yue)(yue)未-10月(yue)(yue)上(shang)旬蝗(huang)(huang)卵(luan)(luan)逐渐进入(ru)滞(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)阶(jie)段(duan),胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)停滞(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),直至翌年(nian)2月(yue)(yue)(对(dui)应(ying)(ying)胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)第(di)Ⅷ期(qi)),此(ci)时(shi)(shi)(shi)月(yue)(yue)平均温(wen)度最低,滞(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)约为(wei)(wei)166 d;冬(dong)季结束后,3月(yue)(yue)上(shang)旬 4月(yue)(yue),蝗(huang)(huang)卵(luan)(luan)滞(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)解除,胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)恢(hui)复发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu).3月(yue)(yue)胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)生旋转(对(dui)应(ying)(ying)胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)Ⅸ期(qi)),4月(yue)(yue)胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)基本(ben)完成(cheng)(对(dui)应(ying)(ying)胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)第(di)X-Ⅻ期(qi)).此(ci)外,运(yun)用(yong)扫描电(dian)镜(jing)观(guan)察(cha)自(zi)然(ran)(ran)条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)蝗(huang)(huang)卵(luan)(luan)卵(luan)(luan)壳上(shang)气(qi)孔的(de)(de)(de)超微(wei)结构,发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)现气(qi)孔围壁(bi)随(sui)着(zhe)越冬(dong)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)推进呈逐渐降低的(de)(de)(de)趋(qu)势,胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)滞(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)解除后围壁(bi)又恢(hui)复为(wei)(wei)原有状态.以(yi)上(shang)结果表明:西伯(bo)(bo)(bo)利亚(ya)蝗(huang)(huang)以(yi)卵(luan)(luan)滞(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)越冬(dong),且自(zi)然(ran)(ran)条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia),同一(yi)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)内蝗(huang)(huang)卵(luan)(luan)个(ge)体间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)胚(pei)(pei)胎(tai)(tai)(tai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)并(bing)不完全处于同一(yi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)阶(jie)段(duan);恒温(wen)条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)蝗(huang)(huang)卵(luan)(luan)的(de)(de)(de)滞(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)持(chi)续时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)较自(zi)然(ran)(ran)条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)下(xia)长;发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)过(guo)程中气(qi)孔围壁(bi)相(xiang)应(ying)(ying)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)生一(yi)定程度的(de)(de)(de)变化.
不同抗生素对高梁蚜生长发育的影响
杜军利, 武德功, 王银, 吕丽
2018, 35(8): 1994-1999. doi:
[摘要](78) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
为了明确不同抗生素对高粱蚜(Melanaphis sacchari)生长发育的影响,本研究选择了10种抗生素(盐酸土霉素、利福平、四环素、硫酸卡那霉素、阿莫西林、阿奇霉素、罗红霉素、庆大霉素、头孢霉素、盐酸林可霉素)采用浸根法处理高粱苗,然后将高粱蚜接至不同抗生素处理后的高粱叶片上进行生命表实验,记录高粱蚜的发育历期、产蚜量、生殖期、生殖力,并计算高粱蚜的各项生命参数.结果表明,经过盐酸土霉素、利福平、四环素、罗红霉素处理过的叶片上的高粱蚜的若蚜期与对照相比显著延长(P<0.05);经过硫酸卡那霉素、阿莫西林、阿奇霉素、庆大霉素、头孢霉素处理过的叶片上的高梁蚜的若蚜期显著短于对照(P<0.05);经盐酸土霉素、利福平、四环素、庆大霉素处理的叶片上的高粱蚜的生殖力显著低于对照(P<0.05).盐酸土霉素、利福平、四环素处理高粱植株后,高梁蚜的内禀增长率显著低于对照(P<0.05).以上结果说明盐酸土霉素、利福平、四环素的作用延长了高粱蚜的若蚜期,缩短了生殖期,降低了高梁蚜的生殖力,且高梁蚜内禀增长率和净增殖率也显著降低,因此盐酸土霉素、利福平、四环素能够抑制高粱蚜的生长发育.
四川省啮齿动物种类组成、分布及地理区划
李飞, 孙飞达, 刘琳, 刘伟, 苟文龙, 朱灿, 陈晓霞, 杨廷勇, 廖习红
2018, 35(8): 2000-2008. doi:
[摘要](80) [PDF 0KB](3)
摘要:
四(si)川省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)独特(te)的(de)(de)(de)自然(ran)地理(li)环境孕育了(le)数(shu)目(mu)(mu)众多的(de)(de)(de)啮(nie)齿(chi)(chi)(chi)动物(wu),通过(guo)对近60年(nian)有关啮(nie)齿(chi)(chi)(chi)动物(wu)的(de)(de)(de)著作及研究文献的(de)(de)(de)检索整(zheng)理(li)和(he)归(gui)纳分(fen)析,得出四(si)川省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)境内(nei)分(fen)布的(de)(de)(de)啮(nie)齿(chi)(chi)(chi)动物(wu)共2目(mu)(mu)12科41属101种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)又105亚(ya)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),其中兔形目(mu)(mu)18种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),啮(nie)齿(chi)(chi)(chi)目(mu)(mu)83种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong).区系上(shang)属东(dong)洋界(jie)61种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),古北界(jie)34种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),广布种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)6种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong);分(fen)布型(xing)(xing)(xing)上(shang)属古北型(xing)(xing)(xing)13种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),东(dong)北-华北型(xing)(xing)(xing)1种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),高(gao)地型(xing)(xing)(xing)20种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),喜(xi)马拉雅-横断山区型(xing)(xing)(xing)27种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),云(yun)贵高(gao)原型(xing)(xing)(xing)2种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),南(nan)中国型(xing)(xing)(xing)8种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),东(dong)洋型(xing)(xing)(xing)24种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),不易归(gui)类型(xing)(xing)(xing)6种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong).共划分(fen)为五个动物(wu)地理(li)省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng),啮(nie)齿(chi)(chi)(chi)动物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)类数(shu)量上(shang)盆(pen)(pen)地西缘山地省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)>川西南(nan)高(gao)山峡谷省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)>川西北高(gao)山高(gao)原省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)>盆(pen)(pen)中平原丘(qiu)陵低山省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)>盆(pen)(pen)地东(dong)北缘山地省(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng).中高(gao)山森(sen)林草甸啮(nie)齿(chi)(chi)(chi)动物(wu)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)类最(zui)为丰富,海拔分(fen)布以2 000-2 600 m种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)数(shu)最(zui)多.
后生物生产层
玉米秸秆、柠条及葵花盘在滩羊瘤胃体外的消化及发酵性能
葛翠翠, 梁戈, 李昊, 刘辉, 卜姣姣, 杨芳, 辛国省
2018, 35(8): 2009-2015. doi:
[摘要](17) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
利用体外发酵产气技术可评定不同类型粗饲料的营养价值.本研究比较了玉米(Zea mays)秸秆、柠条(Caragana korshinskii、葵花(Helianthus annuus)盘在滩羊瘤胃的体外发酵特性.结果表明,葵花盘组干物质消化率最高,为88.28%,显著高于玉米秸秆和柠条组(P<0.05);葵花盘组中性洗涤纤维消化率(77.45%)与玉米秸秆组(71.41%)差异不显著(P>0.05),但均显著高于柠条组(28.90%) (P<0.05).体外发酵48 h的产气量,葵花盘组产气最多,为56.75mL,显著高于玉米秸秆组(53.5 mL)和柠条组(32.5 mL) (P<0.05),并且玉米秸秆组与柠条组同样存在显著差异(P<0.05).体外发酵48 h后发酵液pH,柠条与葵花盘组、葵花盘与玉米秸秆组间差异不显著(P>0.05),但柠条显著高于玉米秸秆组(P<0.05).葵花盘组消化液中总挥发性脂肪酸浓度和乙酸浓度分别为32.62和22.17 mmol·L1,显著高于柠条组(P<0.05),但与玉米秸秆组差异不显著(P>0.05);丙酸产量以玉米秸秆组最高(7.47 mmol·L1),葵花盘组次之(6.10 mmol·L1),柠条组最低(3.82 mmol· L-1),且不同组间差异显著(P<0.05);丁酸产量以柠条组最低,为1.06 mmol·L-1,显著低于葵花盘组和玉米秸秆组;但是异戊酸和戊酸产量组间差异不显著(P>0.05).综上所述,尽管柠条营养检测价值较高,但其在体外消化率最低,饲喂价值较低,这也是其作为饲料资源开发利用的瓶颈所在;而葵花盘饲喂价值相对较高,可以作为良好的饲料资源进行开发利用.
秸秆主产区三大作物秸秆饲用品质分析与评价
吕中旺, 王建, 孙鹏, 刘辉, 刘威, 王加启, 余雄, 杨开伦, 张文举, 阿扎提·伊明霍加, 卜登攀
2018, 35(8): 2016-2021. doi:
[摘要](108) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
本研究旨在评(ping)定我国不同地(di)区玉(yu)米(mi)(Zea mays)、小麦(mai)(Triticum aestivum)和(he)水稻(Oryza sativa)3种秸(jie)(jie)秆(gan)营(ying)养品(pin)质的差异,为(wei)各地(di)区秸(jie)(jie)秆(gan)利用提供理论依据.试(shi)验选取秸(jie)(jie)秆(gan)资源丰(feng)富的地(di)区河南、四川、湖(hu)北(bei)、江苏和(he)安(an)徽作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)采样(yang)点,分(fen)别采集玉(yu)米(mi)、小麦(mai)、水稻收获籽实后的秸(jie)(jie)秆(gan)样(yang)品(pin),应用湿(shi)化学(xue)法(fa)测定秸(jie)(jie)秆(gan)样(yang)品(pin)中(zhong)营(ying)养成分(fen).结果表明,采样(yang)地(di)点对秸(jie)(jie)秆(gan)营(ying)养价(jia)值影响不显著(zhu)(P>0.05).且综合5省3种作(zuo)(zuo)物秸(jie)(jie)秆(gan),玉(yu)米(mi)秸(jie)(jie)秆(gan)和(he)水稻秸(jie)(jie)秆(gan)的营(ying)养价(jia)值优于(yu)小麦(mai)秸(jie)(jie)秆(gan).
中国城乡居民食物消费碳排放的对比分析
高晶, 唐增, 李重阳
2018, 35(8): 2022-2030. doi:
[摘要](72) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
为研(yan)究食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)消(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)费(fei)(fei)(fei)与碳(tan)(tan)排(pai)放(fang)的(de)(de)关(guan)系,通过对比分析我(wo)国城(cheng)(cheng)乡(xiang)(xiang)居(ju)(ju)民(min)(min)的(de)(de)食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)消(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)费(fei)(fei)(fei)结(jie)构,运用综合食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)碳(tan)(tan)排(pai)放(fang)系数(shu)和(he)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)命(ming)周期(qi)过程理论,对城(cheng)(cheng)乡(xiang)(xiang)居(ju)(ju)民(min)(min)食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)消(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)费(fei)(fei)(fei)引(yin)起(qi)的(de)(de)碳(tan)(tan)排(pai)放(fang)量进(jin)行测算对比.研(yan)究发现(xian),1)居(ju)(ju)民(min)(min)食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)消(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)费(fei)(fei)(fei)结(jie)构的(de)(de)改变对碳(tan)(tan)排(pai)放(fang)量起(qi)促进(jin)作用,且消(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)费(fei)(fei)(fei)同重量的(de)(de)动物(wu)(wu)(wu)性食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)所产(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)碳(tan)(tan)排(pai)放(fang)量高(gao)于植物(wu)(wu)(wu)性食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu);2)城(cheng)(cheng)镇居(ju)(ju)民(min)(min)食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)消(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)费(fei)(fei)(fei)产(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)碳(tan)(tan)排(pai)放(fang)在总量上高(gao)于农(nong)村居(ju)(ju)民(min)(min)且差距(ju)由2000年(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)1.05:1增大到2014年(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)1.3∶1;3)居(ju)(ju)民(min)(min)食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)消(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)费(fei)(fei)(fei)产(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)碳(tan)(tan)排(pai)放(fang)量的(de)(de)增长(zhang)速度高(gao)于食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)消(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)费(fei)(fei)(fei)数(shu)量的(de)(de)增长(zhang)速度,其中城(cheng)(cheng)镇居(ju)(ju)民(min)(min)的(de)(de)碳(tan)(tan)排(pai)放(fang)量的(de)(de)增长(zhang)速度达到了食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)消(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)费(fei)(fei)(fei)量的(de)(de)4.8倍;4)人均GDP、可支(zhi)配收入、食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)消(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)费(fei)(fei)(fei)支(zhi)出、食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)消(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)费(fei)(fei)(fei)价格(ge)指数(shu)对城(cheng)(cheng)镇居(ju)(ju)民(min)(min)食(shi)(shi)(shi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)消(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)费(fei)(fei)(fei)碳(tan)(tan)排(pai)放(fang)的(de)(de)影(ying)响大于农(nong)村,但恩格(ge)尔系数(shu)则对农(nong)村居(ju)(ju)民(min)(min)的(de)(de)影(ying)响较大.
世界草产品贸易格局现状和发展趋势分析
刘亚钊, 王明利
2018, 35(8): 2031-2038. doi:
[摘要](77) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
近年(nian)来(lai),受草(cao)(cao)食畜产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)消(xiao)费拉(la)动(dong)的(de)影响,国(guo)(guo)际(ji)(ji)草(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)贸(mao)易(yi)日趋(qu)活跃.我国(guo)(guo)作(zuo)为草(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)的(de)需求(qiu)大国(guo)(guo),如何合理有效(xiao)地(di)利用(yong)国(guo)(guo)际(ji)(ji)市(shi)(shi)场直接关系到(dao)草(cao)(cao)食畜牧业的(de)健康发展.本(ben)研究介绍了(le)国(guo)(guo)际(ji)(ji)草(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)市(shi)(shi)场的(de)贸(mao)易(yi)特征,从供(gong)给和需求(qiu)的(de)角度分(fen)析了(le)国(guo)(guo)际(ji)(ji)上主要草(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)进出口国(guo)(guo)的(de)进出口变动(dong)趋(qu)势(shi)、地(di)理流向及结(jie)构(gou),同时结(jie)合国(guo)(guo)际(ji)(ji)草(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)市(shi)(shi)场的(de)供(gong)求(qiu)状态,探讨(tao)了(le)国(guo)(guo)际(ji)(ji)草(cao)(cao)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)(pin)市(shi)(shi)场未来(lai)的(de)发展趋(qu)势(shi)和进一步的(de)利用(yong)空(kong)间(jian).
牧民决策机制对高寒草地可持续管理的作用——以青海省共和、贵南两县为例
杨明岳, 董世魁, 梁菁, 洪逸圆
2018, 35(8): 2039-2048. doi:
[摘要](91) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
在(zai)过去(qu)20年间(jian),中国施(shi)行(xing)以“双权一制(zhi)(zhi)”为基础的(de)(de)(de)草畜(chu)双承包(bao)政策和“以草定畜(chu)”为核心的(de)(de)(de)草畜(chu)平衡(heng)等草原管(guan)理政策,但这(zhei)些管(guan)理政策的(de)(de)(de)逻辑基础和实(shi)施(shi)所取(qu)得的(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)效(xiao)(xiao)目前尚(shang)存在(zai)一定的(de)(de)(de)争议(yi).本研究(jiu)(jiu)以青海省海南州贵(gui)南、共(gong)和两县(xian)为案(an)例研究(jiu)(jiu)点,采用半结构(gou)访谈获取(qu)数据(ju),利用Ostrom的(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)分析与(yu)发(fa)展框(kuang)架(jia)分析了(le)现(xian)行(xing)草地(di)(di)管(guan)理制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)对青海省共(gong)和、贵(gui)南两县(xian)牧民决策行(xing)为的(de)(de)(de)影响及(ji)其(qi)实(shi)施(shi)效(xiao)(xiao)果.结果表(biao)明(ming),现(xian)行(xing)草地(di)(di)管(guan)理制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)具有较(jiao)好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)社(she)(she)会经(jing)济效(xiao)(xiao)益、在(zai)增加牧民收入(ru)、促进牧民间(jian)公平等方面具有一定的(de)(de)(de)优势.然而由(you)于牧区信(xin)息传(chuan)播的(de)(de)(de)效(xiao)(xiao)率较(jiao)低,牧民内(nei)生制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)不完善,基层(ceng)管(guan)理机制(zhi)(zhi)缺失(shi),这(zhei)些因素(su)影响了(le)牧民的(de)(de)(de)决策行(xing)为,限制(zhi)(zhi)了(le)高寒草地(di)(di)生态(tai)工(gong)程的(de)(de)(de)有效(xiao)(xiao)实(shi)施(shi).构(gou)建(jian)有效(xiao)(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)草地(di)(di)治理信(xin)息传(chuan)播体系,推进多元治理的(de)(de)(de)社(she)(she)区草地(di)(di)畜(chu)牧业或(huo)是高寒草地(di)(di)可持(chi)续(xu)管(guan)理制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)问题的(de)(de)(de)出路.
基于MODIS卫星数据的黑龙江省生物质燃烧火点时空分布
胡庆华, 李兵
2018, 35(8): 2049-2057. doi:
[摘要](74) [PDF 0KB](0)
摘要:
生物质燃烧是重要的气候强迫因子,也是影响空气质量的重要污染源.黑龙江作为农林业大省,森林、草地、农业资源丰富,研究和分析黑龙江生物质燃烧情况,能够为秸秆资源综合利用、森林草原防火、环境质量改善等提供依据.本研究基于MODIS卫星数据、土地利用数据及高程数据,对黑龙江2010-2017年生物质燃烧火点时空分布特征进行了分析,包括秸秆焚烧火点、林火、草地野火.结果表明,黑龙江省火点主要集中在松嫩平原、三江平原以及小兴安岭中北部;黑河市火点占总火点的30%,齐齐哈尔次之,占16%;秸秆焚烧火点占总火点的68%,林火占32%.年内火点在春、秋两季最为明显,呈双峰分布,春秋季火点数占比分别为51%、45%.2010年以来林地与草地火点数量波动较小;秸秆焚烧火点数量自2014年起显著增加(P<0.05),2016年禁烧政策的开展下火点数量得到控制,秋季火点减少,但春季依旧呈现增加趋势.
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